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सीता

A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
सीता  f. f. (less correctly written शीता; cf.सीम॑न्, सीर) a furrow, the track or line of a ploughshare (also personified, and apparently once worshipped as a kind of goddess resembling Pomona; in [RV. iv, 57, 6], सीता is invoked as presiding over agriculture or the fruits of the earth; in [VS. xii, 69-72], सीता ‘the Furrow’ is again personified and addressed, four furrows being required to be drawn at the ceremony when the above stanzas are recited; in [TBr.] she is called सावित्री, and in [PārGṛ.]इन्द्र-पत्नी, ‘the wife of इन्द्र’; in epic poetry is the wife of रामचन्द्र and daughter of जनक, king of मिथिला, capital of विदेह, who was otherwise called सीरध्वज; she was named सीता because fabled to have sprung from a furrow made by जनक while ploughing the ground to prepare it for a sacrifice instituted by him to obtain progeny, whence her epithet अयोनि-जा, ‘not womb-born’; her other common names, मैथिली and वैदेही, are from the place of her birth; according to one legend she was वेदवतीq.v., in the कृत age; accord. to others she was an incarnation of लक्ष्मि and of उमा; the story of राम's bending the bow, which was to be the condition of the gift of सीता, is told in [R. i, 67]; सीता's younger sister उर्मिला was at the same time given to लक्ष्मण, and two nieces of जनक, daughters of his brother king कुश-ध्वज, to भरत and शत्रुघ्न), [RV.] &c. &c., [IW. 335 n. 1; 337 &c.]
N. of a form of दाक्षायणी, [Cat.]
of a poetess, [Cat.]
of a river, [MBh.]; [R.] &c.
of the eastern branch of the four mythical branches of the heavenly Ganges (into which it is supposed to divide after falling on mount मेरु; this branch is fabled to flow into the वर्ष or द्वीप called भद्राश्व), [L.]
of an उपनिषद्, [Cat.]
spirituous liquor, [W.]

सीता [sītā]   [सि-त पृषो˚ दीर्घः]
A furrow, track or line of a ploughshare.
(Hence) A tilled or furrowed ground, ploughed land; वृषेव सीतां तदवग्रहक्षताम् [Ku.5.61.]
Husbandry, agriculture; as in सीताद्रव्य q. v.
 N. N. of the daughter of Janaka, king of Mithilā, and wife of Rāma.; जनकानां कुले कीर्तिमाहरिष्यति मे सुता । सीता भर्तार- मासाद्य रामं दशरथात्मजम् ॥ [Rām.1.67.22.] [She was so called because she was supposed to have sprung from a furrow made by king Janaka while ploughing the ground to prepare it for a sacrifice which he had instituted to obtain progeny, and hence also her epithets, 'Ayonijā', 'Dharāputrī' &c. She was married to Rāma and accompanied him to the forest. While there she was once carried off by Rāvaṇa who tried to violate her chastity, but she scornfully rejected his suit. When Rāma came to know that she was in Lankā, he attacked ther place, killed Rāvaṇa and his host of demons, and recovered Sītā. She had, however, to pass through the terrible ordeal of fire before she could be received by her husband as his wife. Though thus convinced of her chastity, he had afterwards to abandon her, when far advanced in pregnancy, because the people continued to suspect her fidelity. She however, found a protector in the sage Vālmīki, at whose hermitage she was delivered of Kuśa and Lava, and who brought them up. She was ultimately restored to Rāma by the sage.]
 N. N. of a goddess, wife of Indra.
 N. N. of Umā
N of Lakṣmī.
 N. N. of one of the four fabulous branches (the eastern branch) of the Ganges.
Spirituous liquor. -Comp.
-अध्यक्षः   superintendent of agriculture.
-द्रव्यम्   implements of agriculture, tools of husbandry; सीताद्रव्यापहरणे शस्त्राणा- मौषधस्य च [Ms.9.293.]
-पतिः  N. N. of Rāmachandra.
-फलः   the custard-apple tree. (-लम्) its fruit.

Shabda-Sagara | sa  en |   | 
सीता  f.  (-ता)
1. A furrow, the track of the plough-share.
2. The daughter of JANAKA and wife of RĀMACHANDRA, so named because fabled to have sprung from a furrow made by Janaka while ploughing the ground to prepare it for a sacrifice instituted by him to obtain progeny.
3. One of the four great branches into which the Ganges, after having fallen on mount Meru, is fabled to divide: the eastern branch, flowing into the Varsha Bhadrāswa.
4. The goddess LAKSHMĪ.
5. UMĀ, the wife of ŚIVA.
6. A goddess, wife of Indra, presiding over fruits, &c., an Indian FLORA or POMONA.
7. Spirituous liquor.
8. Husban- dry.
E. षि to bind, (the earth,) क्त aff., form irr; it is then appli- cable to the princess as having been turned up in the soil by a plough-share; and to the goddesses, as they may be sup- posed to have been incarnate in the wife of RĀMĀ; also, as differently derived शीता, q. v.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
Give up Sítá or stand up to fight--compliance or war. A phrase expressive of the proposal of hard alternatives.

 स्त्री. १ रामपत्नी ; रामायणांतील नायिका ; पंच कन्यांपैकीं एक . २ स्वर्गातून मेरूपर्वतावर पडल्यानंतर गंगेचे जे चार प्रवाह झाले त्यांपैकी पूर्वेचा प्रवाह . बाकीचे तीन म्हणजे अलकनंदा , भद्रा व चक्षु ३ वृक्ष , वनस्पतिदेवता . ४ ( सांकेतिक ) अर्धा रुपाया , अधेली . [ सं . ] म्ह० १ सीता कीं संग्राम =( सीता दे किंवा लढण्यास सिध्द हो असा रावणास रामाचा निरोप ) कठिण अटी असल्यावेळीं हा प्रयोग वापरतात . २ ( व . ) सीता गेली वनवासा , मला लागली कर्कशा = चांगली गेली व कैदाशीण आली .
०चवरी  स्त्री. चवरी ( वनस्पती ) चा एक प्रकार .
०देवी  स्त्री. पीक काढतांना महारासाठीं तसाच राखून ठेवलेला पिकाचा भाग . कांहीं ठिकाणीं खळयावरची रास नेल्यानंतर तेथेम जें धान्य राहतेम त्याला म्हणतात . या धान्यावर महाराचा हक्क असतो .
०फळ   फळी - स्त्री . न . एक फळझाड व त्याचें फळ . सीतेचा पोल्हारा - एक प्रकारची मोठी कवडी ; कवडा . सीतेचे पोहे - न . एका जातीच्या गवताचें बी .

सीता (वैदेही) n.  विदेह देश के सीरध्वज जनक राजा की कन्या, जो इक्ष्वाकुवंशीय राम दाशरथि राजा की पत्‍नी थी ।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  जिस काल में बहुपत्‍नीकत्व रूढि क्षत्रिय समाज में प्रतिष्ठित थी, उस समय एकपत्‍नीकत्व का नया आदर्श राम दशरथि राजा के रूप में वाल्मीकि ने अपने ‘वाल्मीकि रामायण’ के द्वारा प्रस्थापित किया (राम दशरथि देखिये) । उसके साथ ही साथ एकपत्‍नीकत्व के व्रत का आचरण करनेवाले क्षत्रिय के पत्‍नी को किस प्रकार वर्तन करना चाहिए, इसका आदर्श वाल्मीकि ने सीता के रूप में चित्रित किया । इसी कारण राम दाशरथि के साथ सीता भारतीय स्त्री जाति के सतीत्व, एकनिष्ठा एवं पवित्रता की ज्वलंत एवं साकार प्रतिमा बन कर अमर हो गयी है ।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  वाल्मीकि रामायण में सीता के स्वरूप का अत्यंत काव्यमय वर्णन प्राप्त है, जहाँ इसे पूर्णचंद्रवदना, अपनी प्रभा से सभी दिशाओं को प्रकाशित करनेवाली [वा. रा. सुं. १५.२७-३९]; कोमलांगिनी, शुद्धस्वर्णवर्णा [वा. रा. अर. ४३.१-२]; लक्ष्मी एवं रति का प्रतिरूपा, नखशिख सौंदर्यमयी [वा. रा. अर. ४६.१६, २२] कहा गया है । इसके अप्रतीम सौंदर्य के संबंध में स्वयं रावण कहता है--नैव देवी न गंधर्वा न यक्षी नच किन्नरी। नैवंरूपा मया नारी दृष्टपूर्वा महीतले॥ [वा. रा. अर. ४६.२३] । (सीता के समान सौंदर्यवती स्त्री मैं ने इस धरती पर देव, गंधर्व, यक्ष, किन्नर आदि में कहीं भी नहीं देखी है ।)
सीता (वैदेही) n.  यद्यपि यह सीरध्वज जनक की कन्या मानी जाती है, फिर भी यह उसकी अपनी कन्या न थी । वाल्मीकि रामायण में इसका जन्म भूमि से बताया गया है, एवं इसके जन्म के संबंधी निम्नलिखित कथा वहाँ दी गयी है । एक दिन जनका राजा यज्ञभूमि तैयार करने के लिए हल चला रहा था, उस समय एक छोटीसी कन्या मिट्टी से निकली। उसने इसे पुत्री के रूप में ग्रहण किया, एवं उसका नाम सीता रखा [वा. रा. वा. ६६.१३-१५] । सीता का यह अवतार उत्तरा फाल्गुनी नक्षत्र में हुआ। रे. बुल्के के अनुसार भूमिजा सीता की अलौकिक जन्म कथा सीता नामक कृषि की अधिष्ठात्री देवी के प्रभाव से उत्पन्न हुई थी । सीता का शब्दशः अर्थ ‘हल से खींची हुई रेखा’ होता है । अतएव भूमि में हल चलाते समय इसके निकलने के कारण इसे सीता नाम प्राप्त हुआ होगा । संभव है, किसी निश्चित कुलपरंपरा के अभाव में ऐतिहासिक राजकुमारी सीता की जन्मकथा पर कृषि के अधिष्ठात्री देवी के व्यक्तित्व का प्रभाव पड़ा हो।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  इसके जन्म के संबंध में अन्य आख्यायिकाएँ विभिन्न रामायण ग्रंथों में एवं पुराणों में प्राप्त है, जो निम्नप्रकार हैः-- (१) अग्निजा सीता---‘आनंद रामायण’ (१५ वी शताब्दी) के अनुसार इसके पिता का नाम पद्माक्ष दिया गया है । पद्माक्ष राजा ने लक्ष्मी को पुत्रीरूप में पाने के लिए विष्णु की उपासना की। विष्णु ने उसे महालिंग दिया, जिससे एक सुंदर कन्या निकली, जिसका नाम पद्मा रखा गया । पद्मा के स्वयंवर के समय, दैत्यों ने स्वयंवर मंडप ध्वस्त किया, एवं पद्माक्ष राजा का संपूर्ण विनाश हो कर वह स्वयं भी मारा गया । यह देख कर पद्मा ने अग्नि में प्रवेश किया । इसकी खोज के लिए दैत्यों ने बड़ी खोज बीन की, किन्तु इसका कहीं पता न चला। एक बार यह अग्निकुंड से बाहर का कर बैठी थी, तब विमान से जानेवाले रावण ने इसे देखा, एवं वह कामातुर हो कर इसकी और दौड़ा। उसे आता हुआ देख कर यह फिर अग्नि में प्रविष्ट हुई। इसे ढूँढने के लिए रावण ने समस्त यज्ञकुड खोद डाला, जिससे इसे जीवित सीता तो न मिली, किन्तु इसीका ही एक जड़ रूप पाँच रत्‍नों के रूप में प्राप्त हुआ।इन रत्‍नों को एक पेटिका में बन्द कर रावण लंका में गया, एवं उसे अपनी पत्‍नी मंदोदरी के हाथ सौंप दिया । वहाँ पेटिका खोलते ही पद्मा अपने मूल कन्यारूप में प्रकट हुई। इस पर पद्माक्ष के सारे कुल कए एवं राज्य का विनाश करनेवाली इस कन्या को लंका से बाहर छोड़ देनेकी प्रार्थना रावण ने मंदोदरी से की। मंदोदरी की इस प्रार्थना के अनुसार रावण ने इस कन्या को पुनः एक बार पेटिका में बंद किया, एवं वह पेटिका मिथिला में गड़वा दी। पेटिका में बन्द करने के पूर्व इसने रावण को शाप दिया, ‘मैं तुम्हारा एवं तुम्हारे सारे परिवार का नाश करने के लिए लंका में फिर आउँगी’। पश्चात् मिथिला के एक ब्राह्मण को जमीन पर हल चलाते समय वही पेटिका प्राप्त हुई, जो उसने राजधन मान कर जनक राजा को सुपुर्द किया । उस पेटिका से निकली हुई कन्या को जनक ने बेटी के रूप में पाला, एवं उसका नाम सीता रख दिया । मातुलिंग से निलकने के कारण, इसे ‘मातुलिंगी’; रत्न में होने के कारण ‘रत्‍नावलि’; धरणी से निकलने के कारण ‘धरणीजा’; जनक के द्वारा पाले जाने के कारण ‘जानकी’; जमीन से निकलने के कारण ‘अग्निजा’; एवं पूर्वजन्म के नाम के कारण ‘पद्मा’ आदि नामान्तर प्राप्त हुए [आ. रा. ७.३];[ भावार्थ रा. १.१५] ।(२) रक्तजा सीता---रक्तजा के रूप में सीता का जन्म होने की कथा ‘अदभुत रामायण’ में पायी जाती है । रावण जनस्थान के मुनियों पर अत्याचार करता था, एवं अपने बाणों की नोंक से ऋषियों के शरीर से रक्त निकाल कर एक मटके में जमा करता था । इसी वन में गृत्समद नामक एक ऋषि रहता था, जो लक्ष्मी के समान कन्या की इच्छा से तपस्या करता था । दर्भ के अग्रभाग से दूध को ले कर, मंत्रोच्चारण के साथ वह उसे प्रतिदिन इकठा करता था । एक दिन रावण ने गृत्समद ऋषि का मटका चुरा लिया, एवं उसमें इकठा किया दूध ऋषियों के रक्त से भरे हुए मटके में डाल दिया, एवं उसे मंदोदरी के पास रखने के लिए दिया । आगे चल कर रावण के कुकृत्यों से तंग आ कर मंदोदरी ने आत्महत्त्या के हेतु से मटके में स्थित दूधयूक्त रक्त प्राशन किया, जिससे वह गर्भवती रही। अपना यह गर्भ उसने कुरुक्षेत्र की भूमि में गाड़ दिया । उसी गर्भ से आगे चल कर सीता का जन्म हुआ, जिसे विदर्भ देश के जनक राजा ने पालपोस कर बड़ा किया [अ. रा. ८] ।(३) रावणात्मजा सीता---सीताजन्म के संबंधित सर्वाधिक प्राचीन कथा में, सीता को रावण की कन्या माना गया है । इस कथा के अनुसार रावण ने मय राक्षस की कन्या मन्दोदरी से विवाह करना चाहा। उस समय मय ने रावण से कहा कि, मन्दोदरी के जन्मजातक से मंदोदरी की पहली संतान कुलघातक उत्पन्न होनेवाली है; अतएव उस संतान का वध करना उचित होगा । मय की इस सलाह को मान कर, रावण ने अपनी प्रथमजात कन्या को पेटिका में बन्द कर जनकपुरी में गड़वा दिया । इसी कन्या ने आगे चल कर रावण के समस्त कुल का नाश कर दिया [दे. भा. ४२] । (४) जनकात्मजा सीता---महाभारत में सर्वत्र सीता को जनक राजा की अपनी कन्या माना गया है [म. व. २५८.९] । सीता के जन्मसंबंधित उपर्युक्त सारी कथाएँ कल्पनारम्य प्रतीत होती है, जिनकी रचना राम के द्वारा किया गया रावणवध गृहीत मान कर की गयी है ।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  एक बार परशुराम अपना प्रचंड शिव धनुष ले कर जनक राजा से मिलने आया । परशुराम का यह धनुष इतना बड़ा था, कि उसे ले जाने के लिए दो सौ पचास बैल जोड़ियों की शक्ति आवश्यक थी । परशुराम का यह अजस्त्र धनुष इसने सहजही उठा लिया, एवं उसे घोड़ा बनाकर यह खेलने लगी। यह देख कर इसके दैवी अंश के संबंध में परशुराम को आभास मिल गयी, एवं उसने जनक राजा को अपना धनुष दे कर आज्ञा दी, ‘जो वीर इस धनुष के तोड़ने का सामर्थ्य रखता हो, उसीके साथ ही सीता का विवाह कर देना’ [वा. रा. बा. ६६.२६];[ आ. रा. सार. ३] । परशुराम की आज्ञा के अनुसार, जनक राजा ने इसका स्वयंवर उद्घोषित किया । इस स्वयंवर में उपस्थित सारे राजा धनुष तोड़ने में असमर्थ रहे। अन्त में अयोध्या के राम दशरथि राजा ने शिवधनुष को भङ्ग कर, सीता का वरण किया [वा. रा. बा. २३]
सीता (वैदेही) n.  राम के वनवासगमन के समय, वन की भयानकता बता कर राम ने इसे अत्यधिक भयभीत किया, किन्तु ‘जहाँ राम वहाँ सीता’ ऐसे कह कर यह अपने निश्र्चय पर अटल रही [वा. रा. अयो. २६-३०] । उस समय इसने यह भी कहा कि, ज्योतिर्विदों के द्वारा बारह वर्ष के वनवास का जातक पहले ही कहा जा चुका है [वा. रा. अयो. २९.८];[ अ. रा. २.४.७६] । अपनी सारी आयु राजप्रसादों में व्यतीत करनेवाली सीता को वनवास का सारा ही जीवन अननुभूत था, यहाँ तक कि, वल्कल पहनना भी इसे न आता था । किन्तु राम के साथ ही यह वानवासिक जीवन से जल्द ही परिचित हो गयी।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  जनस्थान में रावण ने इसका धोखे से हरण किया, एवं अत्यधिक विलाप करते हुए सीता को वह लंका जे जाने लगा। रास्ते में ऋष्यमूक पर्वत पर इसने अपने उत्तरीय वस्त्र, एवं अलंकार फेंक दिये, जिससे राम को पता चल जाए कि यह हरण की गयी है । पश्चात् रावण ने इसे लंका नगरी में स्थित अशोकवन में राक्षसियों की रखवाली में रख दिया, एवं वह प्रतिदिन कामातुर हो कर अपने वश में लाने के लिए इसकी प्रार्थना करने लगा। उस समय उसेन इसे डराया, धमकाया एवं काफ़ी प्रलोभन भी दिखाये। किन्तु यह अपने सतीत्व पर अचल रही। रावण के आते ही लोकलज्जा में लिपटी हुई सीता अपने जंघाओं से अपने पेट को, एवं अपने दोनों बाहुओं से वक्षःस्थलों को ढँक देती थी [वा. रा. सुं. १९.३] । परस्त्री पर पापदृष्टि रखनेवाले रावण की इसने काफ़ी निर्भत्सना की। किन्तु रावण पर इसका कुछ भी असर न हुआ, एवं अपने राक्षसियों के द्वारा वह इसे वश में करने का प्रयत्‍न करता ही रहा।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  एक दिन सीता के शोध के लिए राम के द्वारा भेजा गया हनुमत् अशोकवन में आ पहुँचा, एवं उसने राम के द्वारा दी गयी अभिज्ञान की अँगुठी इसे दिखा कर अपना परिचय दिया । उसी समय अपने पीठ पर इसे बिठा कर, रावण के कारावास से इसे मुक्त करने की तैयारी भी हनुमत् ने दिखायी। उस समय एक क्षत्रियकुलोत्पन्न वीरस्त्री के नाते हनुमत् के इस प्रस्ताव को अस्वीकार करते हुएँ इसने कहा -- बलैः समग्रैर्यदि मां हत्वा रावणमाहवे। विजयी स्वपुरीं रामो नयेत्तत् स्याद्यशस्करम्॥ यथाहं तस्य वीरस्य वनादुपधिना हता। रक्षसा तद्भयादेव तथा नार्हति राघवः। [वा. रा. सुं. ६८.१२-१३] । (मेरे पति राम ही रावण को परास्त कर मुझे ले जाएँगे । रावण के समान लुकछिप कर मुझे ले जाना राम को, तथा उसकी कीर्ति को शोभा न देगा) ।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  युद्ध के पश्चात् राम ने विभिषण को इसे अपने पास लाने की आज्ञा दी। तदनुसार सुस्नात हुई यह मूल्यवान् वस्त्र एवं आभूषण पहन कर, एवं शिबिका में बैठ कर यह राम से मिलने गयी। वहाँ ध्यानस्थ बैठे हुए राम को इसने आगमन की वार्ता विभीषण ने सुनायी। विभिषण के पीछे-पीछे चल कर, यह लाज में लिपटी हुई अपने पति के सम्मुख गयी। किन्तु राम के चेहरे पर इसे सहानुभूति के स्थान पर कठोरता ही दिखायी दी। पश्चात् पराये घर में एक साल तक निवास करने के कारण राम ने इसको अस्वीकार करना चाहा (राम दशरथि देखिये) । राम का यह निश्र्चय सुन कर इसने अपने सतीत्व की सौगंध खायी। पश्चात् अग्निपरिक्षा के लिए इसने लक्ष्मण को चिता तैयार करने की आज्ञा दी, एवं उसमें अपना शरीर झोंक दिया । तदुपरान्त इसे हाथ में धारण कर अग्नि देवता स्वयं प्रकट हुई, एवं इसके सतीत्त्व की साक्ष दे कर इसको स्वीकार करने की आज्ञा उसने राम को दी [बा. रा. १६६.११]
सीता (वैदेही) n.  पश्चात् राम के साथ यह अयोध्या नगरी में गयी, जहाँ इसे राम के साथ राज्याभिषेक किया गया । कुछ समयोपरांत यह गर्भवती हुई, एवं इसने वनविहार की इच्छा राम से प्रकट की। उसी दिन रात को लोकापवाद के कारण राम ने इसका त्याग करने का निश्र्चय किया । दूसरे दिन सुबह राम ने लक्ष्मण को बुलाया, एवं इसे गंगा के उस पार छोड़ आने का आदेश दिया । तपोवन दिखलाने के बहाने लक्ष्मण इसे रथ पर ले गया, एवं उसने इसे वाल्मीकि के आश्रम के समीप छोड़ दिया । उस समय यह आत्महत्त्या कर के प्राणत्याग करना चाहती थी, किन्तु गर्भवती होने के कारण यह वह पापकर्म न कर सकी।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  राम के द्वारा परित्याग किये जाने पर, वाल्मीकि के आश्रम का सहारा ले कर यह वहीं रहने लगी। पश्चात् इसी आश्रम में इसने दो यमल पुत्रों को जन्म दिया, जिनके नाम वाल्मीकि के द्वारा कुश एवं लव रखे [वा. रा. उ. ६६]
सीता (वैदेही) n.  कालोपरान्त राम के द्वारा किये गये अश्वमेध यज्ञ में, इसके पुत्र कुशलव की राम से भेंट हुई। उस समय कुशलवों से इसका सारा वृत्तांत जान कर राम ने इसे पुनः एक बार अयोध्या बुला लिया । वाल्मीकि ऋषि इसे स्वयं रामसभा में ले गये, एवं भरी सभा में उन्होनें इसके सतीत्व की साक्ष दी। उस समय जनता को विश्वास दिलाने के उद्देश्य से राम ने इससे अनुरोध किया कि, यह अपने सतीत्व का प्रमाण दे। इस समय इसने सौगंध खाते हुए कहा -- मनसा कर्मणा वाचा यथा रामं समर्चये। तथा मे माधवी देवी विवरं दातुमर्हति॥ (मन से, कर्म से अथवा वाचा से अगर मैने राम के सिवा किसी अन्य पुरुष का चिंतन किया हो, तो पृथ्वीमाता दुभंग हो कर मुझे स्वीकार करें) । सीता के द्वारा उपर्युक्त आर्त प्रार्थना किये जाने पर, पृथ्वी देवी एक दिव्य सिंहासन पर बैठी हुई प्रकट हुई, एवं इसे अपने शरण ले कर पुनः एक बार गुप्त हुई। यह दिव्य दृश्य देख कर राम स्तिमित हो उठा, एवं अत्यधिक विलाप करने लगा। पश्चात् उसने इसे लौटा देने का पृथ्वी को अनुरोध किया, एवं इसे न लौटा देने पर समस्त पृथ्वी को दग्ध करने की धमकी दी। अन्त में ब्रह्मा ने स्वयं प्रकट हो कर राम को सांत्वना दी।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  एक आदर्श भारतीय पतिव्रता मान कर वाल्मीकि रामायण में सीता का चरित्र चित्रण किया गया है । राम इसके लिए देवता है, एकमात्र गति है, इस लोक एवं परलोक का स्वामी है (इह प्रेत्य नारिणां पतिरेको गतिः सदा) [वा. रा. अयो. २७.६] । पातिव्रत्य धर्म के संबंध में यह सावित्री को आदर्श मानती है [वा. रा. अयो. २९.१९] । सावित्री के ही समान यह कुलरीति [वा. रा. अयो. २६.१०], राजनीति [वा. रा. अयो. २६.४], लौकिक नीति [वा. रा. कि. ९.२] इन सारे तत्त्वों का ज्ञान रखती है, जिसकी सराहना स्वयं राम के द्वारा की गयी है ।
सीता (वैदेही) n.  तुलसी के ‘मानस’ में चित्रित की गयी सीता, शिव, पार्वती, गणेश आदि की उपासिका है [मानस. २.२.२६.७-८] । यह राम की केवल पत्‍नी ही नहीं, बल्कि अनन्य भक्त भी है । इसका ध्यान सदैव रामचरण में ही रहता हैः--सियमन राम चरण मन लागा। [मानस. २.२.२६.८]

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SĪTĀ   Wife of Śrī Rāma.
1) Who is Sītā?
Sītā is the incarnation of Mahālakṣmī. Lakṣmī took the birth of a woman because of the curse of Sarasvatī. Vedavatī, Sītā, Pāñcālī, all these women of chastity were the incarnations of Lakṣmī The stories of Lakṣmī passing from birth to birth such as Vedavatī, Tulasī, Sītā, Pāñcālī and so on until at last she reached the world of Viṣṇu, occurring in various Purāṇas are collected and given here. Lakṣmī, Sarasvatī and Gaṅgā were the wives of Mahāviṣṇu. One day Viṣṇu was sitting with his three wives and entertaining them with conversation when Devī Gaṅgā looked at Viṣṇu amorously. Instantly a quarrel arose among the three of them. When the row became uncontrollable, Sarasvatī cursed Lakṣmī to take birth in the earth as a plant. Gaṇgā cursed Sarasvatī and made her a river. Sarasvatī cursed Gaṅgā and made her a river. At the end of all these rows and curses Viṣṇu stood up and said to Lakṣmī. “Lakṣmī! you will take birth as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja on the earth with the name Tulasī. In order that the curse of Sarasvatī may come true, a plant called Tulasī (holy basil) will grow up on the earth from a portion of you. While you are living as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja, an asura named Śaṅkhacūḍa born from my portion will marry you.” The curse was realized. Sarasvatī and Gaṅgā became rivers. Lakṣmī was about to be born as the daughter of Dharmadhvaja. Who was Dharmadhvaja? He was a man of righteous deeds and good qualities, born of the family of Dakṣasāvarṇi who was born from a portion of Mahāviṣṇu. Brahmasāvarṇī was born from Dakṣasāvarni. Dharmasāvarṇi begot Rudrasāvarṇi, Indrasāvarṇi begot Vṛṣadhvaja. Rathadhvaja was the son of Vṛṣadhvaja. Two sons named Dharmadhvaja and Kuśadhvaja were born to Rathadhvaja. Dharmadhvaja and Kuśadhvaja were performing penance before Devī Lakṣmī to regain the wealth and prosperity lost by the curse of the Sun. How did Dharmadhvaja and Kuśadhvaja lose their prosperity? Their grandfather Vṛṣadhvaja was a devotee of Śiva. He performed penance before Śiva for a long time. Śiva became pleased with Vṛṣadhvaja and lived in his hermitage for the period of three Devayugas. This king Vṛṣadhvaja made a proclamation that none other than Śiva should be worshipped. As all the other gods were despised, the Sun got angry and cursed Vṛṣadhvaja. “Let the prosperity of yours and your posterity be destroyed.” Śiva did not like the action taken by the Sun against his favourite. Śiva took his trident and went against the Sun, who took refuge near his father Prajāpati Kaśyapa. Kaśyapa complained to Brahmā. Brahmā ran to Vaikuṇṭha. Śiva also came there with his trident. Viṣṇu looked at them and said “You gods, hear this. What is the need of all this hurry? Within the short time you have taken to run up to this place so many years have elapsed in the world. It is a long time since Vṛṣadhavaja died. His son Rathadhvaja also is dead. Rathadhvaja has two sons named Dharmadhvaja and Kuśadhvaja. They both have become Kings. But because of the curse of the Sun, they are devoid of any radiance. They are now worshipping Mahālakṣmī for radiance.” Hearing this talk of Mahāviṣṇu all of them returned to their places. It has been mentioned that Dharmadhvaja and Kuśadhvaja had been engaged in penance before Mahālakṣmī. Devī Mahālakṣmī appeared before them and granted their wish. Devī promised them that she would take birth as the daughter of each of them, and she would recover for them all the wealth and prosperity they had lost. Accordingly Mahālakṣmī took birth by her portion as the daughter of Mādhavī, the wife of Dharmadhvaja under the name Tulasī. (For the rest of the story of Tulasī see under Tulasī, Para 4). Mālāvatī was the wife of Kuśadhvaja. As Lakṣmī had promised to take birth as their daughter, both of them waited for the birth of the child uttering the Vedas. At this time a child was born from the mouth of Kuśadhvaja. This child was the incarnation of Lakṣmī. With the birth of the child Kuśadhvaja regained all the wealth and prosperity he had lost. The child was named Vedavatī (Devavatī). She grew up and became a young woman. Her desire was to get Mahāviṣṇu as her husband. Once an asura named Śambhu came to the hermitage of Kuśadhvaja. When he saw Vedavatī he fell in love with her. He asked Kuśadhvaja for the hand of his daughter, but Kuśadhvaja did not give his consent. Śambhu got angry. He came back in the night and killed Kuśadhvaja with his sword. Hearing the sound Vedavatī woke up and saw the dead body of her father lying in a pool of blood. She looked at Śambhu angrily. In that fiery look Śambhu was burnt to ashes. Vedavatī began to perform very severe penance to get Viṣṇu as her husband. It was at this time that Rāvaṇa had begun his campaign of conquest. He defeated all kings and was proceeding victoriously through the vicinity of the Himālayas, when he saw the beautiful damsel Vedavatī sitting alone and performing penance. Seeing so beautiful a girl engaged in penance, he told her that he was the famous Rāvaṇa with ten heads and requested her to throw away the garment of bark of the tree and the matted hair and to accept him as her husband. She rejected his request. The angry Rāvaṇa caught hold of her hand. She resisted using her teeth and finger-nails. She cried out that she wanted no more to retain the body made impure by the touch of a wicked person. She made a fire and jumped into it. Thus in the sight of Rāvaṇa, she burnt herself to death. Before death she vowed that in the next birth Mahāviṣṇu would become her husband and would kill Rāvaṇa. Rāvaṇa who himself was burning in the fire of amour, was extremely sorry at the death of the beautiful girl. He took the ashes of hers to Laṅkā and put them in a golden box and kept the box in a solitary place. He used to visit the place daily. Since the arrival of the ashes, bad omens began to occur in Laṅkā. One day Nārada came to Laṅkā. Rāvaṇa asked Nārada for the reason of constant occurrences of bad omens in Laṅkā. Nārada replied that the cause of bad omens was the golden box he was keeping and that if it was kept in Laṅkā any longer, it would cause destruction and that if it was destroyed, great disaster would follow. Nārada advised Rāvaṇa to remove the box without opening it to somewhere else outside Laṅkā. Accordingly Rāvaṇa caused the golden box to be dropped in the sea. By and by it came with the waves to the shore of Bhārata (India). Robbers took it and went to the north and hid it in a forest. They were not able to take it away again. Thus the box came to be deposited on the basin of a river in Mithilā. It was this river-basin that King Janaka selected as the place for sacrifice. Being kept in this holy place, the ashes of the body of Devavatī in the box mingled with her spirit and was taking shape into a child. When the place was ploughed for preparing the spot of sacrifice, for Janaka, this golden box was discovered. The child which was inside the box, was taken home and brought up by the king who named her Sītā. It was the portion of this Sītā herself that took birth next as Pāñcālī. [Devī Bhāgavata, Kamba Rāmāyaṇa] Other versions.
(i) The King Padmākṣa performed penance before Mahāviṣṇu with a view to get Mahālakṣmī as daughter. Mahāviṣṇu gave the King a great Phallus to realize his wish. From that a beautiful girl was born. The King named her Padmā. When she attained marriageable age, the King made preparations for her Svayaṁvara (the bride herself choosing a husband). On the day fixed for the marriage Rākṣasas came and destroyed all the preparations and killed King Padmākṣa. Because of her sorrow at this disaster Padmā jumped into the fire. The giants searched for Padmā every where, but they could not find her. They returned in disappointment. One day, during this period, Rāvaṇa was travelling in his Aerial chariot. When he reached this place, he saw Padmā who had come out of the fire. Rāvaṇa was fascinated by the beauty of Padmā. So he turned towards her. Seeing this, Padmā again jumped into the pile of fire for safety. Without any delay Rāvaṇa made a search in the pile of fire. At last he got the body of Padmā (Sītā) in the form of five jewels. The disappointed Rāvaṇa placed the five jewels in a box and took it to Laṅkā and gave it to his wife Mandodarī. One day Mandodarī opened that box and saw Padmā sitting in the form of a beautiful virgin. Thinking that it was not propitious to keep her who was the cause of destruction to Padmākṣa, his family and kingdom, Mandodarī exerted pressure on Rāvaṇa to cast the box out of Laṅkā. Rāvaṇa with his men took the box from Laṅkā and buried it in Mithilā. Before the box was closed Padmā cursed Rāvaṇa. “I will come to Laṅkā again to kill you and your clan.” One day when a brahmin of Mithilā was ploughing his field he got this box. Thinking that it belonged to the King, the brahmin took the box to King Janaka. The King took the child in the box and brought it up. He named the child Sītā. [Ānanda Rāmāyaṇa, 7-6].
(ii) In Adbhuta Rāmāyaṇa we see another story which is somewhat different from that we see in Ānanda Rāmāyaṇa. It is given below:-- Rāvaṇa who had become the harasser of the entire world began to harass the hermits and sages also. He used to shoot arrows at the hermits who were sitting in meditation in the forests, and taking their blood in the arrow-head, he stored it in a big pot. In the same forest a hermit named Gṛtsamada was engaged in penance to get a daughter who would be equal to Lakṣmī in everyway. He took milk with the head of Darbha grass and stored it daily in a pot. One day Rāvaṇa came to his hermitage and took the pot of milk stealthily. He poured the milk into the pot in which he had stored the blood and stirring it well gave it to his wife Mandodarī. Seeing the character of her husband becoming worse and worse every day, Mandodarī became miserable. One day she decided to commit suicide and drank the contents of the pot given by Rāvaṇa. The thing which was taken for suicide, made her pregnant. Mandodarī buried that foetus in Kurukṣetra. After a while a girl was born from it. That child was Sītā, the daughter of King Janaka.
(iii) There is a story in [Devī Bhāgavata] stating how Sītā was born as the daughter of Rāvaṇa. It is as follows: Rāvaṇa wished to marry Mandodarī, the daughter of Maya. Then Maya said to Rāvaṇa thus:--“According to the horoscope of Mandodarī, the first child born to her will be the destroyer of its clan. So it would be better to kill that child.” Not acting upon the advice of Maya, Rāvaṇa put the first child in a box and buried it in the city of King Janaka. This child was Sītā, the wife of Śrī Rāma.
2) Marriage.
Sītā grew up in the palace of King Janaka. Kuśadhvaja the younger brother of Janaka had three daughters. They were named Māṇḍavī, Ūrmilā and Śrutakīrti. Sītā grew up along with these three sisters. The four of them grew up as sisters and friends. Sītā grew up to be a young woman. Several young men wished to marry her. Janaka refused everyone of them. One day the princesses were playing with their maids in the garden of the harem. Sītā sat on the dais in the centre of the garden to make a flower garland. All their attempts to gather the jasmine flowers from the twigs of a large mango tree in the garden ended in failure. Śītā instantly ran to the weapon house and taking a bow and arrow, shot down the flowers. The flowers fell down on the cloth placed on the ground without being damaged. Janaka saw the shooting of Sītā, from the palace. He was amazed at the expertness of Sītā. The bow which Sītā took was Śaivacāpa (the bow of Śiva). Śiva had used this bow, in days of old, to destroy the sacrifice of Dakṣa. Śiva, who was pacified by the destruction of the sacrifice of Dakṣa and the victory over his enemies, gave this bow to his devotee, the King of Videha. That King kept the bow in his weapon-house and used to worship it. Śītā had taken that bow and shot with it. The King who had been thinking about the marriage of Sītā thought that what he saw was a good omen. So the King made a proclamation that only he who could take the bow of Śiva, draw it, and shoot with it would become eligible to marry Sītā. Hearing this many adventurers came to the palace and tried to handle the Śaivacāpa and retreated admitting defeat. It was at this time that Viśvāmitra brought Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa to the forest for the protection of sacrifice. Hearing about the Svayaṁvara of Sītā, Viśvāmitra took the princes to the palace of Janaka. The King was greatly pleased when he learned that the princes were the sons of Daśaratha, of the solar Dynasty. Next morning, at the instruction of his elders and priests and teachers, Śrī Rāma stood on the dais in the middle of the hall, where the Śaivacāpa was placed, ready to handle it. He lifted up the bow with his left hand, drew it easily and fastened the string tightly and the bow was broken. When the Kings who were present, heard the roaring sound of the breaking of the bow, they shivered with fear as serpents at the sound of thunder. Sītā jumped with joy like a peacock. A letter was sent to Daśaratha then and there. Friends and relatives arrived. Under the guidance of the presiding priest Śatānanda, the marriage ceremony was conducted. Rāma married Sītā, Bharata married Māṇḍavī, Lakṣmaṇa married Ūrmilā, and Śatrughna married Śrutakīrti. The brides and bridegrooms went to Ayodhyā with their parents and relatives. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa].
3) Anasūyā's gift of clothes and ornaments.
Daśaratha who had become old, wished to hand over the realm to Śrī Rāma. Since Kaikeyī stood as a hindrance, the kingdom fell into the hands of Bharata. Moreover Sītā had to live in the forest with Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa for fourteen years. In the early period of their forest-life they visited the hermitage of Atri. Seeing the devotion of Sītā towards her husband, Anasūyā the wife of hermit Atri, blessed her and gave her a fine garland, clothes and ornaments and cosmetics. Anasūyā blessed Sītā again and said that she would shine as Lakṣmī if she besmeared her body with the divine cosmetics. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Ayodhyā Kāṇḍa, Sargas 118-120].
4) Test by Pārvatī and Parameśvara.
In the last year of forest-life Pārvatī and Parameśvara tested the firmness of the love of Sītā and Rāma. (See under Rāma, Para 14).
5) Phantom Sītā.
A few days before the abduction of Sītā by Rāvaṇa, Fire god took the guise of a Brahmin and approached Śrī Rāma and said: “O, Śrī Rāma! The Devas have sent me to tell you certain things which will take place shortly. Your incarnation has the aim of killing Rāvaṇa. Sītā is meant to be a cause for the same. The death of Rāvaṇa is imminent. He will come and carry Sītā away. So entrust Sītā with me. I will keep her carefully. Make a phantom (Māyā) Sītā and keep her here, instead of the real Sītādevī. After the killing of Rāvaṇa, when Sītā enters fire as a proof of her purity, I will return Devī Sītā.” Śrī Rāma agreed to it. Fire god by his power of contemplation, created a phantom Sītā, exactly like the real Sītā in shape and figure and nature and placing her beside Rāma, he disappeared with the real Sītā. Even Lakṣmaṇa was not aware of this fact. The real Sītā Devī was under the care of Fire god till the moment of the test of chastity of Sītā by fire, after the killing of Rāvaṇa. During the time of entering the fire the illusory Sītā vanished in the fire and the real Sītā came out. [Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 9].
6) Sītā killed Sahasramukha.
See under Sahasramukha Rāvaṇa.
7) Abandonment of Sītā.
See under Rāma, Para 31.
8) Sītā in the hermitage of Vālmīki.
Abandoned Sītā, who was pregnant, wandered about in the forest and at last reached the hermitage of Vālmīki, who gave her protection and shelter. The story of an occurrence at this time is given in Kathāsaritsāgara, Alaṅkāravatīlambaka, Taraṅga 1. The other hermits did not like Vālmīki's action of giving shelter to Sītā. They said “Sītā is impure. Otherwise her husband would not have abandoned her. By her association we also would become sinners. As the hermit Vālmīki is kind, he will not cast her away especially when she is pregnant. So the best thing for all of us, is to go to another hermitage.” This murmuring of the hermits reached the ears of Vālmīki. He said “She is pure and chaste. I know it with my inward eyes.” But they did not believe it. Then Sīta said “Lord! you can test my chastity in whatever way you like, and if I am found to be impure you may cut off my head.” The hermits tested Sītā in the Ṭiṭṭibhasaras (a divine lake near the hermitage of Vālmīki) and were convinced that she was chaste and pure. (See under Ṭiṭṭibhasaras to know the greatness of this divine lake).
9) Cursed Sītā.
Sītā was spending miserable days in the hermitage of Vālmīki. Her matrimonial life was a hell. Is there any special reason for misery? Yes. It is the curse of a bird. Once Śeṣa told this story, of the cursing of Sītā by a bird, to the hermit Vātsyāyana. That story is given below: The event took place when Sītā was a young girl in the palace of Janaka. One day while Sītā was playing in the garden she saw two parrots, cock and hen, which talked well. The spouses were delightfully engaged in love-making. As soon as the couple saw Sītā they flew up to a tree and sang thus: “A handsome king will take birth on the earth. His name will be Śrī Rāma. His wife's name will be Sītā. Their wedded life will be happy. Hearing the song, Sītā thought that they were some divine persons, and asked her maids to catch them and give them food. The maids caught the parrots and brought them before Sītā. She asked the birds. “Don't fear. Who are you? Where do you come from? Who is that Rāma? Who is Sītā? How did you come to know of them? Tell me all. I will not hurt you! The birds replied. “In the forest there is a hermit named Vālmīki. We live in his beautiful hermitage. That hermit has composed the story Rāmāyaṇa, which is yet to happen, and has taught it to his disciples. We have heard those songs. Having heard them over and over we also have learned them by heart. We will tell you who Rāma is and who Jānakī is and what would happen to her who lives happily with him. Hear it! Saying thus the parrots passed on to the story of Rāma. Due to the sacrifice of the hermit Ṛṣyaśṛṅga, Mahāviṣṇu incarnated as four persons, of whom Rāma the eldest, with his younger brother and Viśvāmitra, would come to Mithilā. He would draw the bow and marry Sītā... Sītā was extremely pleased with the sweet song of the birds and asked them so many questions repeatedly with curiosity. Seeing the excitement of the questioner the parrots understood that she was Sītā herself. They asked her. “Beautiful girl! who are you? Why are you so much interested in knowing about Rāma? What is your name?” Sītā disclosed everything about her to the birds, and said “I am the same Sītā, the daughter of Janaka you have sung about. I will let you go only on the day when that handsome prince Rāma comes and marries me. Your conversation has made me so curious. You can live comfortably in my house, eating sweetmeats.” The birds were in great fear when they heard this. They looked at each other and replied to Sītā. “Good child! we birds fly about in the sky and perch on trees and bush. Houses are not comfortable to us. Moreover I am pregnant. After my delivery in our own place I will come here. You need not have any doubt.” The female parrot said thus. But Sītā did not let them go. Then the male parrot prayed humbly with anxiety. “Sītā, allow her to go. Why do you detain my beautiful wife? Allow us to have our own way in the forest. My wife is pregnant. After the confinement both of us will come back.” Sītā said “Let her live with me. You may go as you please.” The parrots were in great sorrow. If they had not made any noise on that tree this detention would not have occurred. These pitiable supplications had no effect on Sītā. The male bird cried to Sītā to let him take his mate along with him, and beat his head on the ground. Sītā was adamant. The female bird, filled with misery and anger cursed Sītā thus. “You have separated me from my husband. I am pregnant. May you too be separated from your husband when you become pregnant”. When she had finished saying, she fell on the ground and wriggled and died. An acrial chariot came down to the earth from heaven for the soul of that bird which had died exalting and glorifying Śrī Rāma. The soul of the bird got into the chariot and went up to heaven. The male bird, being unable to bear the death of his beloved wife, dipped himself in the Gaṅgā. Before his death he cried out in anger. “I must be born in the city of Rāma. By my words, this Sītā should be separated from her husband and fall into misery.” He died in the Ganges in Krodha (anger) and fear. So he took rebirth with the name Krodhana as a washerman by caste and profession. It was this washerman who spoke words of calumny about Sītā. Due to the calumny of this washerman, Śrī Rāma abandoned Sītā and she had to take shelter in the hermitage of Vālmīki. [Padma Purāṇa, Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Chapter 57].
10) The end of Sītā.
(See under Rāma, Para 33).
SĪTĀ II   A river. Mention is made in [Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 188, Verse 102], that once the hermit Mārkaṇḍeya saw this river also in the stomach of child Mukunda (Śrī Kṛṣṇa). This is one of the seven branches of the river Ganges. (See under Sindhu).

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
 f  The wife of Ramchandra. A goddess. A covert term for half-a-rupee.
सीता की संग्राम   Compliance or war-a term for hard alternatives.

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