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A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
सूर्य  m. am. the sun or its deity (in the वेद the name सूर्य is generally distinguished from सवितृ [q.v.], and denotes the most concrete of the solar gods, whose connection with the luminary is always present to the poet's mind ; in [Nir. vii, 5] he is regarded as one of the original Vedic triad, his place being in the sky, while that of अग्नि is on the earth, and that of इन्द्र is in the atmosphere; ten hymns in the [RV.] are entirely in praise of सूर्यe.g.i, 50, i, 115 &c., also, [AV. xiii, 2] ; he moves through the sky in a chariot drawn by seven ruddy horses or mares [see सप्ता-श्व, हरित्, हरिद्-अश्व]; in the later mythology सूर्य is identified with सवितृ as one of the 12 आदित्यs or emblems of the Sun in the 12 months of the year, and his seven-horsed chariot is said to be driven by अरुण or the Dawn as its charioteer, who is represented without legs; the Sun, whether named सूर्य or विवस्वत्, has several wives See सूर्या below), [RV.] &c. &c. (cf.[IW. 11;  16 &c.] ; [RTL. 341] )
a symbolical expression for the number ‘twelve’ (in allusion to the sun in the 12 signs of the zodiac), [Jyot.] ; [Hcat.]
अर्क   the swallow-wort (either Calotropis or Asclepias Gigantea, = ), [L.]
N. of the son of बलि, [L.]
of a दानव, [VahniP.]
सूर्य-दास   of an astronomer (= ), [Cat.]
epithet of शिव, [MBh.]
सूर्य  mfn. mfn. solar (perhaps w.r. for सौर्य), [Jyot.] [For cognate words See under 2. स्व॑र्.]
सूर्य   b &c. See p.1243, col. 1.

सूर्यः [sūryḥ]   [सरति आकाशे सूर्यः, यद्वा सुवति कर्मणि लोकं प्रेरयति; cf. Sk. on [P.III.1.114] ]
The sun; सूर्ये तपत्यावरणाय दृष्टेः कल्पेत लोकस्य कथं तमिस्रा [R.5.13.] [In mythology, the sun is regarded as a son of Kaśyapa and Aditi. He is represented as moving in a chariot drawn by seven horses, with Aruṇa for his charioteer. He is also represented as all-seeing, the constant beholder of the good and bad deeds of mortals. Samjñā (or Chhāyā or Aśvinī) was his principal wife, by whom he had Yama and Yamunā, the two Aśvins and Saturn. He is also described as having been the father of Manu Vaivasvata, the founder of the solar race of kings.]
The tree called Arka.
The number 'twelve' (derived from the twelve forms of the sun).
The swallow-wort.
 N. N. of Śiva. -Comp.
-अपायः   sunset; सूर्यापाये न खलु कमलं पुष्यति स्वामभिख्याम् [Me.82.]
-अर्ष्यम्   the presentation of an offering to the sun.
-अश्मन्  m. m. the sun-stone.
-अश्वः   a horse of the sun.
-अस्तम्   sunset.
-आतपः   heat or glare of the sun, sunshine.
-आलोकः   sunshine.
आवर्तः a kind of sun-flower.
a head-ache which increases or diminishes according to the course of the sun (Mar. अर्धशिशी).
-आह्व a.  a. named after the sun. (-ह्वः) the gigantic swallow-wort. (-ह्वम्) copper.
-इन्दुसंगमः   the day of the new moon (the conjunction of the sun and moon); दर्शः सूर्येन्दुसंगमः [Ak.]
-उत्थानम्, -उदयः   sunrise.
ऊढः 'brought by the sun', an evening guest; संप्राप्तो योऽतिथिः सायं सूर्योढो गृहमेधिनाम् । पूजया तस्य देवत्वं लभन्ते गृहमेधिनः ॥ [Pt.1.17.]
the time of sunset.
-उपस्थानम्, -उपासना   attendance upon or worship of the sun; [V.1.]
-कमलम्   the sun-flower, a heliotrope.
कान्तः the sun-stone, sun-crystal; स्पर्शानुकूला इव सूर्यकान्तास्तदन्यतेजोऽभिभवाद्वमन्ति । [Ś.2.7.]
a crystal.
-कान्ति  f. f.
a particular flower.
the flower of sesamum.
-कालः   day-time, day. ˚अनलचक्रम् a particular astrological diagram for indicating good and bad fortune.
ग्रहः the sun.
an eclipse of the sun.
an epithet of Rāhu and Ketu.
the bottom of a water-jar.
-ग्रहणम्   a solar eclipse.
-चन्द्रौ   (also सूर्याचन्द्रमसौ) m. du. the sun and moon.
जः, तनयः, पुत्रः epithets of Sugrīva; योऽहं सूर्यसुतः स एष भवतां योऽयं स वत्सोऽङ्गदः [Mv. 5.55.]
of Karṇa.
of the planet Saturn.
of Yama.
-जा, -तनया   the river Yamunā.
-तेजस्  n. n. the radiance or heat of the sun.
-द्वारम्   the way of the sun; उत्तरायण q. v.; सूर्यद्वारेण ते विरजाः प्रयान्ति यत्रामृतः स पुरुषो ह्याव्ययात्मा Muṇḍ.1.2.11.
-नक्षत्रम्   that constellation (out of the 27) in which the sun happens to be.-पर्वन् n. a solar festival, (on the days of the solstices, equinoxes, eclipses &c.).
-पादः   a sun-beam.
पुत्री lightning.
-प्रभव a.  a. sprung or descended from the sun; क्व सूर्यप्रभवो वंशः क्व चाल्पविषया मतिः [R.1.2.]
-फणिचक्रम् = सूर्यकालानलचक्रम्   q. v. above.
-बिम्बः   the disc of the sun.
-भक्त a.  a. one who worships the sun. (-क्तः) the tree Bandhūka or its flower.
-मणिः   the sunstone.
-मण्डलम्   the orb of the sun.
-मासः   the solar month.
यन्त्रम् a representation of the sun (used in worshipping him).
an instrument used in taking solar observations.
-रश्मिः   a ray of the sun, sun-beam; [Ms.5.133.]
-लोकः   the heaven of the sun.
-वंशः   the solar race of kings (who ruled at Ayodhyā).
-वर्चस् a.  a. resplendent as the sun.
-वारः   Sunday.
-विलोकनम्   the ceremony of taking a child out to see the sun when four months old; cf. उपनिष्क्रमणम्.
-संक्रमः, -संक्रातिः  f. f. the sun's passage from one zodiacal sign to another.-संज्ञम् saffron.
-सारथिः   an epithet of Aruṇa.
-सिद्धान्तः   a celebrated astronomical work (supposed to have been revealed by the god Sun).
-स्तुतिः  f. f.,
-स्तोत्रम्   a hymn addressed to the sun.
-हृदयम्  N. N. of a hymn to the sun.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
by his ears; or to raise him by pressing the sides of the head, rubbing the thumb forcibly along his crown; to show London. Also समुद्र दाखविणें, काशीची वाट दाखविणें, बोरीस बोरें आणणें, and similar phrases. हा सूर्य आणि हा जयद्रथ This is the hour, and here's the man! Behold the conjunction of the two particulars required!

आकाशस्थ ज्योतीपैकी पृथ्वीला विशेष महत्त्वाची एक ज्योति . इतर तारकांप्रमाणे हीहि एक तारकाच आहे . पृथ्वीवरील चराचर वस्तूंचे रक्षण - पोषण होण्यास लागणारी उष्णता याच्यापासून मिळते . याच्या उदयास्ताने दिवस - रात्र होतात . पृथ्वीपासून याचे अंतर ९ कोटी २७ लक्ष मैल ; याचा व्यास ८५००५०० मैल . हा आपल्या आसांभोवती सुमारे २५ दिवसांत प्रदक्षिणा करतो ; आदित्य . रवि ; भानु .
सूर्यदेव . [ सं . ] म्ह० सूर्यापुढे काडवात - काजवा . ( वाप्र . ) सूर्याचे आड - सूर्य प्रकाशात . सूर्याची हरणे - पिले दाखविणे - मुलाचे कान पकडून त्यास वर उचलणे ; कानाच्या पाळ्या आंगठ्याने जोराने दाबून उचलणे . याच अर्थी - समुद्र दाखविणे , काशीची वाट दाखविणे , बोरीस बोरे आणणे . इत्यादि वाक्र्पचार आहेत . हा सूर्य आणि हा जयद्रथ ( = हीच ती वेळ व हाच तो माणूस ); एखाद्याचा दोष पुराव्यासकट त्याच्या पदरी घालणे . सामाशब्द -
०उजेडी   क्रिवि . दिवसांउजेडी ; सूर्यप्रकाश असतां .
०कन्या  स्त्री. ( सांकेतिक ) भाकरी ( भास्करीपासून ). [ सं . ]
०कर  पु. किरण . [ सं . ]
०कमल  पु. सूर्य उगवल्यानंतर उमलणारे व सदोदित सूर्याकडे तोंड असणारे एक कमळ . [ सं . ]
०कमळी  स्त्री. वरील कमळाचे झाड .
०कांत  पु. 
सूर्य किरणांचे एका केंद्रात परावर्तन करुन उष्णता उत्पन्न करणारा एक विशेष प्रकारचा स्फटिकमय मणि ; याची पंचायतनांत सूर्य म्हणून पूजा करतात .
एक सूर्यफूल .
०कांती वि.  सूर्यकांतमण्याचा ( पदार्थ , आरशी इ० ). [ सं . ]
०खार  पु. एक प्रकारचा खार ; सोरा . [ सं . सूरक्षार ]
०ग्रहण  न. सूर्य आणि पृथ्वी यांच्यात चंद्र आला म्हणजे सूर्य दिसेनासा होणे ; हे ग्रहण अमावस्येस होते ; जुन्या हिंदु शास्त्राप्रमाणे सूर्याचा केतु ग्रहाने केलेला ग्रास . [ सं . ]
०तबकडी  स्त्री. सूर्यपूजा करण्यासाठी बायका ज्या ताम्हनांत , तबकावर सूर्यप्रतिमा काढतात ते पात्र . [ सूर्य + तबकडी ]
०तळी   क्रिवि . सूर्याचे खाली ; पूर्वेस . [ सूर्य + दर्शन + व्रत ]
०नंदन  पु. 
यम .
शनि .
सुग्रीव .
कर्ण .
०नक्षत्र  न. ज्या नक्षत्राजवळ सूर्य असेल ते नक्षत्र [ सं . ]
०नारायण  पु. देवतारुप सूर्य . [ सं . ]
०पत्र   पान न . अब्दागीर . आणि ती सूर्यपत्रे । - माधवरामायण बाल कांड ३९ .
०पर्व  न. सूर्यग्रहण , व्यतीपात , सूर्यसंक्रांत , अमावस्या इ० पर्वे प्रत्येकी .
०पिलू  न. लहान दिवा .
०पूट    न . सूर्याचे ऊन्ह देऊन वाळविण्याची क्रिया ( औषधी , रसायने इ० ); उन्हाचा ताप . [ सं . ]
०पुटी वि.  उन्हांत वाळविलेले ( औषध इ० ).
०पोटी शनैश्चर  पु. ( शनि हा सूर्याचा मुलगा त्यावरुन ) चांगल्या बापाचा वाईट मुलगा .
०फूल  पु. सूर्यकमळ पहा .
०बिंब  न. सूर्याचे बिंब किंवा प्रतिबिंब . [ सं . ]
०भक्त वि.  
सूर्याचा भक्त .
( थट्टेने ) दिवाळखोर ( सूर्योपासकाप्रमाणे , हात वर करुन दिवाळे वाजल्याचे जाहीर करण्याच्या रीतीवरुन ).
०मंडल  न. 
सूर्याचे बिंब .
सूर्याच्या आसपासचा प्रांत , याचा स्वामि सूर्य असतो ; सूर्यलोक . [ सं . ]
०मंडळी  स्त्री. अव . सूर्य व त्या सभोंवती फिरणारे इतर गोल , ग्रह , उपग्रह इ० .
०मणि  पु. सूर्यकांत पहा .
०माला  स्त्री. सूर्यमंडळी पहा .
०यंत्र  न. 
सूर्याच्या पूजेसाठी तांब्याचे पत्र्यावर किंवा एखाद्या फलकावर काढलेली प्रतिमा , एक विशिष्ट रेखाकृति .
ग्रहाचे वेध घेण्याचे एक यंत्र . [ सं . ]
०लता   वल्ली स्त्री . एक प्रकारचा वेल .
०लोक  पु. सूर्यमंडल पहा .
०वंश  पु. सूर्यापासून झालेला एक राजवंश . उ० श्रीरामाचा वंश . वंशी वि .
सूर्यवंशातील ( राजा . )
( ल . ) सूर्योदय झाल्यावर निजून उठणारा .
०विकासी वि.  दिवसा उमलणारे व रात्री मिटणारे ( फूल , कमळ इ० ).
०संतान  न. 
सूर्याची प्रजा , वंश , मूल .
( शनी हा सूर्यपुत्र पण खोडकर म्हणून ल . ) चांगल्या बापाचा वाईट मुलगा .
भाकरी .
०सूर  पु. उजव्या नाकपुडीतून निघणारा श्वास ; याचे उलट चंद्रसूर .
०स्नान  न. उन्हांत बसणे .
०हार  पु. बायकांचे गळ्यांतील सूर्याच्या आकारांच्या टिकल्यांचा एक हार . सूर्याचे झाड न . सूर्यकमळी पहा . सूर्यावर भुंकणे प्रसिद्ध पुरुषाची निंदा करुन स्वतःचे हसे करुन घेणे . सूर्यावर्त पु . अर्धशिशी दुखण्याचा एक प्रकार ; ही सूर्याच्या उदयापासून वाढत जाऊन सूर्यास्तास बंद होते . सूर्यास्त पु . सूर्य मावळणे . सूर्येदुसंगम पु . अमावस्येनंतरचा चंद्रोदयाचा पहिला दिवस . [ सं . सूर्य + इंदु + संगम ] सूर्योदय पु . सूर्य उगवणे . सूर्योपासक वि .
सूर्याची पूजा करणारा सूर्यपूजक .
( ल . ) दिवाळखोर . सूर्योपासना - स्त्री . सूर्याची भक्ति उपासना , पूजा इ० .

सूर्य n.  एक देवता, जिसके लिए वैदिक एवं पौराणिक साहित्य में ‘सवितृ’, ‘विवस्वत्’, ‘पूषन्’ आदि विभिन्न नामान्तर दिये गये है । संभवतः सूर्य की विभिन्न अवस्थाओं को प्रतीकरूप मान कर सूर्यदेवता को ये नामांतर प्राप्त हुए होगे (सवितृ, पूषन्, एवं विवस्वत् देखिये) । अथर्ववेद में सूर्य के सात नाम (सप्तसूर्याः) दिये गये है, जो संभवतः सूर्य के सात रश्मियों का प्रतिनिधित्व करते है [अ. वे. १३.३.१०] ; सवितृ देखिये महाभारत में इसके निम्नलिखित बारह नाम दिये गये हैः-- १. दिवस्पुत्र, २. बृहद्भानु, ३. चक्षु, ४. आत्मा, ५. विभावसु, ६. सवितृ, ७. ऋचीक, ८. अर्क, ९. भानु, १०. आशावह, ११. रवि, १२. विवस्वत [म. आ. १.४०]
सूर्य n.  आधुनिक भौतिक शास्त्र के अनुसार पृथ्वी की उत्पत्ति सूर्य से होने की कल्पना स्वीकृत की गयी है । वैदिक साहित्य में इसी कल्पना को स्वीकार किया गया है, जहाँ सूर्य को इस विश्र्व का आत्मा एवं पिता माना गया हैः-- आप्रा द्यावापृथिवी अन्तरिक्षं । सूर्य आत्मा जगतस्तस्थुषश्र्च ॥ [ऋ. १.१५५.१] । (इस विश्र्व के चर एवं अचर वस्तुओं की आत्मा सूर्य ही है) । इसी कल्पना के अनुसार सूर्यपत्‍नी आदिति अथवा दिति को विश्र्व की माता कहा गया है, एवं दितिपुत्र दैत्य को एवं अदितिपुत्रों को ‘आदित्य’ कहा गया है । पौराणिक साहित्य में कश्यप ऋषि को सूर्य का ही प्रतिरूप माना गया है, एवं उसकी आदिति एवं दिति नामक दो पत्‍नियाँ दी गयी है, जो क्रमशः दिन एवं रात का प्रतिनिधित्व करती है । इन दोनों का पुत्र अग्नि है, जो पृथ्वी में सूर्य का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है । इस प्रकार सूर्य एवं उससे संबंधित देवतापरिवार का संबंध सृष्टिउत्पत्ति एवं सृष्टि संचालन कार्य से स्पष्ट रूप से होता है ।
सूर्य n.  सूर्य की गति, उपासना एवं इसके एकसौ आठ नामों का जाप प्राचीन काल से भारतवर्ष में प्रचलित है । इसी उपासना का उपदेश धौम्य ऋषि ने युधिष्ठिर को किया था [म. व. ३.१६-३३, १६०. २४-३७]
सूर्य n.  विश्वामित्र ऋषि के द्वारा विरचित ‘गायत्रीमंत्र’ एवं विभिन्न ‘सौर सूक्त’ ऋग्वेद में प्राप्त है, जो सूर्य देवताविषयक सर्वाधिक प्राचीन साहित्य कहा जा सकता है । उपनिषद ग्रंथों में से ‘सूर्योपनिषद’ सूर्योपासना से ही संबंधित है । ‘सूर्य गीता’ नामक एक ग्रंथ भी उपलब्ध है, जो ‘गुरुज्ञानवासिष्ठ तत्वसारायण’ नामक ग्रंथ में अंतर्भूत है [कर्मकाण्ड. ३.१-५] । पौराणिक साहित्य में से ‘भविष्य’ एवं ‘ब्रह्मवैवर्त’ पुराण ‘सौर’ पुराण में माने जाते है । शाकद्वीप से सूर्यप्रतिमा तथा सूर्योपासना भारत में सर्वप्रथम आयी, जिसका स्वरूप वैदिक सूर्य उपासना से कई अंश में भिन्न था (सांब देखिये) ।
सूर्य (सौरश्र्व) n.  एतश नामक ऋषि का शत्रु, जिसे इसने आहत किया था [ऋ. १.६१.१५,४.१७.१४] ; एतश देखिये ।

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
SŪRYA I   The God who gives light to the worlds.
1) Birth.
It is said that the Sun was born to Kaśyapa by his wife Aditi. Mahāviṣṇu begot Brahmā and Brahmā begot Marīci. Prajāpati Kaśyapa was born from Marīci. Several sons were born to Kaśyapa by Aditi the daughter of Dakṣa. They are known by the names Ādityas, Vasus, Rudras and so on. Of these, Ādityas are tewelve in number. (Āditya means the son of Aditi). There is a difference of opinion as to who these twelve Ādityas are. According to Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51, the twelve Ādityas are Varuṇa, Sūrya (the Sun), Sahasrāṁśu, Dhātā, Tapana, Savitā, Gabhasti, Ravi, Parjanya, Tvaṣṭā, Mitra and Viṣṇu. (See under Dvādaśādityas). But in [Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 15] , it is stated that the twelve Ādityas are Dhātā, Aryamā, Mitra, Śukra, Varuṇa, Aṁśa, Bhaga, Vivasvān, Pūṣā, Savitā Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. Very often these names are used as synonyms of the Sun. So it is better to assume that there are several Ādityas and that it is the sun who gives light and heat to the worlds. Vivasvān is this sun because it is said that from this Vivasvān the Manu Vaivasvata was born and from this Vaivasvata, Ikṣvāku, the first king of the Solar dynasty, was born. 2 The chariot of the Sun. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, in consequence of which days and nights occur. The Purāṇic assumption is that the sun travels in a very big chariot. The chariot of the Sun is nine thousand yojanas long. The wheel is fixed to this. The great wheel of time with three centres, five tyres and six spokes, is fixed on that indestructible year. It has seven horses, which are the seven Vedic metres, called by the names Gāyatrī, Bṛhatī, Uṣṇik, Jagatī, Tṛiṣṭubh, Anuṣṭubh and Paṅkti. Another axle used for the chariot of the Sun is fortyfive thousand five hundred yojanas long. The length of each half of the Yoke is proportionate to the length of the axle. The short axle of the chariot with the small half of the yoke is fixed on Dhruva. The wheel fixed on the other axle rests on the mount Mānasottara. Separate Ādityas, hermits Gandharvas, celestial maids, Yakṣas, serpents and giants sit, in the chariot of the Sun every month. In the month of Caitra, which is also called Madhumāsa, the seven officers of the month who travel daily in the chariot, are the Āditya Dhātā, the celestial maid Kratusthalā, the hermit Pulastya, the serpent Vāsuki, the Yakṣa Rathabhṛt, the gaint Heti, and the Gandharva Tumburu. In the month of Vaiśākha also called Mādhava, the Āditya Aryaman, the hermit Pulaha, the Yakṣa Rathaujas, the celestial maid Puñjikasthalā, the giant Praheti, the serpent Kacavīra and the Gandharva Nārada sit in the chariot. In the month of Jyeṣṭha, the Āditya Mitra, the hermit Atri, the serpent Takṣaka, giant Pauruṣeya, the celes- tial maid Menakā, the Gandharva Hāhā, and the Yakṣa Rathasvana, sit in the chariot. In the month of Āṣāḍha, the Āditya Varuṇa, the hermit Vasiṣṭha, the serpent Nāga, the celestial maid Sahajanyā, the Gandharva Hūhū, the giant Ratha and the Yakṣa Citraratha, travel in the chariot. In the month of Śrāvaṇa, the Āditya Indra, the Gandharva, Viśvāvasu, the Yakṣa Srotas, the serpent Elāputra, the hermit Aṅgiras, the celestial maid Pramlocā, and the giant Sarpī travel in the chariot. In the month of Bhādrapada the Āditya Vivasvān, the Gandharva, Ugrasena, the hermit Bhṛgu, the Yakṣa, Āpūraṇa, the celestial maid Anumlocā, the serpent Śaṅkhapāla and the giant Vyāghra sit in the chariot. In the month of Aśvanī, the Āditya Pūṣā, the Gandharva Vasuruci, the giant Vāta, the hermit Gautama, the serpent Dhanañjaya, the Yakṣa Suṣeṇa and the celestial maid Ghṛtāci sit in the chariot. In the month of Kārttika, the Gandharva is another Viśvāvasu, the hermit Bharadvāja, Āditya Parjanya, the serpent Airāvata, the celestial maid, Viśvācī, Yakṣa Senajit and the giant Āpa, sit in the chariot. In the month of Mārgaśīrṣa, the Āditya Aṁśa, the hermit Kaśyapa, the Yakṣa Tārkṣya, the serpent Mahāpadma, the celestial maid Urvaśī, the Gandharva Citrasena, and the giant Vidyut travel in the chariot. In the month of Pauṣa, the hermit Kratu, the Āditya Bhaga, the Gandharva Ūrṇāyu, the giant Sphūrja, the serpent Karkoṭaka, the Yakṣa Ariṣṭanemi and the celestial maid Pūrvacitti travel in the chariot. In the month of Māgha, the Āditya Tvaṣṭā, the hermit Jamadagni, the serpent Kambala, the celestial maid Tilottamā, the giant Brahmopeta, the Yakṣa Ṛtajit and the Gandharva Dhṛtarāṣṭra sit in the chariot. In the month of Phālguna the Āditya Viṣṇu, the serpent Aśvatara, the celestial maid Rambhā, the Gandharva Suvarcas, the Yakṣa Satyajit, the hermit Viśvāmitra, and the giant Yajñopeta travel in the chariot. These seven persons live in the region of the Sun in their time. The hermits praise the Sun; the gandharvas sing; the celestial maids dance; the giants walk behind as guards. The serpents prepare the horses to be yoked; the Yakṣas hold the bridle and the Bālakhilyas stand round the Sun. These groups of seven in each month are responsible for heat, coldness, rain etc. [Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṁśa 2, Chapter 8] .
3) The Vedic figure of the Sun.
Even though the sun is only one of the seven groups, he is above the others in prominence. The complete power of Viṣṇu is the three Vedas Ṛg, Yajus and Sāma. The power in the form of the three Vedas blazes in the form of the Sun. That power destroys all the sins in the world. Viṣṇu stays inside the sun in the form of Ṛg, Yajus and Sāma for the Sustenance and protection of the world. As said before, the three Vedas are the parāśakti, or the feminine supreme power of Viṣṇu. She is the three Vedas themselves. Every month she stays inside that particular Āditya of the month. In the morning the Ṛgveda praises the Sun. At noon the Yajurveda praises the Sun and in the evening the Sāmans such as Bṛhad Rathantara and so on. The three Vedas Ṛg, Yajus and Sāman are portions of Viṣṇu. This power of Viṣṇu stays in Āditya always. It stays not only in the Sun, but also in the three godheads Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva. At the time of creation Brahmā was pervaded by Ṛg. At the time of sustenance, Viṣṇu is pervaded by Yajus. At the end Rudra will be pervaded by Sāman. So the sound of Sāman will be unpalatable. Thus this Vaiṣṇavite power which is having the attribute of purity (Sattva) and Vedas, pervades mainly the sun though it remains on the seven groups also. Being the seat of this power, the Sun blazes with his rays and destroys the darkness in all the worlds. Such a Sun is praised by the hermits. The Gandharvas sing in front of the Sun. The celestial maids dance before him. The giants guard him, the serpents prepare his chariot, the Yakṣas hold the bridle and the Bālakhilyas stand around him. Viṣṇu who is having the figure of the Sun pervaded by the power of the Vedas, never rises or sets. The seven groups are separate from that Viṣṇu. As the figures of those who approach, are reflected in a mirror fixed on a post, that power of Viṣṇu, without separating itself from that chariot, pervades them who come every month in turn. [Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṁśa 2, Chapter 11] .
4) The direction of the sun.
The Sun starts from the east and goes to the western ocean. The directions east and west originate from this rising and setting. As a matter of fact when the sun rises in the east it is bright in places behind it. But it does not shine in the palace of Brahmā on the top of Mahāmeru. The rays of the sun which enter the palace are driven back by the radiance of the palace. The Mountain Meru is north to all islands and countries. So on one side of that mount it is always day and on the other side it is always night. When the Sun sets his light enters fire. So at night the light of fire goes far. In the same way, at day time, the light of fire enters the sun. So the sun shines more. Thus because the light of the sun and fire enter each other the day and the night wax when the sun shines on the southern and northern hemi-spheres. The dark nights and bright days enter water gradually. The water seems a little red, in day time because darkness has entered it in the night. After sunset the water seems a little white because the day has entered the water. Thus when the sun passes through the middle of the island Puṣkara, the change of the Sun to one thirtieth portion of the earth is called ‘Mauhūrtikagati’ (covering the distance in a muhūrta--48 minutes). The sun, like a fly sitting on the circumference of the wheel of a potter travels round the earth inclining a portion of a thirtieth of the earth, and making day and night. In the beginning of the transit to the Tropic of Cancer, the sun passes into the zodiac of Makara, and then to Kumbha and Mīna. After having completed the three zodiacs, the sun makes the day and night equal and enters Viṣuva. At the end of travelling in the Northern hemi-sphere the sun enters the zodiac of Karkaṭaka and transit to the south begins. [Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṁśa 2, Chapter 8] .
5) The Sun in the clutches of the giants.
The Sun is being attacked daily by a kind of giants called the Mandehas.
6) Family life.
The Sun married Saṁjñā, the daughter of Viśvakarmā. Three children Manu, Yama and Yamī were born to him by Saṁjñā. By Chāyā, the maid of Saṁjñā, three children, Śanaiścara, Manu and Tapatī were born to the Sun. Aśvinīkumāras and Revanta were born by Saṁjñā to the sun who took the form of a horse. (See under Saṁjñā and Chāyā). On several occasions other sons such as Sugrīva, Kālindī Karṇa and so on were born to the Sun. (For details see under those entries).
7) The rising delayed.
A story stating that the rising of the sun was delayed because of the curse of Śīlavatī, is stated in [Mahābhārata] . (See under Śīlavatī).
8) The Sun and the Syamantaka.
Once the King Satrājit did penance and got the jewel Syamantaka from the Sun. (For detailed story see under Prasena).
9) The Sun and Rāhu.
Once the Sun and the moon pointed out Rāhu who had come to partake of the Amṛta [Ambrosia] in stealth and Mahaviṣṇu cut off his head. (For detailed story see under Amṛta, Para 4).
10) The Sun the teacher of Hanūmān.
The Sun is the teacher of Hanūmān. (See under Hanūmān).
11) The Sun and Rāvaṇa.
Once Rāvaṇa happened to reach the Solar region, while he was conducting regional conquest. That night he rested on Mahāmeru, and then got into his plane Puṣpaka, ready for fight in the morning. Seeing the Sun rising up, Rāvaṇa called his minister Prahasta and said to him. “Minister, go and convey my words to the Sun. ‘Rāvaṇa has come to fight. Either get down and fight or admit defeat.’ Prahasta walked towards the sun and told the words of the King to the two gate-keepers Piṅgala and Daṇḍī. The Sun was informed of this by Daṇḍī. The Sun told Daṇḍī thus: “Daṇḍī, I don't mind whether I defeat or I am defeated by Rāvaṇa. The thing is, that I have no time.” Daṇḍī informed Rāvaṇa of this. Rāvaṇa went away shouting that he had defeated the Sun.
12) Fight with Śiva.
See under Śiva Para 7, Sub para 7.
13) The Sun lost his lustre.
See under Sukeśa.
14) Artificial Sun.
See under Brahmā, para 13.
15) The Sun and Karṇa.
See under Karṇa.
16) The hermit Atri and the Sun.
See under Atri, para 4.
17) The names of the Sun.
Once the hermit Dhaumya repeated to Dharmaputra the one hundred and eight names of the Sun. Those names are given in [Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 3] .
13) Other details.
(i) Once Pāñcālī worshipped the Sun. The Sun created an unseen giant for her protection. [M.B. Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 15, Verse 19] .
(ii) Pāñcālī did penance before the Sun and procured the ‘Akṣayapātra’ (the pot that never became empty). (See under Akṣayapātra).
(iii) The Sun destroys the ungrateful asuras (demons). [M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 16] .
(iv) There is a story connecting the Sun and the South. In days of old the Sun performed a sacrifice according to the Vedas, and to Kaśyapa who was the ministerial priest, he gave the South as dakṣiṇā (offering). So the south got the name ‘Dakṣiṇa’. [M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 1] .
(v) The west is the place where the Sun pours his rays after the end of the day. [M.B. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 110, Verse 2] .
(vi) When Karṇa and Arjuna confronted each other in the battle of Bhārata, the Sun boasted to Indra that Karṇa would come out victorious. [M.B. Karṇa Parva, Chapter 87, Stanza 57] .
(vii) The Sun gave Subrahmaṇya two attendants named Subhrāja and Bhāsvara. [Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 31] .
(viii) Once Śiva anointed the Sun as the King of all the planets. [M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 112, Stanza 31] .
(ix) The Sun once gave Yājñavalkya the boon that he would get knowledge of the Vedas. [M.B. Śānti Parva, Chapter 318, Verse 6] .
(x) The story of one who had attained the region of the Sun by ‘Uñchavṛtti’ (Living on the grains fallen on the field) is given in [Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, a few Chapters from 353] , as follows: There was a Brahmin in a place called Mahāpadma on the banks of the Ganges. He wandered here and there for knowledge of Vedas. Once a hermit met him and directed him towards a Nāga named Padmanābha. Padmanābha is the serpent which supports the chariot of the Sun. The Brahmin-hermit started in search of Padmanābha. At last he found out his house. But there was the wife of Padmanābha only. She said that her husband would return within a few days. Accordingly he remained on the banks of the Ganges without any food. Padmanābha returned and both of them met together. The hermit asked the nāga what he should do in order to get merged in God. The Nāga replied that he could become one with God by Uñchavṛtti. The Nāga continued. “The Sun is a god who had invoked into himself a saint who had lived only by the fallen grains in the field. The activities of that Sun are wonderful. The hermits and saints attach themselves to the rays of the Sun as birds attach themselves to the branches of trees. The great storms arising from the Sun spread wide in the sky. I saw once a person sitting inside that Sun who was a wonder of wonders. When that person as shining as the Sun came to him in the noon the Sun embraced him and seated him inside him. I asked him who he was. The Sun replied that he was a person who had attained heaven by Uñchavṛtti.” Hearing the advice given by the Nāga, the Brahmin engaged in Uñchavṛtti and attained heaven.
(xi) The Sun gave Subrahmaṇya shining beauty. [M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 23] .
(xii) The Sun gave the hermit Jamadagni an umbrella and slippers. (See under Cherippu).
(xiii) In olden days when a war between the Devas and the Asuras was drawing near, Rāhu wounded the Sun and the moon. Along with that the universe fell in darkness, and the asuras began to destroy the Devas. At this time according to the prayer of the gods the hermit Atri assumed the figure of the Moon and made the Sun as shining as of old. [M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 156, Stanza 2] .
(xiv) The Synonyms of Sun according to the Amarakośa are given below:-- (Sūra, Sūrya, Aryamā, Āditya, Dvadaśātmā, Divākara, Bhāskara, Ahaskara, Bradhna, Prabhākara, Vibhākara, Bhāsvān, Vivasvān, Saptāśva, Haridaśva, Uṣṇaraśmi, Vikartana, Arka, Mārtaṇḍa, Mihira, Aruṇa, Pūṣā, Dyumaṇi, Taraṇi, Mitra, Citrabhānu, Virocana, Viśvāvasu, Grahapati, Tviṣāmpati, Aharpati, Bhānu, Haṁsa, Sahasrāṁśu, Savitā, Tapana, Ravi, Padmākṣa, Tejas- āṁrāśi, Chāyānātha, Tamisrahā, Karmasākṣī, Jagaccakṣus, Lokabandhu, Trayītanu, Pradyotana, Dinamaṇi, Khadyota, Lokabāndhava, Ina, Bharga, Dhāmanidhi, Aṁśumālī and Abjinīpati.
SŪRYA II   An asura (demon). It is stated in [Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 26] , that this asura was the son born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Kadrū. The King Darda was the rebirth of this asura.

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
 m  The sun.
हा सूर्य आणि हा जयद्रथ   This is the hour and this is the man! Behold the conjunction of the two particulars required.

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