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सावित्री

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सावित्री  f. af. See below
सावित्री  f. bf. a verse or prayer addressed to सवितृ or the Sun (esp. the celebrated verse, [RV. iii, 62, 10]; also called गायत्रीq.v.), [AitBr.] &c. &c.
सावित्र   initiation as a member of the three twice-born classes by reciting the above verse and investing with the sacred thread (cf. under , and उप-नयन), [Gaut.]; [Mn.]; [MBh.] &c.
a partic. form of the गायत्री metre, [Ked.]
N. of सूर्या or a daughter of सवितृ, [AV.]; [Br.]; [MBh.] &c.
N. of the wife of ब्रह्मा (sometimes regarded as the above verse deified or as the mystical mother of the three twice-born classes, or as the daughter of सवितृ by his wife पृश्नि), [MBh.]; [Kathās.] &c.
of a wife of शिव, [L.]
of a manifestation of प्रकृति, [Cat.]
सावित्र्युपाख्यान   of the wife of सत्य-वत् (king of शाल्व; she was daughter of अश्व-पति, king of मद्र, and is regarded as a type of conjugal love; her story is the subject of a fine episode of the महा-भारत; See ), [MBh.]; [R.]; [BhP.]
of the wife of धर्म (daughter of दक्ष), [VP.]
of the wife of कश्यप, [Cat.]
of the wife of भोज (king of धारा), ib.
of a daughter of अष्टावक्र, [Kathās.]
of the यमुना river, [Bālar.]
of the सरस्वती, [R.]
of another river, [BhP.]
a ray of light, solar ray, [W.]
the ring-finger, [L.]

सावित्री [sāvitrī]   1 A ray of light.
 N. N. of a celebrated verse of the Rigveda, so called because it is addressed to the sun; it is also called गायत्री; q.v. for further information.
The ceremony of investiture with the sacred thread; आ षोडशाद् ब्राह्मणस्य सावित्री नातिवर्तते [Ms.2.38.]
 N. N. of a wife of Brahman.
 N. N. of Pārvatī.
 N. N. of a wife of Kaśyapa.
An epithet of Sūryā (daughter of Savitṛi).
 N. N. of the wife of Satyavat, king of Sālva. [She was the only daughter of king Aśvapati. She was so lovely that all the suitors that came to woo her were repulsed by her superior lustre, and thus though she reached a marriageable age, she found no one ready to espouse her. At last her father asked her to go and find out a husband of her own choice. She did so, and having made her selection returned to her father, and told him that she had chosen Satyavat, son of Dyumatsena, king of Sālva, who being driven out from his kingdom was then leading a hermit's life along with his wife. When Nārada, who happened to be present there, heard this, he told her as well as Aśvapati that he was very sorry to hear of the choice she had made, for though Satyavat was in every way worthy of her, yet he was fated to die in a year from that date, and in choosing him, therefore, Sāvitrī would be only choosing life-long widow-hood and misery. Her parents, therfore, naturally tried to dissuade her mind, but the high-souled maiden told them that her choice was unalterably fixed. Accordingly the marriage took place in due time, and Sāvitrī laid aside her jewels and rich apparel, and putting on the coarse garments of hermits, spent her time in serving her old father and mother-in-law. Still, though outwardly happy, she could not forget the words of Nārada, and as she counted, the days seemed to fly swifitly like moments, and the fated time, when her husband was to die, drew near. 'I have yet three days' thought she, 'and for these three days I shall observe a rigid fast.' She maintained her vow, and on the fourth day, when Satyavat was about to go to the woods to bring sacrificial fuel, she accompanied him. After having collected some fuel, Satyavat, being fatigued, sat down, and reposing his head on the bosom of Sāvitrī fell asleep. Just then Yama came down, snatched off his soul, and proceeded towards the south. Sāvitrī saw this and followed the god who told her to return as her husband's term of life was over. But the faithful wife besought Yama in so pathetic a strain that he granted her boon after boon, except the life of her husband, until, being quite subdued by her devotion to her husband and the force of her eloquent appeal, the god relented and restored even the spirit of Satyavat to her. Delighted she returned, and found her husband as if roused from a deep sleep, and informing him of all that had occurred, went to the hermitage of her father-in-law who soon reaped the fruits of the boons of Yama. Sāvitrī is regarded as the beau ideal or highest pattern of conjugal fidelity, and a young married woman is usually blessed by elderly females with the words जन्मसावित्री भव, thus placing before her the example of Sāvitrī for lifelong imitation.] -Comp.
-पतितः, -परिभ्रष्टः   a man of any one of the first three castes not invested with the sacred thread at the proper time; cf. व्रात्य; सावित्रीपतिता व्रात्या व्रात्यस्तोमादृते क्रतोः [Y.1.38;] [Ms.2.39;] तान् सावित्रीपरिभ्रष्टान् व्रात्यानिति विनि- र्दिशेत् [Ms.1.2.]
-व्रतम्  N. N. of a particular fast kept by Hindu women on the last three days of the bright half of Jyeṣṭha to preserve them from widowhood.
-सूत्रम्   the sacred thread (यज्ञोपवीत).

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
The holy verse of the Vedas the repetition of which forms an essential part of the daily observances enjoined to the Bráhman. The prayer is personified as the wife of Brahmá and mystical mother of the three Hindú classes which are regenerated by investiture with the sacred string. सावित्री बाई भिक्षा घाल म्हटल्यानें काम होत नाहीं Things are not to be got by soft speech.

 स्त्री. १ ब्रह्मदेवाची पत्नी व त्रैवर्णिकांची मंत्ररूप माता . २ गायत्रीमंत्र . ३ सत्यवानाची पत्नी . [ सं . ]
०व्रत  न. वटपूर्णिमेचें व्रत . ज्येष्ठ शु॥ १५ स पाळतात .
०सूत्र  न. यज्ञोपवीत ; जानवें .

सावित्री n.  मद्र देशाधिपति अश्वपति राजा की कन्या, जो शाल्व देश के सत्यवत् राजा की पत्‍नी थी । अपने पातिव्रत्य प्रभाव के कारण इसने अपने अल्पायु पति के प्राण साक्षात् यमधर्म से पुनः प्राप्त किये, जिस कारण यह प्राचीन भारतीय साहित्य में पातिव्रत्यधर्म की अमर प्रतिमा बन चुकी है । तैत्तिरीय ब्राह्मण में भी सावित्री नाम का निर्देश प्राप्त है, जिससे प्रतीत होता है कि, सावित्री की कथा ब्राह्मण ग्रंथों के रचनाकाल में किसी रूप में अस्तित्व में थी (सीता सावित्री देखिये) ।
सावित्री n.  इसकी माता का नाम मालती (मालवी) था । वसिष्ठ ऋषि की आज्ञा से इसके पिता ने गायत्री मंत्र का दस लाख बार जप किया, जिस कारण इसका जन्म हुआ।
सावित्री n.  यह अत्यंत स्वरूपसुंदर थी, एवं इसका पिता अत्यंत धनसंपन्न था । इस कारण इसके साथ विवाह करने में सभी राजपुत्र डरते थे । अतः पतिसंशोधनार्थ यह स्वयं निकल पड़ी। एवं इसने शाल्वदेश के द्युमत्सेन राजा के पुत्र सत्यवत् से विवाह करना निश्चित किया । सत्यवत् अत्यंत गुणसंपन्न था, किन्तु अत्यंत अल्पायु होने के कारण एक वर्ष के पश्चात् ही उसकी मृत्यु होनेवाली थी । नारद ऋषि ने सत्यवत् का यह भीषण सत्य इसने कथन किया, एवं उससे विवाह करने के इसके निश्र्चय से विचलित करने का काफ़ी प्रयत्‍न किया । किन्तु यह अपने निश्र्चय पर अटल रही।
सावित्री n.  सत्यवत् की मृत्यु का दिन जब चार दिनशेष रहा तब इसने तीन अहोरात्र खड़े रह कर तपस्या करने का ‘त्रिरात्रव्रत’ किया । इस व्रत के चौथे दिन यह अपने व्रत की समाप्ति करना चाहती थी, इतने में सत्यवत् के मृत्यु की घटिका आ पहुँची।
सावित्री n.  पश्चात् यम ने अपने पाशों के द्वारा सत्यवत् के शरीर में से अंगुष्ठमात्र आकार का प्राणपुरुष खींच लिया, एवं वह यमलोक लौट जाने लगा। उस समय इसने यम का अत्यधिक अनुनय विनय किया, एवं अनेकानेक अध्यात्मविषयक प्रश्र्न पूछ कर उसे निरुत्तर किया । इस कारण यम ने सत्यवत् के प्राण इसे वापस दे दिये [म. व. २८१.२५-५३] । इसके श्र्वशुर द्युमत्सेन का राज्य पुनः प्राप्त होने का, एवं उसकी खोयी हुई दृष्टि उसे पुनः प्राप्त होने का वर भी यम ने इसे प्रदान किया । पश्चात् यम के आशीर्वाद के अनुसार इसे सत्यवत् से सौ पुत्र उत्पन्न हुए, एवं द्युमत्सेन का राज्य भी उसे पुनः प्राप्त हुआ। द्युमत्सेन के पश्चात् सत्यवत् शाल्वदेश का राजा बन गया, जहाँ उसने चार सौ वर्षों तक राज्य किया [म. व. २७७-२८३];[ मत्स्य. २०७-२१३];[ दे. भा. ९.२६-३८];[ ब्रह्मवै. २.२३-२४]
सावित्री II. n.  ब्रह्मा की पत्‍नी शतरूपा का नामान्तर (ब्रह्मन् देखिये) ।
सावित्री III. n.  एक देवी, जो सूर्य एवं पृष्णि की कन्या मानी जाती है [भा. ६.१८.१] । यह गायत्री मंत्र की अधिष्ठात्री देवी मानी गयी है । इसके उपासकों में अश्वपति राजा प्रमुख था, जिसे इसने अग्निहोत्र से प्रकट हो कर प्रत्यक्ष दर्शन दिया था [म. व. २७७.१०];[ मत्स्य. २०८-६] । त्रिपुरदाह के समय, शिव ने इसे अपने रथ के घोड़ों की बागड़ोर, एवं संवत्सरसमय धनुष्य की प्रतयंचा बनाया था [म. द्रो. १४.५७] । विदर्भ देश में रहनेवाले सत्यनामक ब्राह्मण के गायत्री जप से संतुष्ट हो कर, इसने उसे दर्शन दिया था [म. शां. २६४.१०]
सावित्री IV. n.  शिवपत्‍नी उमा की एक सहचरी [म. व. २२१.२०]
सावित्री V. n.  एक धर्मपरायण राजपत्‍नी, जिसने दिव्य कुंडलों का दान कर उत्तम लोक की प्राप्ति की थी [म. शां. २२६.२४] । संभवतः इस कथा में सत्यवत् की पत्‍नी सावित्री की ओर संकेत किया होगा । महाभारत के अनुशासनपर्व में यही कथा पुनरुद्धृत की गयी है [म. अनु. २०९] । किन्तु वहाँ ‘सावित्री’ के स्थान पर ‘सावित्र’ (सूर्य का पुत्र) ऐसा निर्देश है । इससे प्रतीत होता है कि, अपने दोनों कुंडल दान में प्रदान करनेवाले अंगराज कर्ण की ओर से इस कथा में संकेत किया है ।

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
SĀVITRĪ I   
1) General information.
The daughter of the Sun. This Sāvitrī is the elder sister of Tapatī. Brahmā married these sisters. It is stated in some Purāṇas that Sāvitrī, Gāyatrī, Sarasvatī all these are one and the same. But there is a story in [Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa, Chapter 17], stating that Brahmā once went to Gāyatrī in the absence of Sāvitrī, who got angry at this and cursed all the Gods. Once Brahmā went to Puṣkara to perform a sacrifice. Śiva, Viṣṇu and all the hermits came there. Everything was ready for the sacrifice according to convention. But Sāvitrī, who had been engaged in household duties had not yet arrived. So a priest was sent to bring her. Sāvitrī said to the priest, “I have not finished dressing. There are so many things to be done here. Moreover, Lakṣmī, Bhavānī, Gaṅgā, Svāhā, Indrāṇī, celestial women, wives of Ṛṣis (hermits), none of these have arrived yet. How can I enter the hall as the only woman?” The priest returned and reported that it was not convenient for Sāvitrī to come just then, as she had so much work to do. Brahmā became angry and said to Indra. “Lord Indra, it is up to you to bring me a wife from wherever you like. But it must be done instantly.” Hearing the order of Brahmā, Indra selected Gāyatrī who was a good-natured damsel of a cowherd's family, and brought her to the sacrificial dais. With the blessings of the hermits and gods, Brahmā held her hand and acknowledged her as his wife. Sāvitrī dressed well, adorned herself with ornaments and reached the sacrificial hall. She saw the marrige scene and became furious. Everybody in the hall held their breath, thinking of the approaching danger. Trembling with anger Sāvitrī said “Lo; Brahmā, how is it that you have committed this sin? Have you not married me with fire as witness? I am your wife. Are you not ashamed of this?” The three godheads shivered with fear. Sāvitrī cursed everybody. The curse given to Brahmā was that no body should worship him on any other day except the month of Kārttika in the year. She cursed Indra that enemies would enter the world of gods and would make Indra their captive. Sāvitrī cried out that Viṣṇu would take the birth of man by the curse of Bhṛgu. She cursed Śiva that he would lose his manliness. She gave Agni the curse that he would eat anything and everything without the discrimination of purity or impurity. She cursed the Brahmins that they would, in future perform sacrifice merely with a view to obtain gifts and that they would be wandering about from temple to temple and from tīrtha to tīrtha merely for gain.” Uttering these words of curse, Sāvitrī left the sacrificial hall. Lakṣmī and some other goddesses followed her a little while. Then they begged for permission to return. Sāvitrī said to them, “Lakṣmī! You are leaving me. Is it not so? Right. Hereafter you shall be permanent nowhere. May you become the companion of the wicked, the wavering, the low-minded, the sinner, the cruel, the foolish etc. Indrāṇī also wants to return. Hear this: Indra will kill Vṛtra and incur the sin of Brahmahatyā and at that time Nahuṣa will capture heaven. Then Nahuṣa will abuse you.” Looking at the celestial women who were going to the sacrificial hall, Sāvitrī said; Look, Ye celestial women. None of you will give birth to child and you will not enjoy the pleasure of nurturing a child.” Saying these words Sāvitrī left the hall. Not knowing what to do, all sat there. Instantly Gāyatrī rose up and looking at everybody, said as a remission of curses: “I shall remit all curses. Those who worship Brahmā, will be blessed with the pleasure of wife and children and wealth and they will unite with Brahmā. Even if Indra is taken captive, he will be made free by his son and will become the king of heaven again. Viṣṇu will rescue his wife and kill the enemy. The phallus will be worshipped in all the worlds. As Brahmins are the gods on earth the gift you take, will be considered your dues. Lakṣmī! you need not worry. Everybody will worship you. He whom you favour will become a well-to-do person and he whom you forsake will become miserable. You Indrāṇī! Because of Nahuṣa's arrogance Agastya will change him to a big python and he will fall to the earth. The celestial maids will have no desire for children. So childlessness will not make you miserable.” By these words of blessings of Gāyatrī, everybody in the sacrificial hall was pacified. 2. Other details.
(1) Sāvitrī shines in the palace of Brahmā. [M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 34].
(ii) Sāvitrī is the sovereign deity of the mantra Gāyatrī. This goddess Sāvitrī rose up from the sacrificial fire of King Aśvapati and gave him a boon, and accordingly a daughter named Sāvitrī was born to the King. This princess was Sāvitrī the wife of Satyavān. [M.B. Vana Parva, Chapter 290].
(iii) Śiva, on starting for Tripuradahana (the burning of Tripuras), placed Sāvitrī as the bridles of his horses. [M.B. Droṇa Parva, Chapter 202, Verse 75].
(iv) Once Jāpaka Brahmin worshipped Devī Sāvitrī, who appeared before him and gave him boons. As the Brahmin was engaged in deep meditation and prayer, he did not see the Devī when she appeared. It was due to this piety that the Brahmin was given boons. [M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 199].
(v) Once Devī Sāvitrī appeared before Satya, a brahmin of Vidarbha. [M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 272, Verse 11].
(vi) Once Devī Sāvitrī praised the giving of rice as alms. [M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 8].
SĀVITRĪ II   A hand-maid of Devī Umā. [Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 231, Verse 49].
SĀVITRĪ III   A Sāvitrī who was the wife of a king and a righteous woman is mentioned in [Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 234, Verse 24]. This Sāvitrī gave two ear-rings as alms and attained heaven.
SĀVITRĪ IV   The wife of Satyavān.
1) Birth.
In the country of Madra, famous in the Purāṇas, there was a king named Aśvapati. His wife was Mālatī. Though the couple grew old they were childless. At last they worshipped Devī Sāvitrī. After vows and prayers for eighteen years the Devī appeared before them, and giving them the boon that a daughter would be born to them, she disappeared. The couple returned to the palace and Mālatī conceived and delivered a daughter whom they named Sāvitrī. [Skandha 9, Devī Bhāgavata];[ Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 293].
2) Marriage.
Sāvitrī grew up as though Lakṣmī had taken an incarnation and bloomed into a beautiful damsel. But nobody came forward to marry her. On a New moon day she bathed and purified herself and getting the blessings of Brahmins, came and bowed before her father. The King felt sorry as nobody had offered to marry her though she was in the full bloom of youth. He advised her to travel in the outside world and to select a husband by herself. According to the order of her father she took the aged ministers of the King and travelled through the forests in which hermits lived. Once Nārada came to the palace and while he was talking with King Aśvapati, Sāvitrī and the aged ministers returned. She bowed before her father and Nārada. As soon as Nārada saw her, he asked with curiosity about her marriage. The father replied that he had sent her in search of a husband. Sāvitrī said “I have accepted the Prince Satyavān as my husband. He is the son of King Dyumatsena of Sālva. Dyumatsena became blind in his old age, and taking this opportunity his enemies captured his country. Dyumatsena with his wife and son went to the forest and lived there.” Nārada described the qualities of Satyavān. “Satyavān is as radiant as the sun, as intelligent as Bṛhaspati, as valiant as Indra and as patient as the Earth. Aśvapati was immensely pleased at hearing about the good qualities of Satyavān, and asked Nārada, if there was anything to say against him. Nārada said that he had nothing to say against Satyavān except that he would die “within one year from this date.” [Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 294]. The King felt miserable when he heard this. Sāvitrī said that she had accepted Satyavān as her husband and that nothing could make her waver from her decision even if he is not going to live more than a year. The King agreed to the wish of his daughter and preparations for the marriage were begun. The King went with Sāvitrī to the forest and saw Dyumatsena who gladly consented to the marriage. Aśvapati returned to the palace leaving Sāvitrī with Satyavān and his parents. As soon as Aśvapati had returned, Sāvitrī discarded her ornaments and assumed the dress suitable to life in the forest and lived with them.
3) The death of Satyavān.
It was nearly a year and the day of death of Satyavān was fast approaching. There were only four days more. Sāvitrī had taken a vow lasting for three days. Dyumatsena dissuaded her from taking fast. She completed the fast. There was left only one night more. She kept awake for the whole night. Morning came. Though she ended her fast she had not taken any food. Dyumatsena wanted to know the reason. She humbly said that she would eat only after sun-set. As usual Satyavān took his axe and started for the wood. Sāvitrī also followed him. Satyavān:-“You have never accompanied me before. Moreover you are very weak on account of the fast. Then how can you come with me?” Sāvitrī: “I am not at all weak by the fast and vow. I want to come with you. I pray, don't hinder me.” At last Satyavān consented after getting the permission of his parents. Both went to the forest to gather fruits and roots. They gathered fruits and roots. Then Satyavān began to cut wood. By that exertion Satyavān sweated all over. He was affected by headache. “Let me lie down!” He said. The axe fell from his hand. Sāvitrī caught her husband who was falling down and laid him on her lap. Sāvitrī saw a person clad in blood-coloured garments, with red eyes and a rope in hand, coming towards them. He came to the spot and stood there looking at the body of Satyavān. Realizing the person to be Kāla (Deathgod) Sāvitrī stood up instantly and bowed before him. Sāvitrī:--“Who are you Lord. What may be your object in coming here?” Yama:--Hei, Sāvitrī. As you are a hermitess of chastity I may converse with you. I am Yama. I am come to take away the life of your husband.” Sāvitrī:--“Lord, I have heard that your messengers come and take away the souls. How is it that you have come in person today?” Yama:--This Satyavān is a righteous man who is an ocean of good qualities. Messengers are not sent, in the cases of persons like him.” Saying thus Yama cast his rope and caught the soul of Satyavān. Sāvitrī saw the body of her husband lying without life and soul. Sāvitrī followed Yama who had gone to the south with the soul of Satyavān. Yama:--Child, you go back and conduct his funerals. You have followed your husband as far as you can. Sāvitrī:--I am coming to the place where my husband is being taken. That is the duty of a wife. What impediment is there on my way to follow you, when I have the merits of vow, fast, devotion to my elders, love and regard for my husband and the good will of yourself, my Lord.” When Yama realized that it was difficult to send Sāvitrī back, he asked Sāvitrī to ask for any boon. Yama was prepared to give anything except the life of Satyavān. She requested for the recovery of sight by Dyumatsena. Yama granted it. Still Sāvitrī did not turn back. Yama asked her to pray for one more boon. She requested for the recovery of the lost kingdom of Dyumatsena. Yama sanctioned that request also. Still she followed Yama, who was ready to grant her a third boon. She requested: “My father may, please be given a hundred sons who would continue the family. Yama granted that too. But she did not turn back. Yama told her that she might ask for a fourth boon. She said: “I may be given a hundred sons born directly from Satyavān. Yama granted this fourth boon also. Then Sāvitrī asked Yama how the boon would be realized unless the life of Satyavān was given back to him. Yama was pleased with her at her love and devotion for her husband and returned the life of Satyavān. Yama blessed her that she and Satyavān would live for hundred years. Yama disappeared. Sāvitrī returned and sat there taking the body of Satyavān on her lap. Satyavān came to life. Both of them rose up. Night came on. It was dark. They could not find the way. Satyavān wanted to reach their hermitage somehow. Sāvitrī took the axe and supporting her husband in the dim moon light, walked to the hermitage. Dyumatsena got sight. He started with his wife in search of his children, and walked about in the forest. At last all of them met together. They reached home. Then Sāvitrī told them all that had happened. Everyone was delighted. Then some people from Sālva came to the hermitage. They said that the minister had killed the King, that the people had expelled the minister, and that they had come to request Dyumatsena to return to his country and to resume the reign. Accordingly all of them returned to Sālva. Dyumatsena was anointed as the King of Sālva. [M.B. Vana Parva, Chapters 293 to 299].

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 f  Wife of Brahma.

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