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सरस्वती

A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
सरस्—वती  f. af. See (अती) s.v.
सरस्वती  f. bf. (of स॑रस्वत्q.v. under स॑रस्) a region abounding in pools and lakes, [MBh. i, 7745]
वाचा   N. of a river (celebrated in [RV.] and held to be a goddess whose identity is much disputed; most authorities hold that the name is identical with the Avestan Haraquaiti river in Afghanistan, but that it usually means the Indus in the [RV.], and only occasionally the small sacred rivers in मध्य-देश [see below]; the river-goddess has seven sisters and is herself sevenfold, she is called the mother of streams, the best of mothers, of rivers, and of goddesses; the ऋषिs always recognize the connection of the goddess with the river, and invoke her to descend from the sky, to bestow vitality, renown, and riches; elsewhere she is described as moving along a golden path and as destroying वृत्र &c.; as a goddess she is often connected with other deities e.g. with पूषन्, इन्द्र, the मरुत्s and the अश्विन्s ; in the आप्री hymns she forms a triad with the sacrificial goddesses इडा and भारती; accord. to a myth told in the [VS. xix, 12], through speech [] communicated vigour to इन्द्र; in the ब्राह्मणs she is identified with वाच्, ‘Speech’, and in later times becomes goddess of eloquence See below), [RV.] &c. &c.
त्रि-वेणी   N. of a well-known small river (held very sacred by the Hindūs; identified with the modern Sursooty, and formerly marking with the दृषद्वती one of the boundaries of the region आर्य-देष and of the sacred district called ब्रह्मावर्त [see, [Mn. ii, 17]] in [RV. vii, 95, 2], this river is represented as flowing into the sea, although later legends make it disappear underground and join the Ganges and Jumnā at Allahābād; See , प्रयाग), ib.
N. of various rivers (esp. of rivers which in sacredness are equal to and which are three accord. to [AV. vi, 101], and seven accord. to [MBh. ix, 2188])
any river, [Naigh. i, 13]
N. of the goddess of eloquence and learning (cf. above; she is opposed to श्री or लक्ष्मी [cf.[Vikr. v, 24]], and sometimes considered as the daughter and also wife of ब्रह्मा, the proper wife of that god being rather सावित्रि or गायत्री; she is also identified with दुर्गा, or even with the wife of विष्णु and of मनु, and held to be the daughter of दक्ष), [Mn.]; [MBh.] &c.
speech or the power of speech, eloquence, learning wisdom, [MBh.]; [Kāv.] &c.
a celestial or oracular voice, [Kālid.]; [Kathās.]; [Rājat.]
a cow, [VS. viii, 43]
स्त्री-रत्न   an excellent woman (= ), [L.]
N. of various plants (Cardiospermum Halicacabum, Egle Marmelos, Ruta Graveolens &c.), [L.]
N. of a two-year-old girl representing दुर्गा at her festival, [L.]
of a poetess, [Cat.]
of various other women (esp. of the wives of दधीच, शंकराचार्य, मण्डनमिश्र &c.), ib.
सरस्वती   of one of the ten mendicant orders traced back to शंकराचार्य (whose members add the word to their names).
सरस्वती   c &c. See p. 1182, col. 2.

सरस्वती [sarasvatī]   1 N. of the goddess of speech and learning, and represented as the wife of Brahman; परस्पर- विरोधिन्योरेकसंश्रयदुर्लभम् । संगतं श्रीसरस्वत्योर्भूतयेऽस्तु सदा सताम् ॥ [V.5.24.]
Speech, voice, words; इति देहविमुक्तये स्थितां रतिमाकाशभवा सरस्वती ... अन्वकम्पयत् [Ku.4.39,43;] [R. 15.46.]
 N. N. of a river (which is lost in the sands of the great desert).
A river in general.
A cow; ŚB. on [MS.1.3.49;] [Vāj.8.43.]
An excellent woman.
 N. N. of Durgā.
 N. N. of a female divinity peculiar to the Buddhists.
The Soma plant.
The plant called ज्योतिष्मती.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
The wife of Brahmá, the goddess of speech and eloquence, the patroness of music and the arts, and the inventress of the Sanskrit language and the Devanágarí letters. 2 A Veda, a Shástra, or other divine writing, or a work generally in the Sanskrit tongue: all such being ascribed to this goddess as the authoress. 3 Speech,--the faculty, or the exercise of it. 4 A line or figure which children, learning to write, draw upon their sand-boards, and worship as representing the goddess Saraswatí. 5 The river Sársooty, which loses itself in the sands of the great desert, and is supposed to re-appear at Alláhábád and there join the Ganges and Jumna. 6 Appellatively. A term for an eloquent, or an inventive, or an excelling woman.

 स्त्री. १ ब्रह्मदेवाची पत्नी . २ ब्रह्मदेवाची कन्या ; गणपतीची बायको . ३ वाग्देवता ; गायन , कला वगैरेची अधिष्ठात्री देवता . जरी प्रकटे सिद्ध सरस्वती । तरी मुकया आथी भरती । - ज्ञा १ . ७८ . ४ वेद , शास्त्रें , वगैरे ग्रंथ ; विद्या . ५ वाणी ; वाचा ; भाषा . ६ वर्षप्रतिपदा , दुसरा वगैरे दिवशी पाटीपूजनाकरितां मुलें पाटीवर रेघांची काढतात ती आकृति . ७ एक नदी ; हे पंजाबांत आहे ; तसेच प्रयाग येथील त्रिवेणीसंगमामध्येहि गुप्तरूपानें येऊन मिळते अशी समजूत आहे . अशी समजूत अनेक ठिकाणी आढळून येते . उदा० महाबळेश्वर . माजी गीता सरस्वती गुष्त . - ज्ञा ११ . ७ . ८ सुंदर व अस्खलित , मधुरभाषिणी स्त्रीस म्हणतात . ९ ( सांकेतिक ) गुप्तपत्र . [ सं . ]
०अनाध्याय  पु. आश्विन शुद्धपक्षांत मूल नक्षत्र असतां सरस्वतीचे आवाहन , पूजन वगैरे श्रवण नक्षत्रापर्यंत करतात तो काल .
०दान  न. १ लेखी वाचन ; लेखी करार , लिहून दिलेला लेख . ( क्रि० देणें ; लिहून देणें ). २ तोंडी वचन ; करार . ( क्रि० देणें ).
०पूजन  न. १ आश्विन महिन्यांत मूळ नक्षत्र असतां सरस्वतीचें आवाहन करून पूजा वगैरे करतात तें . २ दिवाळीतील वहीपूजन .

सरस्वती n.  ब्रह्मा की कन्या शतरूपा का नामान्तर। यह स्वायंभूव मनु की पत्‍नी थी [म. उ. ११५.१४]; शतरूपा देखिये । पद्म में इसे ब्रह्मा की पत्‍नी कहा गया है, एवं इसके ‘ज्ञानशक्ति’, ‘सावित्री’, ‘गायत्री’ एवं ‘वाच्’ नामान्तर दिये गये है [पद्म. पा. १०७] । महाभारत में भी इसे ‘शतरूपा’ का नामान्तर बताया गया है, एवं इसे दण्ड, नीति आदि शास्त्रों की कत्रीं कहा गया है [म. शां. १२२.२५]
सरस्वती II. n.  सार्वभौम नामक विष्णु के अवतार की माता [भा. ८.१३.१७]
सरस्वती III. n.  पुरूवंशीय अंतीनार राजा की पत्‍नी, जिसके पुत्र का नाम त्रस्नु था [म. आ. ९०.२६]
सरस्वती IV. n.  पुरूरवस् राजा की पत्‍नी, जिसके पुत्र का नाम सारस्वत था [ब्रह्म. १०१.९]
सरस्वती V. n.  दधीचि ऋषि की पत्‍नी, जिसके पुत्र का नाम सारस्वत था [वायु. ६५.९१]; सारस्वत देखिये ।
सरस्वती VI. n.  आदित्य की पत्‍नी, जो दनु एवं दीति की माता थी [मत्स्य. १७१.७०]
सरस्वती VII. n.  रन्ति राजा की पत्‍नी [वायु. ९९.१२५]

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
SARASVATĪ I   Goddess of learning.
1) Birth.
Sarasvati is the daughter of Brahmā. Kāmadeva was born from Brahmā's heart; Krodha (anger) was born from his eyebrows; Lobha, from his lower lip, Sarasvatī, from his face; the Sindhus from his genitals, and Nirṛti, from his anus. The following story about the birth of Sarasvatī is from [Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 43]:-- Brahmā got ready for creation, and while in meditation sattvaguṇa (sublime quality) began swelling up in his mind wherefrom a girl was born. Brahmā asked her who she was. She answered: “I am born from you. You fix for me a seat and duties.” Then Brahmā told her that her name was Sarasvatī and ordained that she should stay on the tip of everybody's tongue. You dance especially on the tongues of learned people. You should also exist on earth in the form of a river, and assuming a third form you should live in me too.” Sarasvatī agreed to this.
2) Curse of Sarasvatī.
See under Gaṅgā.
3) Misled Kumbhakarṇa.
When Kumbhakarṇa requested Brahmā for a boon, Sarasvatī, at the instance of the latter, lodged herself in the tongue of Kumbhakarṇa and made him ask for Nidrāvatva (Sleep), something different from what he really desired to get Viz. Nirdevatva (absence of Devas).
4) Received Baḍavāgni.
(all-consuming fire). Baḍavāgni was born at the quarrel between the Bhārgavas and Hehayas. Baḍavāgni is flames of Aurva, the Bhārgava. (See under Aurva). It was Sarasvatī who took the Agni to the ocean. As a result of this, Sarasvatī, became a river in India. The story is told in the Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa of Padma Purāṇa as follows:- The world was about to be burnt in Baḍavāgni, which originated from Aurva, when Indra requested Sarasvatī thus: “Oh! Devi! you should deposit this agni in the western ocean; or else the world will be consumed in its flames.” To this Sarasvatī told Viṣṇu as follows: “I am not a free person. I will do nothing without the permission of my father. Therefore, please think of some other means.” The Devas, who understood Sarasvatī's nature, went to Brahmā with their case. Immediately he called Sarasvatī to him and asked her to deposit Baḍavāgni in the western ocean for the safety of himself and the Devas. Unable to disobey her father, Sarasvatī, with tears in her eyes, agreed to do so. Then Gaṅgā followed her and she told the former that she (Gaṅgā) would see her flowing northwards when she reached the eastern region surrounded by Devas. Sarasvatī sent back her companions like Gaṅgā, Yamunā Manoramā, Gāyatrī and Sāvitrī who followed her. Then she appeared at the āśrama of Uttaṅka under the Plakṣa tree in the presence of the Devas. Just as Śiva carried Gaṅgā, the Plakṣa tree bore Sarasvatī and immediately did Śiva give to her Baḍavāgni in a pot. Because of his blessing the agni did not burn her hands. She went towards the north with the pot and came to Puṣkariṇī, and she stopped there to redeem the sins of people. It is believed to this very day that those who drink water from the Puṣkara will attain Brahmaloka. From Puṣkara Sarasvatī flowed towards the west and reaching a date-garden not far off from Puṣkara it rose up again where Sarasvatī is known as Nandā as well. There is also another reason for the name Nandā. Once upon a time there was a King called Prabhañjana. While hunting in the forest he saw a deer inside a cluster of shrubs and he shot an arrow at it. Then the deer told the King: “What a crime is this! You have wounded me, who am feeding my child. I have heard that the King shall not kill a deer while it is engaged in drinking, sleeping or mating. May you, who have done this cruel act, be transformed into a tiger and roam about this thorny forest.” Saying again and again that he did not notice that the deer was feeding its child, the King begged for absolution from the curse. Taking pity on the weeping king the deer told him that he would be redeemed from the curse when he had talked with the cow called Nandā, which would go there after a hundred years. According to the above curse the king got transformed into a tiger and spent hundred years eating wild animals. After hundred years were over a herd of cows came there grazing under the leadership of a cow called Nandā. Beautiful Nandā used to walk ahead of the other cows and graze alone at a secret place in the forest. There was a mountain called Rohita there, on the banks of the river. The northern side of the mountain was a dense forest infested by cruel animals. There lived there a very cruel and terrible tiger as big as a mountain. A generous person called Nanda was feeding the cows with grass etc. Nandā, the cow, got separated from the herd and came to the river when the tiger ran after it asking it to stop. Crying aloud the cow said: Oh tiger; I have a child, which has not begun even tasting grass and it is awaiting the return of its mother to the cow-shed at dusk. I shall go and take leave of the child and return so that you may eat me.” Taking pity on the cow the tiger granted its prayer. It returned duly to the tiger at dusk. The tiger, taken by surprise, by the honesty of the cow enquired of it its name, and the cow answered that it was named Nandā by its master, Nanda. As soon as the name was uttered Prabhañjana was released from his old curse and he became the former king. Dharmadeva then appeared there and asked her to choose the boon she liked and she replied as follows:--“I, with my child, must attain the ultimate place and position, and let this place become a sacred place for munis. Also, let this river Sarasvatī, come to be known as Nandā, by my name.” Nandā immediately ascended to heaven and Prabhañjana returned to his palace. River Sarasvatī came to be called Nandā from that day: After flowing through the above-mentioned date-garden towards the south for some distance Sarasvatī (Nandā) flowed again towards the north. She reached the ocean and deposited therein the pot of Baḍavāgni. [Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭikhaṇḍa].
5) Sarasvatī as Brahmā's wife.
The Purāṇas mention three wives of Brahmā, Sarasvatī, Sāvitrī and Gāyatrī. But, the three are, according to Matsya Purāṇa, one and the same person. The Matsya Purāṇa mentions:-- Brahmā created, from his own effulgence, a woman, who became famous under the names Śatarūpā, Sāvitrī, Gāyatrī and Brahmāṇī. Brahmā fell in love with his daughter and noticing the fact she turned away to the right side of her father. Then did a face appear on his right side. To avoid the amorous looks of the father, she slided off to both his sides, and faces appeared on those sides of Brahmā. Then Sarasvatī jumped up to the sky and a fifth face appeared on his head, turned upwards. Finding escape impossible she yielded to the desire of Brahmā and they enjoyed honey-moon for a hundred years. To them was born a son called Svāyambhuva or Virāṭ. At one place in [Skanda Purāṇa], Sāvitrī and Gāyatrī are referred to as different individuals. (See under Sāvitrī).
6) Idol of Sarasvatī.
Sarasvatī, clad in white clothes, sits on a white lotus. She holds in her hands a string of beads, book and Vīṇā. She is depicted in sitting, standing and dancing postures. She is conceived as Śakti related to Viṣṇu as also to Śiva. In certain old works in Bengal, Sarasvatī, instead of Bhūmidevī, is to be seen along with Viṣṇu. Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 50, enjoins that idols of Sarasvatī in temple should hold in its hands book, string of beads and Vīṇā.
7) Other information.
(i) It was on the banks of Sarasvatī that Vyāsa performed tapas and Śuka was born. [Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 1].
(ii) There are various references to Sarasvatī in the Ṛgveda.
(iii) Sarasvatī shines forth in Indra's court. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 19].
(iv) Once Sarasvatī advised the muni called Tārkṣya [Vana Parva, Chapter 185].
(v) During Tripuradahana (burning of the city of the Tripuras) Sarasvatī served as a passage for the chariot of Śiva to advance. [Karṇa Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 34].
(vi) Muni Yājñavalkya once thought of Sarasvatī and she appeared before him wearing ornaments of vowels and consonants and sounding ‘Om’. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 318, Verse 14].
SARASVATĪ II   River Sarasvatī, flowing through north India is, according to Purāṇic conception, Sarasvatī devī who has assumed the form of a river. (See under Sarasvatī I). The following information about river Sarasvatī famed in the Purāṇas is from the Mahābhārata.
(i) King Matināra once performed a yajña on the banks of river Sarasvatī. At the close of the yajña Sarasvatīdevī appeared and chose the King as her husband, and a son called Taṁsu was born to the couple. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 26].
(ii) River Sarasvatī is one of the seven tributaries of river Gaṅgā and its source is under the Plaksa tree. One who drinks its water will become free from sin. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 19].
(iii) Sarasvatī worships Varuṇa in his court. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 19].
(iv) The Pāṇḍavas, while travelling in the forest, crossed the river. [Vana Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 2].
(v) Śrī Kṛṣṇa conducted a yajña in the plains of river Sarasvatī. [Vana Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 14].
(vi) Kāmyaka forest is on the banks of Sarasvatī. [Vana Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 41].
(vii) It is a holy river. If one bathes in it and worships one's ancestors one will attain Sārasvataloka. [Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 66]
(viii) Dadhīca had his āśrama on the banks of the river. [Vana Parva, Chapter 100, Verse 13].
(ix) Muni Lomaśa once extolled the greatness of river Sarasvatī. [Vana Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 20].
(x) The river disappears in Vināśanatīrtha and reappears at Camasodbheda. [Vana Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 3].
(xi) It is the source of Agni. [Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22].
(xii) There are many holy places on the plains of the river. They are described in [Chapters 35-54 of Salya Parva].
(xiii) River Sarasvatī once carried Vasiṣṭha in its flow. (See under Vasiṣṭha).
(xiv) Viśvāmitra cursed Sarasvatī. (See under Vasiṣṭha).
(xv) Sarasvatī returned to Dadhīci maharṣi the son born to her by him and he blessed her. [Śalya Parva, Chapter 51].
(xvi) Balabhadrarāma once extolled the greatness of Sarasvatī. [Śalya Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 33].
(xvii) Arjuna appointed the son of Sātyaki as the master of a particular region on the banks of the river. [Mausala Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 71].
(xviii) Following the death of Śrī Kṛṣṇa his 16008 wives drowned themselves to death in Sarasvatī. [Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 25].
SARASVATĪ III   Wife of Manu. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14].
SARASVATĪ IV   Wife of Dadhīci maharṣi. The couple had a son called Sārasvata. [Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 101, Verse 9].

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
 f  The goddess of speech and eloquence, speech.

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