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A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
वेद  m. 1.m. (fr.1.विद्q.v.) knowledge, true or sacred knowledge or lore, knowledge of ritual, [RV.]; [AitBr.]
तैत्तिरीय-संहिता   N. of certain celebrated works which constitute the basis of the first period of the Hindū religion (these works were primarily three, viz. 1. the ऋग्-वेद, 2. the यजुर्-वेद [of which there are, however, two divisions See , वाजसनेयि-संहिता], 3. the साम-वेद; these three works are sometimes called collectively त्रयी, ‘the triple विद्या’ or ‘threefold knowledge’, but the ऋग्-वेद is really the only original work of the three, and much the most ancient [the oldest of its hymns being assigned by some who rely on certain astronomical calculations to a period between 4000 and 2500 B.C., before the settlement of the Āryans in India; and by others who adopt a different reckoning to a period between 1400 and 1000 B.C., when the Āryans had settled down in the Panjāb]; subsequently a fourth वेद was added, called the अथर्व-वेद, which was probably not completely accepted till after मनु, as his law-book often speaks of the three वेदs-calling them त्रयम् ब्रह्म सनातनम्, ‘the triple eternal वेद’, but only once [xi, 33] mentions the revelation made to अथर्वन् and अङ्गिरस्, without, however, calling it by the later name of अथर्व-वेद; each of the four वेदs has two distinct parts, viz. 1. मन्त्र, i.e. words of prayer and adoration often addressed either to fire or to some form of the sun or to some form of the air, sky, wind &c., and praying for health, wealth, long life, cattle, offspring, victory, and even forgiveness of sins, and 2. ब्राह्मण, consisting of विधि and अर्थ-वाद, i.e. directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the मन्त्रs were to be used and explanations of the legends &c. connected with the मन्त्रs [see ब्राह्मण, विधि], both these portions being termed श्रुति, revelation orally communicated by the Deity, and heard but not composed or written down by men [cf.[IW. 24 &c.]], although it is certain that both मन्त्रs and ब्राह्मणs were compositions spread over a considerable period, much of the latter being comparatively modern; as the वेदs are properly three, so the मन्त्रs are properly of three forms, 1. ऋच्, which are verses of praise in metre, and intended for loud recitation; 2. यजुस्, which are in prose, and intended for recitation in a lower tone at sacrifices; 3. सामन्, which are in metre, and intended for chanting at the सोम or Moon-plant ceremonies, the मन्त्रs of the fourth or अथर्व-वेद having no special name; but it must be borne in mind that the यजुर् and साम-वेद hymns, especially the latter, besides their own मन्त्रs, borrow largely from the ऋग्-वेद; the यजुर्-वेद and साम-वेद being in fact not so much collections of prayers and hymns as special prayer- and hymn-books intended as manuals for the अध्वर्यु and उद्गातृ priests respectively [see यजुर्-वेद, साम-वेद]; the अथर्व-वेद, on the other hand, is, like the ऋग्-वेद, a real collection of original hymns mixed up with incantations, borrowing little from the ऋग् and having no direct relation to sacrifices, but supposed by mere recitation to produce long life, to cure diseases, to effect the ruin of enemies &c.; each of the four वेदs seems to have passed through numerous शाखाs or schools, giving rise to various recensions of the text, though the ऋग्-वेद is only preserved in the शाकल recension, while a second recension, that of the भाष्कलs, is only known by name; a tradition makes व्यास the compiler and arranger of the वेदs in their present form: they each have an Index or अनुक्रमणी [q.v.], the principal work of this kind being the general Index or सर्वानुक्रमणी [q.v.]; out of the ब्राह्मण portion of the वेद grew two other departments of Vedic literature, sometimes included under the general name वेद, viz. the strings of aphoristic rules, called सूत्रs [q.v.], and the mystical treatises on the nature of God and the relation of soul and matter, called उपनिषद् [q.v.], which were appended to the आरण्यकs [q.v.], and became the real वेद of thinking Hindūs, leading to the दर्शनs or systems of philosophy; in the later literature the name of ‘fifth वेद’ is accorded to the इतिहासs or legendary epic poems and to the पुराणs, and certain secondary वेदs or उप-वेदs [q.v.] are enumerated; the वेदाङ्गs or works serving as limbs [for preserving the integrity] of the वेद are explained under वेदा-ङ्ग below: the only other works included under the head of वेद being the परिशिष्टs, which supply rules for the ritual omitted in the सूत्रs; in the बृहद्-आरण्यकउपनिषद् the वेदs are represented as the breathings of ब्रह्मा, while in some of the पुराणs the four वेदs are said to have issued out of the four mouths of the four-faced ब्रह्मा and in the विष्णु-पुराण the वेद and विष्णु are identified), [RTL. 7 &c.]; [IW. 5; 24 &c.]
N. of the number ‘four’ [VarBṛS.][Śrutab.]
feeling, perception, [ŚBr.]
वृत्त   = (v.l.वित्त), [L.] (cf.2.वेद).
वेद  m. 2.m. (fr.3.विद्) finding, obtaining, acquisition (See सु-व्°)
property, goods, [ĀśvGṛ.]
वेद  m. 3.m. (perhaps connected with √ 1.वे, to weave or bind together) a tuft or bunch of strong grass (कुश or मुञ्ज) made into a broom (and used for sweeping, making up the sacrificial fire &c., in rites), [AV.]MS.[Br.]; [ŚrS.]; [Mn.]
वेद  m. 4.m.N. of a pupil of आयोद, [MBh.]

वेदः [vēdḥ]   [विद्-अच् घञ् वा]
Sacred knowledge, holy learning, the scripture of the Hindus. (Originally there were only three Vedas: ऋग्वेद, यजुर्वेद and सामवेद, which are collectively called त्रयी 'the sacred triad'; but a fourth, the अथर्ववेद, was subsequently added to them. Each of the Vedas had two distinct parts, the Mantra or Samhitā and Brāhmaṇa. According to the strict orthodox faith of the Hindus the Vedas are a-pauruṣeya, 'not human compositions', being supposed to have been directly revealed by the Supreme Being, Brahman, and are called Śruti' i. e. 'what is heard or revealed', as distinguished from 'Smṛiti', i. e. 'what is remembered or is the work of human origin'; see श्रुति, स्मृति also; and the several sages, to whom the hymns of the Vedas are ascribed, are, therefore, called द्रष्टारः 'seers', and not कर्तारः or सृष्टारः 'composers'.)
A bundle of Kuśa grass; पद्माक्षमालामुत जन्तुमार्जनं वेदं च साक्षात्तप एव रूपिणौ [Bhāg. 12.8.34;] [Ms.4.36.]
 N. N. of Viṣṇu.
A part of a sacrifice (यज्ञांग).
Exposition, comment, gloss.
A metre.
Acquisition, gain, wealth (Ved).
 N. N. of the number 'four'.
The ritual (वेदयतीति वेदो विधिः); Karma-kāṇda; वेदवादस्य विज्ञानं सत्याभासमिवानृतम् [Mb.12.1.] 2 (see Nīlakaṇtha's commentary).
Smṛiti literature; आम्नायेभ्यः पुनर्वेदाः प्रसृताः सर्वतोमुखाः [Mb.12.26.9.] -Comp.
-अग्रणीः  N. N. of Sarasvatī.
-अङ्गम्   'a member of the Veda', N. of certain classes of works regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas and designed to aid in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the text and the right employment of the Mantras in ceremonials; (the Ved- āṅgas are six in number: शिक्षा कल्पो व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दसां चयः । ज्योतिषामयनं चैव वेदाङ्गानि ष़डेव तु ॥; i. e. 1 शिक्षा 'the science of proper articulation and pronunciation'; 2 छन्दस् 'the science of prosody'; 3 व्याकरण 'grammar'; 4 निरुक्त 'etymological explanation of difficult Vedic words'; 5 ज्योतिष 'astronomy'; and 6 कल्प 'ritual or ceremonical'). A peculiar use of the word 'वेदाङ्ग' in masculine gender may here be noted; वेदांश्चैव तु वेदाङ्गान् वेदान्तानि तथा स्मृतीः । अधीत्य ब्राह्मणः पूर्वं शक्तितोऽन्यांश्च संपठेत् ॥ [Bṛihadyogiyājñavalkya-Smṛti 12.34.]
-अधिगमः, -अध्ययनम्   holy study, study of the Vedas; काम्यो हि वेदाधिगमः कर्मयोगश्च वैदिकः [Ms.2.2.]
अधिपः one who presides over the Veda; ऋग्वेदाधिपतर्जीवो यजुर्वेदाधिपो भृगुः । सामवेदाधिपो भौमः शशिजोऽ- थर्ववेदपः ॥
-अध्यापकः   a teacher of the Vedas, a holy preceptor.
-अनध्ययनम्   Remissness in the Vedic study; [Ms.3.63.]
अन्तः 'the end of the Veda', an Upaniṣad (which comes at the end of the Veda). Also
-अन्तम्   (See quotation from बृहद्योगियाज्ञ- वल्क्यस्मृति under
-अङ्ग   above).
the last of the six principal Darśanas or systems of Hindu philosophy; (so called because it teaches the ultimate aim and scope of the Veda, or because it is based on theUpaniṣads which come at the end of the Veda); (this system of philosophy is sometimes called उत्तरमीमांसा being regarded as a sequel to Jaimini's पूर्वमीमांसा, but it is practically quite a distinct system; see मीमांसा. It represents the popular pantheistic creed of the Hindus, regarding, as it does, the whole world as synthetically derived from one eternal principle, the Brahman or Supreme Spirit; see ब्रह्मन् also). ˚गः, ˚ज्ञः a follower of the Vedanta philosophy.
-अन्तिन्  m. m. a follower of the Vedanta philosophy.
अभ्यासः the study of the Vedas; वेदाभ्यासो हि विप्रस्य तपः परमिहोच्यते [Ms.2.166.]
the repetition of the sacred syllableOm.
-अर्थः   the meaning of the Vedas.
-अवतारः   revelation of the Vedas.
-अश्र a.  a. quadrangular. -आदिn.,
-आदिवर्णः, -आदिवीजम्   the sacred syllable. Om.-उक्त a. scriptural, taught in the Vedas.
-उदयः  N. N. of the sun (the Sāma Veda being said to have proceeded from him).
-उदित a.  a. scriptural, ordained by the Vedas; वेदोदितं स्वकं कर्म नित्यं कुर्यादतन्द्रितः [Ms. 4.14.]
-कार   the composer of the Veda.
-कौलेयकः   an epithet of Śiva.
गर्भः an epithet of Brahman; कमण्डलुं वेदगर्भः कुशान् सप्तर्षयो ददुः [Bhāg.8.18.16.]
a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas.
-ज्ञः   a Brāhmaṇa versed in the Vedas; तथा दहति वेदज्ञः कर्मजं दोषमात्मनः [Ms.12.11.]
-त्रयम्, -त्रयी   the three Vedas collectively.
-दर्शिन् a.  a. one who discerns the sense of the Veda; तपोमध्यं बुधैः प्रोक्तं तपोऽन्तं वेददर्शिभिः [Ms.11.234.]-दृष्ट a. sanctioned by the Vedas.
निन्दकः an atheist, a heretic, an unbeliever (one who rejects the divine origin and character of the Vedas).
a Jaina or Buddhist.
-निन्दा   unbelief, heresy; [Ms.11.56.]
-पारगः   a Brāhmaṇa skilled in the Vedas.
-पुण्यम्   a merit acquired by the study of the Veda. वेदपुण्येन युज्यते [Ms.2.78.]-बाह्य a. contrary to the Veda. (-ह्यः) a sceptic. -मातृf.
 N. N. of a very sacred Vedic verse called Gāyatree q. v.
 N. N. of सरस्वती, सावित्री and गायत्री; सूतश्च मातरिश्वा वै कवचं वंदमातरः [Mb.5.179.4.]
-भूतिः   (embodiment of the Veda) an honourable title before the names of learned Brāhmaṇas.
-वचनम्, -वाक्यम्   a Vedic text.-वदनम् grammar.
-वादः   see वेदः (1); तदुक्तं वेदवादेषु गहनं वेददर्शिभिः [Mb.12.238.11] (com.); Vedic discussion; यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः । वेदवादरताः [Bg. 2.42.]
-वासः   a Brāhmaṇa.
-वाह्य a.  a. contrary to, or not founded on, the Veda.
-विद्  m. m.
-वद्वस् a.  a. conversant with the Vedas; ब्राह्मणान् वेदविदुषो यज्ञार्थं चैव दक्षिणाम् [Ms. 11.4.]
-विहित a.  a. enjoined by the Vedas.
-व्यासः   an epithet of Vyāsa who is regarded as the 'arranger' of the Vedas in their present form; see व्यास.
-शास्त्रम्   the doctrine of the Vedas; [Ms.4.26.]
-श्रुतिः   Vedic revelation.
-संन्यासः   givig up the ritual of the Vedas.-संमत,
-संमित a.  a. sanctioned by the Vedas.

Shabda-Sagara | sa  en |   | 
वेद  m.  (-दः)
1. A Veda, the generic term for the sacred writings or scripture of the Hindus; supposed to have been revealed by BRAHMĀ, and after being preserved by tradition for a consider- able period, to have been arranged in the present from by VYĀSA; the principle Vedas are three in number, the RICH, YAJUS, and SĀMA, to which a fourth, the ATHARVA, is usually added, and the ITIHĀSA and PURĀNAS, or ancient history and mythology, are sometimes considered as a fifth. The Vedas are regarded as a direct revelation from the deity and are called Śhruti, (what is heard,) to distinguish them from Smritī or sacred lore of human origin; the several sages to whom verses or hymns of the Vedas are ascribed are regarded as seers. (द्रष्टारः) and not as composers, (स्रष्टारः)
2. Metre.
3. Gloss, comment, explanation.
4. Knowledge. 5. VISHṆU.
E. विद् to know, (duty and religion from it,) aff. घञ् .

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
A Veda, the generic term for the sacred writings of the Hindús; supposed to have been revealed by Brahmá, and, after being preserved by tradition for a considerable period, to have been arranged in their present form by Vyása. The principal Vedas are three, the ऋच्, यजुस, & साम; to these a fourth, the अथर्व, is added; and the Itihás and Purán̤s, or ancient history and mythology, are sometimes considered as a fifth. वेद pl हरणें g. of s. To be foiled in all one's schemings and plannings and clever contrivings; to be at one's wits' end. A phrase agreeing with तंत्र हरणें or तंत्र मंत्र हरणें.
vṛnda n S An assemblage or a multitude, a numerous company or a large collection or heap. 2 A term applied to any eminently great personage, to one conspicuous for learning, talents, riches &c.

 न. कपट ; कारस्थान . म्हणोन ईश्वर पाप भृत्याचें । वेद दवडील लोकनिंदेचें । - मुआदि १६ . १४८ . [ सं . वेध ]
पुअव . १ भारतीयांचे पवित्र आद्य धर्मग्रंथ ; श्रुति ; जगांतील अत्यंत प्राचीन वाङ्‍मय . वेद चार आहेत . ऋग्वेद , यजुर्वेद , सामवेद व अथर्ववेद . यांतील मूळचे तीन हे मुख्य वेद होत आणि इतिहास व पुराणें यांना पांचवा वेद म्हणण्यांत येतें २ ज्ञान . ३ ( महारांत ) मंगलाष्टकें . - बदलापूर १६९ . - वि . चार ही संख्या . दोन अक्षौहिणी पांडवदळ । वेदअक्षौहिणी हें त्याचें बळ । - जै ८३ . २७ . [ सं . वेद ; विद् ‍ - जाणणें ] एखाद्याचे वेद हरणें - सर्व युक्त्त्या , बेत इ० फसून कर्तव्यमूढ होणें ; कांहींएक मार्ग न सुचणें ; तंत्रमंत्र हरणें .
 न. १ सभा ; समाज ; मंडळी ; जमाव ; मनुष्यादिकांचा समुदाय . देवा संतवृंद नमस्कारिजे । कां घडे तरी पूजिजे । - ज्ञा २ . ३३ . २ मोठी रास ; ढीग . ३ नांवाजलेला , प्रसिध्द मनुष्य ; प्रस्थ ( जाडा विद्वान - सावकार इ० ). [ सं . ]
 पु. ( प्र . ) वेध ; नाद ; छंद . अखंड हरिकथेचा छंदु । सकळांस लागे नामवेदु । - दा १९ . ६ . १८ . [ वेध ] वेदणें - क्रि . ( महानु . ) मोहून जाणें . ( प्र . ) वेधणें पहा . एक वेदुनी म्हणती देवातें द्यावी रुकुमीणी । - धवळेपू ४२ . २ .
०गायन   वादन - न . ज्या गायनांत - वादनांत गाणार्‍या - वाजविणार्‍या व्यक्ती एकापेक्षां जास्त असतात तें .
०त्रय  न. ऋग्वेद , यजुर्वेद व सामवेद . - ज्ञा ७ . ८४ . त्रयी - स्त्री . १ धर्म , अर्थ व काम ह्यांचा समुच्चय . २ संहिता , ब्राह्मण व आरण्यकें मिळून होणारे ग्रंथ . ३ ऋग्वेद , यजुर्वेद व सामवेद हे तीन वेद .
०निंदक  पु. वेदांची निंदा करणारा ; बौध्द , जैन इ० अन्य धर्मीय मनुष्य .
०नर्तन  न. सामुदायिक नाच .
०पद्य  न. वेदवाक्य ; वेदांतील ऋचा . घुमघुमिती घोषा । वेदपद्यांचा । - ज्ञा १५ . १८८ .
०संगीत  न. सामुदायिक गायन . ह्या गायनपध्दतीमध्यें स्त्रीपुरुषांची मिसळ असते . वृन्दसंगीताचा परिपाठ फार प्राचीन आहे . - ज्ञाको ( व ) २२६ . वृंदी - स्त्री . समुदाय ; वृंद . घडलें जें आसुरिया दोषवृंदी । - ज्ञा १६ . २८० .
०पुरुष  पु. वेदरूपी पुरुष ; वेद . वेदपुरुष तरि नेती कां वचन । निवडूनि भिन्न दाखविलें । - तुगा १६५३ .
०प्रतिपाद्य वि.  वेदाच्या प्रतिपादनाचा असणारा ( विषय ). ॐ नमो जी आद्या । वेदप्रतिपाद्या । - ज्ञा १ . १ .
०मुख वि.  वेद तोंडपाठ येत असलेला ; चांगलें वेदपठण केलेला .
०मूर्ति  स्त्री. ( मूर्तिमंत वेद ) वेदविद्यासंपन्न , विद्वान् ‍ भिक्षुक , शास्त्री इ० च्या नांवामागें लावण्याची सन्मानदर्शक पदवी .
०रक्षण  न. वेदांचा प्रतिपाळ . हा ब्राह्मणांचा आचार मानला आहे .
०लोक   लोकु - पु . वेद आणि जग किंवा वेद हेंच जग ; श्रुतिशास्त्र . तो गा मी निरुपाधिकु । क्षराक्षरोत्तमु एकु । म्हणोनि म्हणे वेदलोकु । पुरुषोत्तमु । - ज्ञा १५ . ५५७ .
०वती  स्त्री. पृथ्वी ; वेद ( अन्न ) युक्त पृथ्वी . जयाचेनि सौरभ्ये जीवित जोडे । वेदवतीये । - ज्ञा ११ . २२४ .
०वाक्य  न. १ वेदश्रुतिसंहिता ; वेदांतील वचन . वेदवाक्यांतून आगगाडी , तारायंत्र काढण्याचा प्रयत्न जितका असमंजस ... - टिले ४ . ५२ . २ ज्याच्या प्रामाण्याला निराळा आधार लागत नाहीं असें वेदांतील वाक्य . ३ ( ल . ) प्रमाण वचन .
०वादरत वि.  वेदांतील अर्थवादांमध्यें मग्न असलेला . म्हणोनि हे पार्था । दुर्बुध्दि देख सर्वथा । तयां वेदवादरतां । मनीं वसे । - ज्ञा २ . २५५ .
०विद् वि.  वेद जाणणारा ; विद्वान् ‍ - ज्ञा ८ . १०३ . [ सं . ]
‍ वि.  वेद जाणणारा ; विद्वान् ‍ - ज्ञा ८ . १०३ . [ सं . ]
०शास्त्रसंपन्न वि.  वेदमूर्ति शास्त्रपुराणादि जाणणार्‍या प्रतिष्ठित ब्राह्मणाच्या नांवापूर्वी कागदोपत्रीं लिहावयाची पदवी . याचा संक्षेप वे० शा० सं० असा करतात .
०सार  न. वेदांचें सार किंवा रहस्य ; वेदांचें सार असलेली देवता . जयजय जगद्वंद्या वेदसारा । वेदांगें - नअव . वेदानुषंगी शास्त्र ; वेदांचाच भाग म्हणून गणलेलें शास्त्र ; उपवेद . हींअंगें सहा आहेत . शिक्षा , कल्प , व्याकरण , छंद , ज्योतिष व निरुक्त . षडंगें पहा . [ वेद + अंग ] वेदांत - पु . ( वेदांच्या अंतीं असलेला ) वेदांचें सार . १ ब्रह्मज्ञान सांगणारा वेदानंतरचा भाग ; उपनिषदें ; उत्तरमीमांसा ; षड्‍दर्शनांतील सहावें दर्शन ; उपनिषदांतील तत्त्वज्ञान . वेदांतु तो महारसु । मीदकु भिरवे । - ज्ञा १ . ११ . - एभा १७ . ४० . २ प्रपंचाचें ऐहिक सुखदुःखांचें मिथ्यात्व आणि ब्रह्माचें सत्यत्व प्रतिपादिणारी साधुसंत , हरिदास इ० सांगतात ती गोष्ट ; उपदेश ; ब्रह्मज्ञान . ३ ब्रह्म हेंच सत्य आहे ; बाकी जग मिथ्या आहे असें सांगून ईश्वराच्या सच्चिदानंद स्वरूपाचें निरूपण करणारें मत ; जीवात्मा आणि परमात्मा यांचें ऐक्य दाखविणारें अद्वैतमत . वेदांताचे द्वैत , अद्वैत व विशिष्टाद्वैत असे मुख्य तीन पंथ आहेत . [ वेद + अंत ] वेदांती - वि . १ उपनिषदांतील ब्रह्मज्ञान अभ्यासणारा किंवा त्याप्रमाणें वागणारा ; ब्रह्मज्ञानी ; वेदांतमताचा . २ ज्ञानमार्गी ; ज्ञानकांडप्रतिपादक . याच्या उलट धादांती . - गीर २८७ . म्ह० वेदांत्यापेक्षां धादांती बरा . वेदाध्ययन - न . वेदपठण ; वेद शिकणें . पंचमहायज्ञांतील एक यज्ञ . - गीर २८८ . [ वेद + अध्ययन ] वेदाभ्यास - पु . १ वेदांचें अध्ययन ; वेदपठन . २ ॐ काराचा जप . [ वेह + अभ्यास ] वेदाज्ञा - स्त्री . वेदानें सांगितलेलें कर्तव्य ; वेदाची आज्ञा ; वेदवचन . [ वेद + आज्ञा ] वेदोक्त - वि . १ वेदांत कर्तव्य म्हणून सांगितलेलें . २ वेदमंत्रोच्चारपूर्वक . ३ ( ल . ) वेदमंत्रोच्चारपूर्वक करावयाचा ( धर्मविधि ). याच्या उलट पुराणोक्त . बगंभट , तुला काय काय वेदोक्त करतां येतें ? - तोबं ६१ . वेदोक्तकर्म - न . वेदोक्त ; वेदोक्त मंत्रानें करावयाचा गृह्यसंस्कार . जुन्या शास्त्रांप्रमाणें हा अधिकार फक्त त्रैवर्णिकांना असे . अलीकडे इंग्रजीविद्येनें व पाश्चिमात्य शिक्षणाने संस्कृत झालेल्या मराठे मंडळीच्या मनांत जीं कांहीं खुळें शिरलीं आहेत त्यांपैकींच वेदोक्तकर्माचें खूळ एक होय . - टिले ४ . ३१६ . वेदोदित - वि . वेदोक्त पहा . [ वेद + उदित ] वेदोनारायण - पु . १ वेदस्वरूपी परमेश्वर . वेदविद्यासंपन्न ब्राह्मणाला सन्मानद्योतक लावावयाची पदवी . [ सं . ]

वेद n.  भृगुकुलोत्पन्न एक मंत्रकार। पाठभेद (वायुपुराण) - ‘विद’।
वेद II. n.  एक ऋषि, जो धौम्य ऋषि का शिष्य, एवं जनमेजय का उपाध्याय था [म. आ. ३.७९-८५] । इसे ‘बैद’ नामान्तर भी प्राप्त था । इसके शिष्य का नाम उत्तंक था । एक बार यह परदेश गया था, जिस समय अपने घर की एवं पत्नी की रक्षा करने के लिए इसने उत्तंक को कहा था । यह कार्य उत्तम प्रकार से निभाने के कारण इसने उत्तंक को अनेकानेक आशीर्वाद प्रदान किये। अपनी शिक्षा समाप्त होने के पश्र्चात्, उत्तंक ने इसकी पत्नी को पौष्य राजा की पत्नी के कुण्डल गुरुदक्षिणा के रूप में प्रदान किये (उत्तंक देखिये) ।
वेद III. n.  एक शिवभक्त राजा, जो सिंधुद्वीप राजा का भाई था ।

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
VEDA   The sun of the hermit Ayodhadhaumya. (For further details see under Ayodhadhaumya).
VEDA (S)   
1) Introduction.
The root ‘Vid’ in Sanskrit means ‘to know’. The books composed of the knowledge of the Āryans, collected and compiled were called the Vedas.
2) The origin and importance of the Vedas.
It is said that Brahmā was the creator of the Vedas. Many say that, for the performance of sacrifices Brahmā created from Agni (fire), Vāyu (Wind) and Ravi (the Sun), the three Vedas Ṛg, Yajus and Sāman which are eternal and in accordance with regulations. The Vedas have two sides, the spiritual and the mundane. Moreover all the explanations of the Vedas from the Brāhmaṇas to the Bhāṣya of Sāyaṇa, pertain to sacrifices. The literary meaning of Veda is mundane. Considering these two points and the facts that they are religious books and that they reveal the mental and social outlooks of the early Āryans, and as the origin of all the thoughts of Indians, all the Vedas, especially Ṛgveda, hold a lofty place.
3) Parts of the Vedas.
Mahāviṣṇu incarnated as Vyāsa in Dvāpara Yuga and divided the Vedas. The first Veda consisted of four pādas and a hundred thousand granthas. Vyāsa divided it into four parts known as, Ṛgveda, Yajurveda, Sāmaveda and Atharvaveda. The sage and seer Vyāsa thus created by Ṛg, “Hautra” (a collection of lyrics in praise of different Gods, to be recited by the priest styled the ‘hotṛ’), by Yajus “Ādhvaryava”, (a book of sacrificial prayer, of prose formulas to be uttered by the ‘Adhvaryu’ priest, who performed the manual work involved in a sacrifice), by Sāman, “Audgātra”, (Songs meant to be sung at the Soma sacrifice by a special class of priests ‘Udgātṛ’) and by Atharva “Brahmatva”, (a collection of songs, spells and incantations, for the healing of disease, the restoration of harmony, the exorcism of evil spirits and to celebrate the power and omniscience of God) and established them separately. Paila, a scholar in Ṛgveda, and a disciple of Vyāsa, gave the original Veda to Indrapramiti and its Saṁhitā (collections) to Bāṣkala as gifts. Bāṣkala divided the Saṁhitā into four, and gave each of them to Baudhya and others. [Yajurveda] was divided into twentyfour branches. They were composed by Vaiśampāyana of extraordinary intelligence, a disciple of Vyāsa. Kāṇḍas (Chapters) such as Vājasaneya etc. were composed later by hermits such as Yājñavalkya and others in the form of Smṛtis (tradition, as handing down only the tradition derived from ancient sages, to whom the Vedas were ‘revealed’). Jaimini the disciple of Vyāsa, divided Sāmaveda into different branches. Sumantu and Sukarmā compiled separate Saṁhitās (collections) from them. Sukarmā composed thousand Saṁhitās. Sumantu the disciple of Vyāsa took the Atharvaveda and taught it to thousands of Paippalāda disciples. By the blessings of Vyāsa, Sūta made the Purāṇa Saṁhitā (the collection of Purāṇas). [Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 150].
4) Branches af the Vedas.
It has already been mentioned that the Vedas are four in number called Ṛg, Yajus, Sāma and Atharva. Each of these Vedas has branches called Saṁhitās (collections) and Brāhmaṇas (treatises relating to prayer and sacrificial ceremony). Āraṇyakas are appendices to the Brāhmaṇas. Upaniṣads (secret or esoteric doctrines) are appendices of the Āraṇyakas. Thus each of the Vedas has Saṁhitās, Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads. All these are, in a way, expositions of the Vedas. In all these expositions there are numberless Sūktas. All these taken together are called Vedic literature. In the Saṁhitās there are lyrics in praise of different gods. All these are spells and incantations (mantras) in the form of songs. The under-currents of all these spells are Vedas and stories from the Vedas. Generally speaking the Brāhmaṇas contain prose texts giving practical observations on sacrifice which are mentioned in the songs of praise. Here and there stories from Purāṇas and epics occur. The Āraṇyakas (forest-texts) got that name, because they are books of instruction to be given in the forest or writings meant for wood-dwelling hermits. As they contained esoteric spells and incantations which might cause injury even to those who were not concerned with them instruction in them was not given in towns or villages. The contents of the Āraṇyakas are the allegorical signification of the rites and sacrifices and the mystic meaning of the Vedas. It has been mentioned that the Upaniṣads are appendices of the Āraṇyakas. Still there is not much difference between the two and hence they cannot be separated from one another so easily. The Upaniṣads are called Vedāntas, (The aim and completion of the Vedas), because they are the end of the Vedas. The Vedāntas belong to the later period of the Vedic age. Instruction in Vedāntas was given only after completing the study of the mantras (Vedas) and the Brāhmaṇas. The Upaniṣads contain philosophical speculations about the conception of Brahman and the Vedas. The word Veda includes the Vedāṅgas also. Vedāṅgas (Ancillaries of the Vedas) are Śikṣā (phonetics), Vyākaraṇa (grammar), Chandas (metrics), Nirukta (etymology), Joytiṣa (astronomy), and Kalpa (ritual). At first instruction is given in the study of Brahman and the study of Vedas. When more discussions and expositions on them are needed, the study of Brāhmaṇas and Āraṇyakas are resorted to. In course of time the Brāhmaṇas and Āraṇyakas, which contain discussions and expositions of the Vedas became independent branches of study under these names. That is why they contain mainly prose texts. There are one lakh of mantras or spells and incantations in all the four Vedas taken together. They are for blessing everybody and to make the four objects of life easily attainable. Sāṅkhyāyana and Āśvalāyana sorted and grouped the mantras. Accordingly there are two thousand one hundred and ten mantras known as Brāhmaṇas. Dvaipāyana and other hermits have stated the number of granthas (verses) in Ṛgveda. It is said that there are one thousand nine hundred and ninety nine mantras in [Yajurveda]. There are one thousand eightysix branches also. The branches in Yajus are known by the names Kāṇvī, Mādhyandinī, Kaṭhī, Madhyakaṭhī, Maitrāyaṇī, Taittirīya, Vaiśampāyanikā and so on. In Sāma Veda there are branches such as Kauthumī, Ātharvaṇāyinī and so on; and songs such as Āraṇyakam, Uktham, Ūham and son on. The number of Sāmavedic verses are nine thousand four hundred and twentyfive. Sumantu, Jañjali, Ślokāyani, Śaunaka, Pippalāda, Muñjakeśa and such others were responsible for the sorting and grouping of the mantras in the Atharvaveda. Altogether there are one thousand six hundred Upaniṣads. [Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 271].
5) Expositions of the Vedas.
The religion of the Āryans became an established one when Vyāsa had created the Vedasaṁhitās. The aim of Vyāsa was to bring about uniformity in the religious observances by performing rites and rituals, religious ceremonies such as sacrifices etc. without any flaw. Following this a very wide Vedic literature grew up. The study of the Vedas, critical review of meaning, the connection between mantras and tantras (Chants and rituals), Grammar, etymology, all these became inevitable. As the Vedas could be looked at from different points of view, from very early days, various types of expositions of the Vedas came out. Seven types of commentaries, Nairukta, Yājñika, Vaiyākaraṇa Jyautiṣa, Sāmpradāyika Ādhyātmika, Aitihāsika (pertaining to etymology, sacrifice, grammar astronomy, customs of a tribe, Brāhma or Spiritual legends and ancient lore) were the prominent among them. When the westerners began research work in the Vedas, another branch of literature also took form, known as the Āgamikas (the historical). Even in the time of Yāska, who was an authority on Nirukta (etymology) the Vedas were expounded on the basis of legends and ancient lore. Hints to this effect are seen in Yāska's works. Mention is made about other types of expositions also, in them. The last book of importance in the Sāmpradāyika type of exposition, was Vedārthaprakāśa, of Sāyaṇa. But the commentary of Skandasvāmī, the books Ṛgarthadipikā and Udgīthabhāṣya of Mādhavācārya etc. have spread the sāmpradāyika type of speculations in India. There is another cult in India which believes that everything seen in the Vedas is spiritual and that the spells and incantations are esoteric.
6) The gods of the Vedas.
All the gods known today are not found in the Vedas. Even those who are found do not have the prominence that is given to them now. For example, the deity Viṣṇu, worshipped as one of the three godheads today, is not as omnipotent as the Indra of the Vedas. Though Viṣṇu is praised in five spells in Ṛgveda, when compared with other deities, he was not of much prominence. In the Vedas the incarnation of Vāmana is not given much importance. Even though Rudra is a recognized deity and mention occurs about Kapardī, in the Vedas, there is not a song of praise of Śiva in the Ṛgveda. There is no mention at all, about the worship of the Phallus, Devī and so on in the Vedas. The Vedas celebrate the Omniscience of Varuṇa, Indra, Agni, Mitra, the Maruts and so on. The lustre of Indra was gradually dimmed with the efflux of time and he became a mere libertine in the Purāṇas. The importance of many deities such as Varuṇa, Agni, Mitra, Aśvin and so on was greatly diminished in the Purāṇas. Thirtythree deities pertaining to Earth, Ether and Sky are praised in the Vedas.
7) The rites concerning instruction in Vedas.
Manu has given certain instructions as to how the teaching of Vedas should be conducted.
8) The teachers of Veda.
See under Guruparamparā.
9) The period of the Vedas.
The Indians believe that the spells and incantations and the Brāhmaṇas are not manmade, but are revelations by God. So they are considered to be beginningless and endless. The hermits are considered to be seers of the spells. It is mentioned “Mantradraṣṭāraḥ na tu Kartāraḥ”. (They are seers of Mantra, not makers). In the opinion of one party, according to this maxim, it is not necessarry to search for the creators or the period of creation, of mantras. They hold that only the Sūtras (thread, clue, guide, rule, aphorism) are made by man. The westerners and the modern thinkers of India do not agree completely with this view. They believe that the early Āryans who entered India, first settled down in the Punjab and that the local civilization which they had assumed, broke out as songs of praise. In course of time, these songs of Praise took the form of Ṛgveda mantras (saying, song, formula). In the beginning there was only one Veda. Many believe that this state continued up to B.C. 1500. It is a fact universally acknowledged, that this Vedic literature is the most ancient literature of the world. There is difference of opinion as to the period of origin of this Vedic literature. Prof. Macdonell and Prof. Jacobi are foremost among those who have made their opinions. In the opinion of Prof. Macdonell, the Vedic literature originated in the period between B.C. 1500 and 1200. But Jacobi's opinion is that all the Vedas were made before B.C. 4000.

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
 m  The Hindu Scriptures.
  An assemblage or a multitude.

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