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भीष्म

A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
भीष्म  mfn. mfn. terrible, dreadful, [ŚBr.] &c. &c.
भीष्म  m. m. (scil.रस) = भीषण, [MW.]
death, [Nyāyas.] Sch.
N. of शिव, [L.]
a राक्षस, [L.]
N. of a son of शांतनु and गङ्गा (in the great war of the भरतs he took the side of the sons of धृतराष्ट्र against the sons of पाण्डु, and was renowned for his continence, wisdom, bravery, and fidelity to his word cf.[IW. 375] and, [RTL. 561-564]), [MBh.]; [Hariv.]; [Pur.]
pl. the race or followers of भीष्म, [MBh.]
भीष्म  n. n. horror, horribleness, [W.]

भीष्म [bhīṣma] a.  a. [भी-णिच्-सुक्-अपादाने मक्] Terrible, dreadful, frightful, fearful; भीष्मो हि देवः सहसः सहीयान् [Bhāg. 11.23.48.]
ष्मः The sentiment of terror (in rhetoric); see भयानक.
A demon, an imp, a fiend, goblin.
An epithet of Śiva.
 N. N. of the son of Śantanu by Gangā; हृते भीष्मे हते द्रोणे शल्ये च निधनं गते Mb. [He was the youngest of the eight sons of Śantanu by Gangā; but all the others having died, he remained the sole heir to the throne after his father. On one occasion while Śantanu was walking by the side of a river, he beheld a charming young damsel named Satyavatī, the daughter of a fisherman, and, though bowed down with age, conceived a passion for her, and sent his son to negotiate the marriage. But the parents of the girl said that if their daughter bore sons to the king, they would not succeed to the throne, for after his death Śāntanava, being the rightful heir, would be the king. But Śāntanava, to please his father, made a vow to the parents that he would never accept the kingdom or marry a wife or become the father of children by any woman, so that if their daughter bore a son to Śantanu, he would be the king. This dreadful vow soon became known abroad, and thenceforth he was called Bhiṣma. He remained single, and, after the death of his father, he installed Vichitravīrya, the son of Satyavatī, on the throne, got him married to the two daughters of king Kāśirāja (see Ambikā), and became the guardian of his sons and grandsons, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. In the great war he fought on the side of the Kauravas, but was wounded by Arjuna with the assistance of Śikhanḍin and was lodged in a 'cage of darts'. But having got from his father the power of choosing his own time for death, he waited till the sun had crossed the vernal equinox, and then gave up his soul. He was remarkable for his continence, wisdom, firmness of resolve, and unflinching devotion to God].
-ष्मम्   Horror, horribleness. -Comp.
-अष्टमी   the eighth day in the light half of Māgha (when Bhīṣma died).
-जननी   an epithet of the Ganges.
-पञ्चकम्  N. N. of the five days from the eleventh to the fifteenth of the bright balf of Kārtika (said to be sacred to Bhīṣma).
-पर्वन्  N. N. of the 6th Book of the Mahā-Bhārata.
-सूः  f. f. an epithet of the river Ganges; हरशिरसि पतन्ती भीष्मसूर्वः पुनातु Udb.
-स्तवराजः  N. N. of the 47th Chapter of शान्तिपर्व in Mahābhāraṭa.

Shabda-Sagara | sa  en |   | 
भीष्म  mfn.  (-ष्मः-ष्मा-ष्मं) Horrible, terrific, fearful.
 n.  (-ष्मं) Horror, horri- bleness, the property of exciting fear or terror.
 m.  (-ष्मः)
1. A name of ŚIVA.
2. The grand-uncle of the Pāndus.
3. An imp, a goblin.
E. भी to fear, मक् Unādi aff. and सुक् augment.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
A warrior renowned in Hindú story for his bravery, wisdom, continence, and fidelity to his word. Hence, appellatively, a valiant, wise, continent, and faithful person in general. 2 A cant name for a bug. Because the blood of this creature, like the eyes of the hero, is said to split diamonds.

 पु. 
शौर्य , शहाणपणा , ब्रह्मचर्य व सत्यप्रतिज्ञा यांविषयीं एक पुराणप्रसिद्ध क्षत्रिय भारती योद्धा .
( ल . ) शूर , बुद्धिमान , इंद्रियनिग्रही , सत्यप्रतिज्ञ असा मनुष्य .
( संकेत ) ढेंकूण . ( कारण भीष्माच्या नेत्रांनीं जसा हिरा भग्न होई त्याप्रमाणें या प्राण्याच्या रक्तानें हिरा भंगतो असें म्हणतात ). [ सं . ] सामाशब्द -
०तर्पण  न. दिपवाळीमध्यें नरक चतुर्दशीस भीष्माप्रीत्यर्थ करावयाचें तर्पण . [ सं . ]
०प्रतिज्ञा  स्त्री. 
भीष्मानें आमरण पाळेली अविवाहित राहण्याची प्रतिज्ञा . यावरुन
( ल . ) खात्रीचें वचन ; कधीं न मोडणारा निश्चय .
घोर , अचाट प्रतिज्ञा . भीष्माष्टमी - स्त्री . माघ शुद्ध अष्टमी ; भीष्माच्या पुण्यतिथीचा दिवस . [ सं . भीष्म + अष्टमी ]

भीष्म n.  (सो.कुरु.) सुविख्यात राजनीति एवं रणनीति शास्त्रज्ञ जो कुरु राज शन्तनु के द्वारा गंगा नदी के गर्भ से उत्पन्न हुआ था । अष्टवसुओं में से आठवें वसु के अंश से यह उत्पन्न हुआ था [म.आ.९०.५०] । इसका मूल नाम ‘देवव्रत’ था । गंगा का पुत्र होने के कारण, इसे ‘गांगेय’ ‘जाह्रवीपुत्र,’ ‘भागीरथीपुत्र’ आदि नामांतर भी प्राप्त थे । ‘भीष्म’ का शाब्दिक अर्थ ‘भयंकर’ है । इसने अपने पिता शन्तनु के सुख के लिए आजन्म अविवाहित रहने एवं राजत्याग करने की भयंकर प्रतिज्ञा की थी । इसीसे इसे ‘भीष्म’ कहा गया ।
भीष्म n.  एक अत्यधिक पराक्रमी एवं ध्येयनिष्ठ राजर्षि के रुप में भीष्म चरित्रचित्रण श्री व्यास के द्वारा महाभारत में किया गया है । परशुराम जामदग्न्य के समान युद्धविशारदों को युद्ध में परास्त करनेवाला भीष्म महाभारतकालीन सर्वश्रेष्ठ पराक्रमी क्षत्रिय माना जा सकता है । अपने इस पराक्रम के बल पर कुरुकुल का संरक्षण करना, एवं उस कुल की प्रतिष्ठा को बढाना, यही ध्येय भीष्म के सामने आमरण रहा । कुरुवंशीय राजा शंतनु से ले कर चित्रांगद, विचित्रवीर्य, पाण्डु, धृतराष्ट्र तथा दुर्योधन तक कौरववंश की ‘संरक्षक देवता’ के रुप में यह प्रयत्नशील रहा । अपने इस ध्येय की पूर्ति के लिये, अपनी तरुणाई में सभी विलासादि से यह दूर रहा, एवं वृद्धावस्था में मोक्षप्राप्ति के प्रति कभी उत्सुक न रहा । यह चाहता था केवल कुरुवंश का कल्याण एवं प्रतिष्ठा, जिसके लिए यह सदैव प्रयत्नशील रहा । भीष्म का दैवदुर्विलास यही था कि, जिस कुरुवंश की महत्ता के लिए यह आमरण तरसता रहा, उसी कुरुकुल का संपूर्ण विनाश इसके ऑखों के सामने हुआ, एवं इसके सारे प्रयत्न विफल साबित हुए । चित्रांगद, विचित्रवीर्य, पाण्डु, धृतराष्ट्र जैसे अल्पायु, कमजोर एवं शारिरीक व्याधीउपाधियों से पीडित राजाओं के राज्य को अपने मजबूत कंधों पर सँभलनेवाला भीष्म, भारतीययुद्ध के काल में कुरुवंश को आपसी दुही से न बचाया सका । इसी कारण, भारतीय युद्ध के दसवें दिन, इसने अत्यंत शोकाकुल हो कर अर्जुन से कहा, ‘मुझे युद्ध में परास्त कर मेरा पराजय करने की ताकद दुनिया में किसी को भी नही है । किंतु मेरा दुर्भाग्य यही है कि, पराजित हो कर ही मुझे मृत्यु प्राप्त करनी है । अतएव, मुझे युद्ध में हराकर, तुम विजय प्राप्त करो’।
भीष्म n.  भीष्म सर्वशास्त्रवेत्ता, परम ज्ञानी एवं तत्त्वज्ञान का महापंडित था । यह किसी की समस्याओं को तत्काल सुलझा देनेवाला, संशय का शमन करनेवाला, तथा जिज्ञासुओं की शंकासमाधान करनेवाला सात्त्विक विचारधारा का उदार महापुरुष था । यह रणविद्या, राजनीति, अर्थशास्त्र, एवं अध्यात्मज्ञान के साथ धर्म, नीति, एवं दर्शन परमवेत्ता था । गंगा ने वसिष्ठद्वारा, इसे समस्त वेदों में पारंगत कराया था । बृहस्पति तथा शुक्राचार्य के द्वारा इसने अस्त्रशस्त्र का ज्ञान प्राप्त किया था । परशुराम से अन्य अस्त्रशास्त्रो के साथ धनुर्वेद, राजधर्म तथा अर्थशास्त्र मी सीखा था [म.आ.९४.३१-३६] । इसके अतिरिक्त च्यवन भार्गव से साङवेद, वसिष्ट से महाबुद्धि, पितामहसुत से अध्यात्म, एवं मार्कण्डेय से यतिधर्म का ज्ञान प्राप्त किया था । शुक्र तथा बृहापति का तो यह साक्षात् शिष्य ही था । यह किसी के मारने से न मरने वाला ‘इच्छामरणी’ था, अर्थात जब यह चाहे तभी इसकी मृत्यु सम्भव थी [म.शां.३८.५-१६,४६.१५-२३]
भीष्म n.  ब्रह्मा के शाप के कारण, गंगा नदी को पूरुवंशीय राजा शंतनु की पत्नी बनना पडा । वसिष्ठ के शाप तथा इंद्र की आज्ञा से अष्टवसुओं ने गंगा के उदर में जन्म लिया । उनमें से सात पुत्रों को गंगा ने नदी में डुबो दिया । आठवॉं पुत्र ‘द्यु’ नामक वसु का अंश था, जिसको डुबाते समय शंतनु ने गंगा से विरोध किया । यही पुत्र भीष्म है, जिस साथ ले कर गंगा अन्तर्धान हो गयी । इस आठवें पुत्र को वसुओं द्वारा यह शाप दिया था कि, यह निःसंतान ही होगा । अपने पुत्र भीष्म को गंगा को दे देने के उपरांत, करीब छत्तीस वर्षो के उपरांत शंतनु मृगया खेलने गया । हिरन के पीछे दौडता हुआ गंगा नदी के पास आ कर उसने देखा कि, यकायक उसका पानी कम हो गया । शंतनु को आश्चर्य की सीमा न रही । जब उन्होंने देखा कि, एक सुन्दर बालक ने अपने अचूक शरसंधान के द्वारा गंगा का प्रवाह रोक रक्खा है । इस प्रकर बालक की अस्त्रविद्या को देख कर, वह चकित हो गया [म.आ.९४.२२-२५] । यह बालक और न हो कर, शंतनुपुत्र भीष्म ही था । किन्तु इतने दिनों के बाद देखने के कारण, वह उसे पहचान न सका । जैसे ही शंतनु ने इसे देखा, वह तत्काल ही दृष्टि से ओझिल हो गया । उसके मन में शंका हुयी, कहीं यह मेरा तो पुत्र नहीं? यह बात मन में आते ही उसने गंगा को सम्बोधित कर पुत्र को पुनः दिखाने के लिए आग्रह किया । तब स्त्रीरुपधारणी गंगा शुभ्र परिधानों तथा बहुमूल्य अलंकारों को धारण किए हुए उपस्थिटा हुयीं । अन्त में गंगा ने सर्पूण पूर्वकथन कहते हुए, अपने पुत्र भीष्म को अपनी गोद से उतार कर, राजा शंतनु को दिया [म.आ.९४.३१] । जिस समय गंगा ने भीष्म को दिया, उस समय उसका मातृहृदय शोक से विह्रल था, क्योंकि, जिस पुत्र का पालन पोषण किया, शिक्षादि दी, वही पुत्र आज उससे दूर जा रहा था । अंत में गंगा उस पुत्र को दे कर अंतर्धान हो गयीं ।
भीष्म n.  शंतनु ने गांगेय (भीष्म) को अपनी राजधानी हस्तिनापुर लाया, तथा शुभ मुहूर्त पर उसका युवराज्याभिषेक किया [म.आ.९४.३८] । इस प्रकार राज्यसूत्र को अपने हाथों में ले कर, यह अपने पिता की राज्यव्यवस्था की देखरेख करने लगा । इसकी योग्यता एवं व्यवहार से समस्त प्रजा एवं अन्यजन प्रसन्न थे ।
भीष्म n.  गंगा के विरह में पीडित शंतनु को कुछ भी न सूझता था । एक दिन जब वह मृगया के लिए गया था, तो उसे पास हे कहीं से सुगन्ध का ज्ञान हुआ । उस सुगन्ध को ढूढते ढूंढते, वह एक धीवरकन्या सत्यवती के पास आ खडा हुआ, जिसके शरीर से वह मादक सुगन्ध चारों ओर फैल कर, वातावरण को भर रही थी । शंतनु उसकी उठती युवावस्था एवं कौमार्य को देख कर लुब्ध हो उठा, एवं, धीवर से उसे प्राप्त करने की इच्छा प्रकट की । किन्तु धीवर ने सत्यवती को देने से इन्कार करते हुए कहा, ‘भीष्म के रहते हुए, सत्यवती का भावी पुत्र राज्य नहीं प्राप्त कर सकता । आप इसके भावी पुत्र को अपने उपरांत राज्याधिकारी घोषित करें, तो मैं आप को सत्यवती को इसी क्षण दे सकता हूँ ।’ धीवर की यह बात सुनते ही शंतनु खिन्न हो उठा, एवं निराश हृदय वापस लौट आया, क्योंकि वह नहीं चाहता था कि, भीष्म सा योग्य नेता राज्याधिकार से पदच्युत किया जाय । सत्यवती की मोहकता ने शंतनु के हृदय में इतना घर कर लिया कि, वह दिन पर दिन चिन्ता में जलने लगा । भीष्म नेपिता की उदासीनता का कारण कई बार पूँछा, किन्तु उसने इसे लज्जावश न बताया । आखिर एक दिन भीष्म को पता चल ही गया । पितृसुख के लिए स्वार्थत्याग करने का निश्चय कर, यह उस धीवर के पास जा पहुँचा । वहॉं इसने धीवर से अपने पिता के लिए सत्यवती को मॉगा, किंतु उसने अबकी बार भी वही शर्त सामने रखी । तब भीष्म ने आजन्म ब्रह्मचारी रह कर राज्यलोभ छोड कर, सदैव सत्यवती के पुत्रों की रक्षा करते हुए, उसके द्वारा हुए ज्येष्ठ पुत्र को ही राज्याधिकारी बनाने की प्रतिज्ञा की [म.आ.९४.७९] । इसकी इस भयंकर प्रतिज्ञा सुन कर देवताओं ने पुष्पवर्षा करना आरम्भ किया, एवं इसे ‘भीष्म’ नाम दिया [म.आ.९४.९३]
भीष्म n.  भीष्म सत्यवती को ले आया, जिसे देखते ही पिता ने इसे आनंदित हो कर आशीर्वाद दिया, ‘तुम ‘इच्छामरणी’ होगे’ [म.आ.९४.९४] । बाद में सत्यवती के चित्रांगद तथा विचित्रवीर्य नाम के दो पुत्र हुए । उनमें से चित्रांगद को गद्दी पर बैठा कर भीष्म स्वयं राज्यभार ले कर राजकाज चलाता रहा ।
भीष्म n.  शन्तनु की मृत्यु के उपरांत, उसकी नवयौवना पत्नी सत्यवती को प्राप्त करने के लिए पडोस के राजा उग्रायुध ने भीष्म के पास सन्देश भेजा कि, यह अपनी सौतीली मॉं सत्यवती को उसके यहॉं भेज दे । किन्तु अपने पिता के शोक में विह्रल भीष्म ने इसका कोई उत्तर न दिया । इस पर क्रोधित होकर उग्रायुध ने भीष्म पर चढाई करने के लिए सेनापति को आज्ञा दी । लोगों ने समझाया भी कि, भीष्म इस समय अशौच कर्म में है । अतएव इस समय उसे छेडना उचित नहीं । किन्तु उग्रायुध ने भीष्म पर हमला कर दिया । युद्ध तीन दिन तक चलता रहा, तथा उसके उपरांत, भीष्म ने उग्रायुध का वध किया [ह.वं.१.२०.४९-७१];[ म.शां.२७.१] ।किन्तु विचित्रवीर्य अभी छोटा ही था, अतएव राज्य की पूरी देखदेख भीष्म ही करता था । विवाहयोग्य आयु होने के उपरांत, भीष्म नें उसके विवाह का निश्चय किया । इतने में इसे पता चला कि, काशिराज की तीन कन्याओं अंबा, अंबिला एवं अंबालिका की शादी के लिए स्वयंवर होने वाला है । अतएव यह वहॉं गया, एवं वहॉं एकत्र हुए सभी राजाओं को चुनौती देकर, उसकी तीनों कन्याओं का हरण कर आया । विचित्रवीर्य का उन कन्याओं से विवाह करने लिए इसने मुहुर्तादि भी ठीक कराई । किन्तु बडी बहन अंबा को छोडकर अन्य दो बहनों से ही विचित्रवीर्य का विवाह हुआ, जिसका नाम अंबिका एवं अंबालिका था ।
भीष्म n.  काशिराज की बडी कन्या अंबा ने कहा कि, ‘मैं विचित्रवीर्य से शादी न करुँगी, कारण कि मने मन में शाल्व का वरण किया है ’। भीष्म इस पर राजी हो गया । अंबा शाल्व के पास गयी, लेकिन वह अंबा की वरण करने को राजी न हुआ । तब उसने आकर भीष्म से कहा, ‘मैं शाल्व से विवाह करना चाहती थी, तथा तुम उसमें बाधक बन कर आये । तुमने मेरा हरण किया है, अतएव शास्त्रोक्त के अनुसार, तुम्हे मुझसे शादी करनी चाहिए । मैं कदापि विचित्रीविर्य से विवाह न करूँगी, मेरा उससे सम्बन्ध ही क्या?’ किन्तु भीष्म तैयार न हुआ । इस कारण अंबा भीष्म से अत्यधिक क्रुद्ध हुयी, एवं उसके प्राप्त के लिए तप करने लगी । तपस्याकाल मेंब, एक दिन अंबाकी भेंट अपने नाना होत्रवाहन सृंजय से हुयी । उससे अंबा ने अपना सारा रोना कह सुनायी कि, किस तरह वह शाल्य का वरण करना चाहती थी, तथा किसी प्रकार शाल्व एवं भीष्म उसका वरणरुप में स्वीकार करने लिए राजी नहीं है । यह कह कर, अंबा ने सृंजय से कुछ मदद चाही । लेकिन उसने कहा, ‘यदि तुम मदद ही चाहती हो, तो परशुराम के पास जाओ । वह तुम्हारी मदद करेंगे ।’
भीष्म n.  फिर अंबा परशुराम के पास गयी, एवं उससे प्रार्थना की कि, वह भीष्म का वध करे, जिसने उसका हरण कर उसका जीवन बर्बाद किया है, तथा वरण करने के लिए भी तैयार नहीं है । परशुराम ने कहा ‘मैनें किसी ब्राह्मण के कार्य हेतु ही अस्त्रग्रहण करने की, प्रतिज्ञा की है, अतएव मैं असमर्थ हूँ’। अन्त में अंबा द्वारा बार बार प्रार्थना किये जाने पर, परशुराम ने भीष्म को समझा कर मामले को सुलझाने की बात सोची । आगे चल कर परशुराम ने गुरु के नाते भीष्म को बहुविध उपदेश दिया, एवं इस बात पर जोर दिया कि, यह अंबा को स्वीकार करे । किन्तु भीष्म अपनी बात पर अटल रहे । इससे क्रोधित होकर परशुराम ने भीष्म को द्वन्द्वयुद्ध के लिए चुनौती दी । दोनों युद्ध के लिए तत्पर ही थे कि, पुत्रचिन्ता से युक्त गंगा ने आकर भीष्म से कहा, ‘परशुराम तुम्हारे गुरु हैं, तुम्हें उनसे युद्ध करना शोभा नहीं देता’ । भीष्म ने कहा, ‘युद्ध मै नहीं कर रहा, किन्तु अपने सत्य की रक्षा हमें करनी ही है । इस प्रकार यदि तुम्हे समझाना ही है, तो परशुराम से कहो कि वह अपने हठ को छोडकर मेरी स्थिति पर ध्यान दे ’। अपने पुत्र भीष्म को परशुराम के क्रोध से उबारने के लिए, गंगा परशुराम के पास गयी, तथा उसे बहुविध समझाने का प्रयत्न किया । किन्तु परशुराम अपने हठ पर अटल रहे । परशुराम एवं भीष्म में चार दिन तक घोर युद्ध हुआ [म.उ.१७६-१८६] । अंत में अपने ‘प्रस्वाय अस्त्र’ के बल से भीष्म ने परशुराम को युद्ध में परास्त किया [म.उ.१८७.४]
भीष्म n.  भीष्म को समूल नष्ट करने के लिए अंबा पीछे पड गयी । पहले उसने घोर तप किया, फिर परशुरम के द्वारा इसे नष्ट करना चाहा । इसे देख कर गंगा नदी ने अंबा को शाप दिया कि, वह टेडी मेडी क्षुद्र नदी बनेगी । अंबा अपने अपमान का बदला लेने के लिए जी जान से जुटी ही रही । उसने शिव की उपासना कर के उससे वरदान प्राप्त किया, ‘इस जन्म में न सही, अगले जन्म में शिखण्डी बन कर, तुम भीष्म के मृत्यु का कारण बन कर, उससे अपना बदला ले सकोगी’। शिवप्रसाद के बल से अगले जन्म एमं शिखण्डी का जन्म ले कर, अंबा ने भीष्म का वध कराया [म.उ.१७०-१९३]
भीष्म n.  सात वर्षो तक राज्यभोग के साथ-साथ अत्यधिक भोगविलास में निमग्न हुआ विचित्रवीर्य राजा राजयक्ष्मा से पीडित मृत्यु को प्राप्त हुआ । अपनी पत्नी अंबिका एवं अंबालिका से उसे कोई संतान न थी । अतएव सत्यवती ने भीष्म को आज्ञा दी कि, वह विचित्रवीर्य की पत्नियों से संभोग कर के नियोग द्वारा पुत्र उत्पन्न करे । किंतु इसने अपनी सौतेली माता की आज्ञा की अवहेलना कर, अपने ब्रह्मचर्य की प्रतिज्ञा पर यह दृढ रहा । हार कर सत्यवती ने व्यास के द्वारा संतान उत्पन्न करा कर, विचित्रवीर्य के राज्य के उत्तराधिकारी के रुप में दो पुत्र प्राप्त किये ।
भीष्म n.  विचित्रवीर्य पुत्रों में से प्रथम पुत्र धृतराष्ट्र जन्मान्ध था, अतएव भीष्म ने विचित्रवीर्य के उपरांत पाण्डु को राजगद्दी पर बैठाया । किन्तु पाण्डु की शीघ्र ही मृत्यु हो गयी, अतएव राज्य की सारी व्यवस्था धृतराष्ट्र ही देखने लगा । धृतराष्ट्र का व्यवहार अपने तथा पाण्डु के पुत्रों में भिन्न था, जिसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि, कौरवों एवं पाण्डु के पुत्रों (पाण्डवों) के बीच एक खाई पैदा हो गयी, जो कालांतर में चौडी ही होती गयी । अपने पिता शंतनु एवं उसके बाद विचित्रवीर्य के काल से लेकर, उसके मृत्यु तक भीष्म हस्तिनापुर राज्य के सर्वांगीण विकासपथ की ओर ले जाने के लिए सदैव प्रयत्नशील रहा । यह राज्य का सब से बडा कर्ताधर्ता सलाहकार एवं हर प्रकार की व्यवस्था का निर्देशक था । धृतराष्ट्र के व्यवहार में पक्षपात देखकर, द्रुपद राजा के पुरोहित ने आकर भीष्म से शिकायत की, कि धृतराष्ट्र अपने पुत्रों की ओर सजग, एवं पाण्डवों की ओर उपेक्षित व्यवहार करता है । भीष्म ने पुरोहित का योग्य स्वागत कर पाण्डवों की ओर पूरी तरह से ध्यान देने का उन्हे वचन दिया [म.उ.२१] । युधिष्ठिर द्वारा किये गये राजसूययज्ञ में पाण्डवों ने चतुर्दिशाओं में दिग्विजय प्राप्त कर यशःकीर्ति प्राप्त की । पाण्डवों के इस दिग्विजय को देखकर भीष्म ने कर्ण से कहा, ‘अर्जुन तुमसे अधिक पराक्रमी है जिसका उदाहरण सम्मुख है । पाण्डवो के ये दिग्विजय का कारण अर्जुन ही है ।’ भीष्म की इस कठोर वाणी को सुनकर कर्ण तिलमिला गया, तथा कहने लगा कि, वह अर्जुन से कहीं अधिक श्रेष्ठ है । इतना कहकर यह दिग्विजय के लिए निकल पडा [म.व.परि१. क्र.२४]
भीष्म n.  पाण्डवों से बधुत्व भाव रखने के लिए भीष्म ने अनेक बार दुर्योधन को समझाया, किन्तु उसका कुछ भी फायदा न हुआ । आखिर बात युद्ध तक आ गयी, एवं इसे दुर्योधन की मनमानी के बीच अपनी विचार धारा की हत्या करनी पडी । इसे कौरवपक्ष के सेनापतित्व का भार भी ग्रहण करना पडा । इस भार का वहन करने के पूर्व उसने दुर्योधन से दो शर्ते रखी थी । पहली शर्त यह थी कि, ये पाण्डवो से युद्ध कर उन्हें पराजित अवश्य करेगा, किन्तु युद्ध में किसी पाण्डव की हत्त्या अपने हाथों न करेगा । दूसरी शर्त थी कि, जिस समय यह युद्ध करेगा उस समय कर्ण उसके साथ युद्ध न करेगा, उसे इसके पीछे रहने पडेगा [म.उ.१५३.२१-२४] । कौरवसेना का अधिपत्य स्वीकारते समय भीष्म ने दुर्योधन से विश्वास दिलाया, ‘मैं सेनाकर्म, व्यूहरचना, भृत एवं अभृत लोगों से कार्य चलाना, सैन्यसंचलन एवं आक्रमण कर्मो में प्रवीण हूँ । युद्धशास्त्र में मेरा ज्ञान देवगुरु बृहस्पति के समान हैं । मैं तुम्हे विश्वास दिलाना चाहता हूँ कि, मैं तुम्हारा सैनापत्य का कार्य अच्छी तरह से निभाऊंगा, एवं एक महिने से पहले पांडवसेना को ध्वस्त कर दूंगा’ [म.उ.१९४]
कौरव एवं पांडव सेना का बलाबल---भारतीय युद्ध आरम्भ होने के पूर्व सेनापति भीष्म ने कौरव एवं पांडवों के चतुरंगिणी सेना की विस्तृत जानकारी एवं बलाबल दुर्योधन को बताया था [म.उ.१६४] । महाभारत के ‘रहसंख्यान’ पर्व [म.उ.१६१-१६९] में प्राप्त इस जानकारी से प्रतीत होता है कि, जिस प्रकार पदाति-दल, अश्वदल आदि में सैनिकों की विभिन्न श्रेणियॉं थी, उसे प्रकार कुशलता की मात्रा से रथसेना में भी अनेक पद थे ।
भीष्म के द्वारा बतायी गयी श्रेणियॉं इस प्रकार थीः---रथयूथपयूथप, महारथ, अतिरथ, अर्धरथ एवं रथोदार । उनमें से रथयूथपयूथप सबसे बडा पद था, एवं रथीदार सबसे छोटा पद था ।
भीष्म के द्वारा निर्देश किये गये कौरवसेना के विभिन्न रथयोद्धा निम्न प्रकार थेः---
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कौरवपक्ष पांडवपक्ष
(१) अतिरथ भीष्म,
कृतवर्मन,
भोज,
बाह्रीक,
शल्य ।
(१) अतिरथ धृष्टद्युम्न (सेनापति),
कुंतिभोज पुरुजित,
वसुदान,
श्रेणिमत्,
सत्यजित (द्रुपदपुत्र) ।
(२) अर्धरथ कर्ण । (२) अर्धंरथ क्षत्रधर्मन् (धृष्टद्युम्नपुत्र) ।
(३) एकरथ शकुनि,
सुदक्षिण कांबोज,
दंडधार ।
(४) महारथ अश्वत्थामन्, जो रथ योद्धाओं में अतुल्य माना जाता था,
और पौरव ।
(३) महारथ अज,
अमितौजस् चेकितान,
जयन्त,
द्रुपद,
द्रौपदेय,
धृष्टकेतृ (शिशुपालसुत),
भोज,
रोचमान,
विराट,
शंख,
श्वेत,
सत्यजित्,
सत्यधृति ।
(५) रथ अचल,
वृषक गांधार ।
(४) रथ अर्जुन,
उत्तमौजस्,
उत्तर वैराटि,
काश्य (अष्टरथ),
भीन (अष्टरथ),
वार्धक्षेमि ।
(५) रथमुख्य शिखंडिन्।
(६) रथयूथपयूथप उग्रायुध,
कृप शारद्वत,
द्रोण,
भूरिश्रवस।
(६) रथयूथपयूथप अभिमन्यु,
घटोत्कच,
माधव, सात्त्यकि ।
(७) रथवर जलसंध मागध ।    
(८) रथसत्तम बृहद्वल कौसल्य,
वृषसेन,
दुर्योधनपुत्र लक्ष्मण,
विंद,
अनुविंद,
शल्य,
जयद्रथ,
अलायुध ।
(७) रथसत्तम क्रोधहन्तृ,
चित्रायुध,
सेनाबिन्दु ।
    (८) रथिन् नकुल, सहदेव ।
    (९) रथोत्तम क्षत्रदेव, पांडयराज ।
(९) रथोदार दुर्योधन,
सुशर्मन,एवं उसके चार भाई ।
(१०) रथोदार काशिक,
केकयबन्धु (पंचक),
चंद्रसेन,
नील,
वमदिराश्व,
युधामन्यु,
युधिष्ठिर,
व्याघ्रदत्त,
शंख,
सुकुमार,
सूर्यदत्त ।

भीष्म n.  भीष्म के द्वारा किये गये उपर्युक्त रथि महारथियों के वर्णन में कर्ण को रथी अथवा महारथी न कहकर केवल अर्धरथों में उसकी गणना की । द्रोणाचार्य ने भी उसे अपनी संमति दी । यह अपना अपमान समझकर कर्ण क्रोध से उछल पडा । उसने दुर्योधन से कहा, ‘बुढापे के कारण, भीष्म मतिभ्रष्ठ हो चुका है । ऐसे मतिभ्रष्ट लोगों की सलाह लेना मुझे सरासर मूर्खता प्रतीत होती है । दुष्टबुद्धि भीष्म कौरवों में फूट पाडना चाहता है । मेरी राय यही है कि, इस मतिभ्रष्ट एवं दुष्टबुद्धि बूढे का पल्ला तुम छोड दो । जबतक यह भीष्म कौरवसेना का सेनापति है तबतक मैं युद्ध में भाग नहीं लूँगा’ [म.उ.१६५.१०-२७] । इस पर भीष्म ने भी अत्यंत क्रुद्ध हो कर दुर्योधन से कहा, ‘कवचकुंडल आदि के त्याग से निर्बल, एवं परशुराम तथा ब्राह्मणों के शाप से इंद्रियदुर्बल हुए पापी कर्ण के लिए, अर्धरथ यह नीच श्रेणी ही योग है’। आगे चल कर इसने कर्ण से कहा, ‘मुझे बूढा कहने की हिंमत तू ने की है । किन्तु मै चूनौति देता हूँ कि, युद्ध में तुम्हारा पराजय करने की ताकद आज भी मेरे जर्जर बाहुओं में है। परशुराम जामदग्न्य आदि यों को मैने रणभूमि में पराजित किया है । फिर तेरे जैसे पापी मनुष्य का पराजय करना मेरे बाये हात का खेल है’। अपने गुरु भीष्म एवं परममित्र कर्ण के दरम्यान हुए इस वाक्युद्ध के कारण, दुर्योधन अत्यधिक कष्टी हुआ, एवं उसने इन दोनों को शान्त होने के लिए प्रार्थना की [म.उ.१६६.१-१०]
भीष्म n.  भारतीय युद्ध में प्रथम दस दिन यह कौरव सेना का सेनापति रहा । इसके रथ की पताका पर ताडवृक्ष का चिह्र था [म.वि.१४८.५] । इन दस दिनों में अत्यधिक वीरता के साथ लडकर, एवं सैन्यसंचालन कर, इसने पांडवों की सेना को ध्वस्त कर जर्जर ही नहीं बनाया; बल्कि उनकी जीत की आशा को भी मिट्टी में मिला दिया । इसकी युद्धवीरता का प्रमाण इससे अधिक क्या हो सकता है कि, युद्धभूमि में कभी अस्त्रग्रहण न करने की प्रतिज्ञा करनेवाले भगवान कृष्ण को भी अस्त्रग्रहण करना पडा । भारतीय युद्ध के तीसरे एवं नवें दिन अर्जुन की रक्षा के लिए कृष्ण को हाथ में सुदर्शन चक्र ले कर युद्धभूमि में उतरना पडा [म.भी.५५, १०२] । भारतीययुद्ध के तीसरे दिन इसका तथा अर्जुन का घनघोर युद्ध हुआ, जिसमें अर्जुन आहत हो कर मूर्च्छित हो गया । यह देख कर कृष्ण अत्यधिक क्रुद्ध हुआ, एवं अर्जुन की रक्षा के लिए हाथ में सुदर्शन चक्र ले कर स्वयं युद्धभूमि में प्रविष्ट हुआ । कृष्ण का यह रौद्ररुप देख कर भीष्म ने अपने अस्त्र-शत्र नीचे रख दिये, एवं श्रद्धावनत हो कर कृष्ण से कहा, ‘स्वयं कृष्ण भगवान् से मेरी हत्या हो रही है, यह मेरा सौभाग्य है’ । ऐसा कह कर इसने कृष्ण का स्तवन किया । इतने में अर्जुन ने होश में आकर कृष्ण से प्रार्थना की, ‘युद्धभूमि में आप न उतरे, अभी मैं युद्ध के लिए काफी हूँ’।
भीष्म n.  भारतीययुद्ध के दसवें दिन, दुर्योधन ने भीष्म पर आक्षेप लगाते हुए कहा, ‘आप का मन तो पाण्डवों के पक्ष की ओर है । अतएव युद्ध में हमारी जीत संभव कहॉं?’ भीष्म ने चिन्तित हो कर गंभीरतापूर्वक कहा, ‘मैं बूढा हूँ, फिर भी जो होता है करता हूँ, तथा किसी प्रकार कर्तव्य से च्युत नहीं । पाण्डव बल पौरुष में श्रेष्ठ तथा रणभूमि में अजेय हैं । फिर यदि तुम मेरे रणकौशल को ही देखना चाहते हो तो कल देख सकते हो । देखना, या तो कल पाण्डवों की हार होगी, या मेरी मृत्यु [म.भी.१०५.२६] । पाण्डवविहीन पृथ्वी को बनाने की भीष्मप्रतिज्ञा को सुन कर सभी पाण्डव भयभीत हो उठे । क्यों कि, वे समस्त कौरवसेना में भीष्म की ही शक्ति का सिक्का मानते थे । कृष्ण ने पाण्डवों के बचाने के लिए अर्जुनादि के सामने अपने विचार प्रकट करते हुए कहा, ‘तुम लोग यदि अपना जीवन चाहते हो, तो भीष्म की मृत्यु का उपाय करो, अन्यथा तुम को पराजित हो कर, अपने प्राणों की आहुति देनी पडेगी’।
भीष्म n.  नवें दिन की रात्रि को कृष धर्मादि पाण्डवों को साथ ले कर भीष्म से मिलने उसके शिबिर गया । कृष्ण ने भीष्म से कहा, ‘आपकी प्रतिज्ञा सुन कर सभी पाण्डव आतंकित हो उठे हैं । अब आपकी मृत्यु किस प्रकार सम्भव हो कि, जिससे पाण्डव की रक्षा की जा सके?।’ भीष्म ने कृष्ण के प्रश्न का उत्तर देते हुए कहा, ‘जिसके रथ का ध्वज अभद्र हो, जो हीन जाति का हो, अथवा जो स्त्री हो उससे मैं युद्ध कदापि न करुँगा।’ द्रुपद राजा का पुत्र शिखण्डी पूर्वकाल में स्त्री था, बाद में पुरुष बना । अतएव उसे सामने कर के, यदि अर्जुन युद्ध करेगा, तो मै कुछ न कर सकूँगा, तथा मुझे अर्जुन सहज ही युद्ध में जीत सकेगा । इस प्रकार पाण्डव सुलभता के साथ रणभूमि में कौरव को जीतकर राज्य प्राप्त कर सकते हैं [म.भी.१०३] । दूसरे दिन भीष्म के बताये हुए मार्ग को अपना कर शिखण्डी को सामने रखकर अर्जुन ने भीष्म को पराजित किया [म.भी.११३-११४] । भीष्म पतन काय यह दिन पौष के कृष्णपक्ष की सप्तमी थी, एवं उस समय फल्गुनी नक्षत्र था (भारतसावित्री) ।
भीष्म n.  इसके वध के समय सर्वांग बाणों से बिद्ध था । रथ से गिरकर बाणों पर ही टिका हुआ भूमि पर यह इस प्रकर आ गिरा, मानों शरशय्या में लेटा हो । इसका सर केवल बाणों से बचा था, जो शरशय्या से लटक रहा था । उसे देखकर अर्जुन ने तीन बाणों को मार कर, इसके सर के लिए तकिया बना दिया । शरशय्या में पडा हुआ यह अधिक प्यासा हो उठा था, जिसे देखकर अर्जुन ने अपने एक बाण द्वारा गंगा नदी के प्रवाह को अपनी ओर खींचकर, उस धारा के द्वारा भीष्म की तृषा का हरण किया । अर्जुन की इस सेवा से भीष्म अत्यधिक प्रसन्न हुआ [म.भी.११५] । जिस समय भीष्म पितामह शरशय्या में आहत था, उस समय अनेकानेक ऋषि, मुनि, देवी देवतादि इसके दर्शन करने आये थे । इन सारे ऋषिंमुनियों को एवं अपने कौरवपांडव बांधवो को इसने नानाविध रुप से उपदेश दिया । इसने दुर्योधन से कहा, ‘मेरी मृत्यु कौरव पाण्डवों के बीच हुए वैरभाव की अन्तिम आहुति हो, तो अच्छा है । इससे तुम सभी विनष्ट होने से बच जाओगे’। यह आजीवन कर्ण को हेय दृष्टि से देखता रहा, कारण कि वह जन्म से हीन था । कर्ण भी हृदय से इसका आदर नहीं करता था । किन्तु अन्तिम समय, जब कर्ण इससे मिलने आया, तब सारे भेदभावों को भूल कर इसने उसका दृढ आलिंगन करते हुए सदुपदेश दिया, ‘या तो तुम कौरव पाण्डवों के बीच मित्रता स्थापित कराओ, अथवा कौरवों के पक्ष को छोडकर पाण्डवों के पक्ष में सम्भिलित हो जाओ’। दुर्योधन को तनमनधन से मित्रता का व्रत लेने वाले कर्ण ने भीष्म से कहा, ‘दुर्योधन मेरा मित्र है, अतः आप मुझे यह अनुज्ञा दें कि, उसी के पक्ष में लडता हुआ मैं पाण्डवों का पराभव करुँ’ । भीष्म ने उसके व्रत को सुनकर उसे अनुज्ञा प्रदान की [म.भी.११६-११७] । भारतीय युद्ध में अपने कुरुवंशी बन्धुओं का क्षय देख कर युधिष्ठिर अत्यधिक शोकमग्न हुआ था । उसे इस प्रकार उदास देखकर, अपने धर्मोपदेश के द्वारा भीष्म ने उसे शान्ति प्रदान की । युधिष्ठिर को धर्मोपदेश देते समय भीष्म इतना शक्तिहीन हो चला था कि, कृष्ण ने उसे शक्ति प्रदान कर, उपदेश देने के योग्य बनाया [म.शां.५२];[ भा.१.९,९.२२.१९] । पितामह भीष्म एवं युधिष्ठिर के बीच हुयी ज्ञानचर्चा महाभारत के ‘शान्ति’ एवं ‘अनुशासन’ पर्व में प्राप्त है, जो जो आज भी अपनी अपार ज्ञानराशि के कारण, जीवन के परम सत्य की ओर पथनिर्देश कराने में सर्वश्रेष्ठ मानी जाती है ।
भीष्म n.  अर्जुन के द्वारा आहत होकर जब यह शरशय्या पर पडा हुआ था, उस समय सूर्य दक्षिणायन था । अतएव इच्छाबल पर इसने अपने प्राणों को रोक रखा था । जैसे ही सूर्य उत्तरायण आया, इसने अपने प्राण विसर्जित किये [म.अनु.१६८.७] । यह दिन माघ सुदी अष्टमी थी [निर्णयसिंधु पृ.१६३] । जिस समय यह अपने प्राणों को त्याग कर निजधाम जाने की तैयारी में था, उस समय अनेकानेक शत्रुमित्र पक्ष के लोगों के अतिरिक्त, न जाने कितने ऋषिमुनि आदि इसके दर्शन कर, उपदेश ग्रहण करने की लालसा से आये थे । इसकी मृत्यु विनशन क्षेत्र में हुयी [भा.१.९.१] । मृत्यु के समय इसकी आयु सम्भवतः १८६ वर्षो की थी । यह उम्र में करीब अपनी सौतेली मॉं सत्यवती का समवयस्क था, तथा सत्यवती का पुत्र व्यास, जो उसे कौमार्य अवस्था में हुआ था, वह तो इससे कहीं अधिक छोटा था ।
भीष्म n.  भीष्म कौरववंश का वह प्रकाशस्तम्भ था, जिसने आजीवन लोगों को अपने चरित्र, कार्य, एवं रीतिनीति से आलोकित कर, उसे सन्मार्ग दिखाया । फिर भी इसके जीवन में एक अवसर यह भी आता है कि, कौरव पाण्डवों की भरी सभा में निर्वस्त्र की जानेवाली द्रौपदी विलाप कर के भीष्म से न्याय की मॉंग करती है, तथा भीष्म उसकी दीनहीन दशा न देखकर, उसे पत्नीधर्म का पाठ पढाते हैं । द्यूत खेलते समय धर्म ने अपने को, समस्त पाण्डवों को तथा अन्त में द्रौपदी को भी हार लिया । कौरव द्रौपदी की लोकलज्जा का हरण कर, उसका उपहास करने लगे, तथा सभी बडे बूढों के साथ भीष्म भी चूपचाप बैठ गया । द्रौपदी ने इसी से न्याय की मॉंग की, क्यों कि, यह पाण्डवों तथा कौरव दोनों का हितैषी था, यहा नहीं, यह परम धर्मात्मा, न्यायी एवं उचित अनुचित का समझने वाला, सभी से उम्र में बडा, तथा कौरववंश का कर्ताधर्ता प्रमुख व्यक्ति था । द्रौपदी ने इससे प्रश्न किया, ‘धर्मराज जब कौरवों द्वारा स्वयं अपने को हार गये हैं, तब क्या उन्हें अधिकार है कि, मुझे वह दॉंव पर लगायें’? भीष्म ने उत्तर दिया, ‘वस्तुतः अधिकार तो नहीं, क्योकि तुम्हें दॉंव पर लगाना अनुचित है । अतएव तुम्हें कोई जीत नहीं सकता । लेकिन तुम्हें भूलना चाहिए कि, स्त्री सदैव पति के आधीन रही है, तथा उसे अपनी पत्नी पर सदैव अधिकार रहा है । आज तुम्हारा पति युधिष्थिर कौरवों का दास है, अतएव आर्यपत्नी होने के कारण, तुम दास की दासी हो [म.स.६०.४०-४२] । भीष्म के द्वारा दिये गये इस उपदेश ने द्रौपदी के हृदय को सन्तोष एवं शान्ति तो प्रदान न किया, किन्तु उसके मन को अधिक उद्विग्न बना दिया । द्रौपदी चाहती थी कि, भीष्म उस आरर्नाद करने वाली कुलवधू की लुटती हुयी लज्जा को देखकर, दुर्योधन के द्वारा दिये गये आदेशों का खण्डन करते हुए उसकी नारीत्व की रक्षा करेगा । किन्तु भीष्म तो पति की आज्ञाओं का अन्धा पालन करने पर प्रवचन दे कर ही, अपने कर्तव्य की इतिश्री समझ बैठे [म.वि.परि.१.६०.२५-४५]
भीष्म n.  भीष्म के चरित्र में यदाकदा कुछ धूमिल शूल और दीख पडते हैं । कौरवों ने द्यूत में पाण्डवों को बुलाकर कपटापूर्ण व्यवहार के द्वारा उन्हें जीतने की योजना बनाई, जिसकी पूर्ण सूचना इसे प्राप्त थी । फिर भी इसने एक बार भी दुर्योधनादि को रोकने का प्रयत्न न किया । दुर्योधन को एक बार नहीं, हजार बार इसने कहा की, उसका पक्ष न्याय का नहीं, वह अन्यायी है । फिर भी भारतीय युद्ध के समय, इसने अपने आदर्शो के विरुद्ध दुर्योधन को अपना राजा मानकर, पग पग पर उसका साथ दिया । दूसरी ओर युद्धनीति के विरुद्ध, इसने अपने मरने का रहस्य कृष्ण एवं युधिष्ठिर को बताया, जो इसके विपक्षी थे । महाभारत के कई पाण्डुलिपियों में प्राप्त श्लोकों से पता चलता ह्गैं कि, इन कमजोरियों को दृष्टि में रखकर कृष्ण ने भी इसकी कटु आलोचना की थी ।
भीष्म n.  कौरवों का पक्ष अन्यायी हो कर भी इसने उनका साथ क्यों दिया, इसका स्पष्टीकरण भीष्म ने महाभारत में निम्न प्रकार किया है. ‘अर्थस्य पुरुषो दास:’ दासस्त्वर्थो न कस्यचित् । इति सत्यं महाराज, बद्धोऽस्म्यर्थेन कौरवैः॥ (पुरुष अर्थ का दास है, पर अर्थ किसी का दास नही है । हे महाराज, यह सत्य है, कौरवों ने मुझे अर्थ से बॉंध लिया हैं) । उपर्युक्त भीष्म के कथन से साधारण रुप में यही अर्थ निकलता है कि, यह अर्थ (धन, संपत्ति) को प्रधानता देता है । यदि हम इसे इस प्रकार ले, तो भीष्म के ये शब्द इसके आदर्शात्मक जीवन का धब्बा प्रतीत होता है जो उसके सम्पूर्ण व्यक्तित्व को ढक देता है । किन्तु कई अभ्यासकों के अनुसार, ‘अर्थस्य पुरुषो दासः’ शब्दों से भीष्म के द्वारा प्रकट की गयी विवशता सिर्फ संपत्ति के विषय में न हो कर अधिक तर राजनैतिक ढंग की थी । ‘कौटिलीय अर्थशास्त्र’ में अर्थ की व्याख्या ‘राजनैतिक कर्तव्य’ इस अर्थ से की गयी हैं । इस प्रकार, राजनैतिक कर्तव्यों से बँधा हुआ भीष्म यदि अपने व्रत के अनुसार, आजीवन कौरव पक्ष के दुःखसुखों में सदैव एक क्रियाशील कर्ताधर्ता रहा तो, इसमें कुछ भी अनौचित्य प्रतीत नही होगा । भीष्म की तरह द्रोण, कृप एवं शल्य आदि ने भी ‘अर्थेन बद्ध;’ कह कर दुर्योधन के पक्ष का स्वीकार किया था । उन में से द्रोण दक्षिणपांचाल देश का राजा था, एवं शल्य युधिष्ठिर का मातुल एवं मद्र का राजा था । इन सारें राजा महाराजाओं के ‘अर्थेन बद्ध;’ कथन से यही तात्पर्य प्रतीत होता है कि, वे सारे दुर्योधन से वचनबद्ध थे, एवं उसी के कारण, दुर्योधन के पक्ष में शामिल हो गये थे [म.भी.४१.३६-३७, ५१-५२, ६६-६७, ७७-७८]
भीष्म n.  आधुनिक दृष्टि से हम देखे तो हमें कुछ उचित नहीं लगता कि, अप्ने पिता की भोगपिपासा की तृप्ति के लिए भीष्म इतना बडा ब्रह्मचर्य का व्रत लेकर आगे बढे । उस व्रत के कारण, आगे आनेवाली कर्तव्य शृंखालाओं को भी इसे बार बार उपेक्षा करनी पडी । लेकिन यह लकीर का फकीर बना, एवं अपनी पुरानी प्रतिज्ञा पर जमा रहा । इसने आजन्म ब्रह्मचर्य का व्रत न लिया होता, तो कुरुवंश दो भागों में विभक्त होकर, आपस में टकरा कर खत्म न हो जाता । चित्रांगद तथा विचित्रवीर्य ऐसी सन्ताने न होती, जो अल्पायु में ही मर गयी । पांडु तथा धृतराष्ट्र ऐसे पुत्र न होते कि, एक क्षय से मरा, तो दूसरा जन्माध पैदा हुआ । इसका कारण था कि यह सभी नियोग द्वारा जन्मे थे किसी में तेज, बल तथा शक्ति न थी जिस भीष्म में वह थी, वह कर्मपथ से हठ कर निष्क्रिय धर्मपथ अपना बैठा था ।

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
BHĪṢMA   
1) Genealogy.
From Viṣṇu were descended in the following order--Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas- Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā- Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha- Saṁyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha- Duṣyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhotā-Gala-Gardda Suketu-Bṛhatkṣetra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha-Ṛkṣa-Samvaraṇa- Kuru-Jahnu-Suratha-Viḍūratha-Sārvabhauma- Jayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhāvuka-Cakroddhata-Devātithi- Ṛkṣa-Bhīma-Pratīpa-Śantanu-Bhīṣma.
2) Birth and Boyhood.
Bhīṣma's name in his boyhood was Devavrata. He was the eighth son of Śantanu, a king of the lunar dynasty and Gaṅgādevī. This boy was the human embodiment of Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. Śantanu, his father was the re-birth of another king, Mahābhiṣeka. The story concerning this, as given in the Mahābhārata is as follows:-- King Mahābhiṣeka after his death, attained Viṣṇuloka. Once he went to visit Brahmā at Satyaloka. At that time Gaṅgādevī was also present in Brahmā's assembly. In that pious atmosphere, a gentle breeze began to blow and Gaṅgādevī's clothes were slightly deranged. Just at that moment, Mahābhiṣeka took a stealthy glance at her and she also returned that glance. This was noted by Brahmā who turned both of them into human beings by a curse. Gaṅgādevi begged pardon and Brahmā lifted the curse and blessed her that the Aṣṭavasus would come to the earth to be born as her sons and that afterwards she could come back to Heaven. After that Gaṅgādevī was born as a mortal woman in the world under the name Gaṅgā and she spent her days in the forests near the Gaṅgā river valleys. In those days the ruler of the Lunar dynasty was a king named Pratīpa. Having no children, he went to the bank of the river Gaṅgā and performed tapas there. Gaṅgādevī who was moving about in the forests nearby, saw the King deeply absorbed in his tapas. She approached him and sat on his right thigh. She wanted the King to be her husband. He explained to her that the right thigh is the proper seat of a daughter-in-law and so she would become his son's wife in due course. In course of time, Pratīpa had a son, Śantanu, born to him. When Śantanu grew up into a young man, one day he went for a hunt to the Gaṅgā-valley and there he met Gaṅgādevī. He fell in love with her at first sight and courted her. Gaṅgādevī agreed to become his wife on condition that he should not say anything to displease her and if he violated that condition she would leave him. The king accepted the condition and they became man and wife. At about that time, the wife of Dyo, one of the Aṣṭavasus, happened to see the sacrificial cow of the sage Vasiṣṭha and wished to have it. She expressed her desire to her husband, Dyo. Dyo, with the other seven vasus went and took away by force, Vasiṣṭha's cow. Vasiṣṭha in his anger cursed the Aṣṭavasus to be born as mortals. They repented and begged pardon from Vasiṣṭha. The sage told them that all of them would be born as the sons of Gaṅgādevī and all except Dyo, who actually stole the cow, would return to Heaven at the time of birth itself. As for Dyo, he would continue to live in the world for a long time, as an adventurous hero. Gaṅgādevī became pregnant and gave birth to her first child. She carried the child to the river Gaṅgā and threw it into the river. Śantanu who followed her up to the river bank, did not say anything against her, remembering his promise. Seven children were born to her and she threw all of them into the river in this way. When she gave birth to the eighth child, Śantanu insisted that he would not allow her to throw away that child into the river. As he had violated the condition, the angry Gaṅgādevī left the palace with her child. She named it Devavrata and brought him up in the forest. The sage Vasiṣṭha and Gaṅgādevī taught him all branches of knowledge. Thirtytwo years later, the king went to the same forest for hunting. He saw a handsome boy stopping the flow of the river Gaṅgā. Getting interested in the boy, the King approached him. But by that time he had disappeared. The King prayed to Gaṅgādevī to give back the child. She appeared with the child and after handing over the child to him vanished. The king returned to the palace with the child. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapters 95-100].
3) The name Bhīṣma.
Devavrata was anointed, as heir-apparent. One day King Śantanu reached the forest near the Gaṅgā river valley, for hunting. As he was hunting, absorbed in the beauty of the forest scenery, he felt the perfume of musk filling the air in the forest. He wondered from where it could come. He went on and on trying to find out the source of this smell until he reached the cottage of a fisherman. The fisherman had a daughter named Satyavatī. It was from her that the fragrance of musk spread all around. The king fell in love with her at first sight. He asked the fisherman to give the girl in marriage to him. But the brave fisher- man did not yield to the king's demand immediately. He laid down several conditions, one of which was that Satyavatī's sons should succeed to the throne of Śantanu. The king was in a fix. Devavrata was the eldest son and heir-apparent. To deny kingship to his sons would be highly improper. Unable to find a solution to this difficult problem, the king returned to the palace, much depressed and gloomy. There he avoided all company and took to his bed, passing his time in sadness and solitude. When Devavrata knew about his father's condition, he called the Ministers and asked them about it. They told him everything in details. At once, without informing even his father, Devavrata went to the fisherman's cottage on the bank of the river Gaṅgā and begged for Satyavatī on behalf of his father. The fisherman repeated his former condition. Devavrata agreed that Satyavatī's son shall be given the right of Kingship. The fisherman pointed out that disputes were likely to arise between Devavrata's sons and Satyavatī's children regarding the right of succession to the throne. At once Devavrata stood up and made a solemn pledge that he would remain a bachelor for life. The fisherman gave Satyavatī to Devavrata to be taken to the King. Devavrata took her to the palace and presented her to his father. The King, when he came to know of the part played by his son in the matter, rose from his bed and embraced Devavrata with tears of joy and gratitude. The gods showered flowers on the scene. Because he had taken such a solemn oath, it was declared that henceforth he would be known by the name “BHĪṢMA”. The loving father Śantanu also gave him a boon that Bhīṣma would die only when he wished. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 100].
4) Affairs of the Kingdom in crisis.
Two sons named Vicitravīrya and Citrāṅgada were born to Satyavatī by Śantanu, who died shortly afterwards. As desired by Satyavatī, Bhīṣma crowned the boy Citrāṅgada as king. Although Citrāṅgada's reign was a prosperous one, it could not last long. Once a Gandharva named Citrāṅgada attacked him at Kurukṣetra and after a battle which lasted for three years, the Gandharva Citrāṅgada killed the King Citrāṅgada. It was Bhīṣma who performed the funeral rites of the King Citrāṅgada. After that Vicitravīrya was crowned King. It was at that time that the Svayaṁvara of the three daughters of the King of Kāśī, Aṁbā, Aṁbikā and Aṁbālikā, was held. Bhīṣma thought that it would be good if Vicitravīrya married them. So Bhīṣma attended that function. The presence of Bhīṣma who was an old man, at the Svayaṁvara, frightened the girls. The other kings who were present, stopped him from entering the place, since he had taken an oath to remain a lifelong bachelor. The old Bhīṣma stood up and spoke at length about the eight different forms of marriage and after defeating several kings like Śālva, he seized the three daughters of the King of Kāśi and took them with him in his chariot to Hastināpura. Preparations were made for the marriage of Vicitravīrya with the three princesses. Then Ambā approached Bhīṣma and told him that she had already dedicated her heart to the king of Śālva. Bhīṣma generously allowed her to return home. For the rest of Ambā's story, see the word “Ambā”. Vicitravīrya married Ambikā and Ambālikā. He ruled over the country for seven years at the end of which he died of consumption. The dynasty faced a crisis, as there was no one to succeed him. Satyavatī approached Bhīṣma with a suggestion to beget children by Vicitravīrya's wife. But Bhīṣma stood firmly on his solemn oath to continue as a life-long bachelor. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Verse 100-104].
5) Bhīṣma's Wire Pulling.
After that Satyavatī summoned Vyāsa to Hastināpura and sons were born to Ambikā, Ambālikā and their maid by him. Ambikā gave birth to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Ambālikā gave birth to Pāṇḍu and the maid gave birth to Vidura. They grew up and Dhṛtarāṣṭra married Gāndhārī and Pāṇḍu married Kuntī and Mādrī. Duryodhana and his brothers were born to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, while the Pāṇḍavas were born to Pāṇḍu. Pāṇḍu died at the Śataśṛṅga vana and Mādrī observed satī by jumping into his funeral pyre and burning herself alive. After that, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas who lived in the palace at Hastināpura, split up into two blocs. When the palace made of lac was destroyed by fire, the Pāṇḍavas went into the forest and came back to the country after their marriage with Pāñcālī. They ruled over the country with Indraprastha as their capital. In the gambling contest between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pāṇḍavas lost their kingdom and everything and so they went to the forest again. They lived for twelve years in the forest and spent one year incognito in the palace of the King of Virāṭa. At that time the Pāṇḍavas reappeared in the battle which took place as a result of the theft of King Virāṭa's cows by the Kauravas. Duryodhana asserted that he would not give so much land to the Pāṇḍavas as to put a dot with a needle. With the failure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's mediation, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas encamped on the opposite sides of the field of Kurukṣetra, preparing for a grim battle. Bhīṣma was the chief protagonist in all these events relating to the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. At every stage in the story we see Bhīṣma's influence. The main events in which this superman who used to give shelter to Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas alike, played a decisive role, are given below:--
(1) Bhīṣma sent a messenger to Subala, king of Gāndhāra, to ask for the hand of Gāndhārī, to be married to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 11].
(2) He went to the palace of Śalya, king of Madra and secured Mādrī to be married to Pāṇḍu. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 112].
(3) He brought about the marriage between Vidura and the daughter of Devaka. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 2].
(4) The Maharṣis who were the inhabitants of Śatasṛṅga told Bhīṣma about the birth of the Pāṇḍavas. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 22].
(5) Bhīṣma offered ‘Jalāñjali’ (worship with holy water) to Pāṇḍu at his death. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 27].
(6) He performed the death anniversary of Pāṇḍu. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 1].
(7) He engaged Droṇācārya to teach archery to the princes. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 77].
(8) He burst into tears and wept bitterly on hearing that Pāṇḍavas were burnt to death in the palace of lac and was about to offer them ‘Jalāñjali’. Just then, Vidura came to him and secretly informed him that the Pāṇḍavas were not dead. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 149, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha].
(9) He advised Duryodhana to give half the kingdom to the Pāṇḍavas. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 202].
(10) He had taken part in Dharmaputra's Rājasūya Yajña. Dharmaputra had entrusted to Bhīṣma, the arrangements for that yajña. [M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 6].
(11) He advised Yudhiṣṭhira to give the highest place of honour in that yajña to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. [M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 28].
(12) Bhīṣma ridiculed Śiśupāla [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 33].
(13) Śiśupāla insulted Bhīṣma. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 41].
(14) Bhīṣma stopped Bhīma who rushed out to kill Śiśupāla. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 42, Verse 13].
(15) It was Bhīṣma who narrated the life story of Śiśupāla. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 43].
(16) In the battle against Śiśupāla, Bhīṣma selected powerful Kings to help Śrī Kṛṣṇa. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41].
(17) Once Bhīṣma asked the sage Pulastya about the value and importance of pilgrimage. [Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 4].
(18) Bhīṣma advised Duryodhana to be on friendly terms with the Pāṇḍavas. [Vana Parva, Chapter 253, Verse 4].
(19) In the battle which was fought by Kauravas against King Virāṭa, Bhīṣma arranged the regiments in order, after sending Duryodhana to Hastināpura. [Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 16].
(20) A grim fight took place between Arjuna who went to help the Virāṭa army and Bhīṣma. At last, it was the charioteer who removed Bhīṣma, (who had fallen down unconscious) from the battlefield. [Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 64].
(21) When the Kauravas were contemplating to fight against the Pāṇḍavas who had returned after their incognito life, Bhīṣma ridiculed Karṇa and praised Arjuna. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 16].
(22) At that time, he explained to Duryodhana, the greatness of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 49, verse 2].
(23) Duryodhana proposed to bind the hands and feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa who was expected to come as the envoy of the Pāṇḍavas. Hearing this, Bhīṣma in great anger, walked out of the council hall. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 19].
(24) Bhīṣma strongly advised Duryodhana to make a treaty of peace with the Pāṇḍavas. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 2].
(25) He declared that he would not kill the Pāṇḍavas but would kill 10,000 soldiers of the Pāṇḍavas everyday. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 21).
(26) As desired by Duryodhana, Bhīṣma declared the Rathīs and Mahārathīs who belonged to the Kaurava side. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 165-168].
(27) Bhīṣma described all the Mahārathīs of the Pāṇḍava side to Duryodhana. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 169- 172].
(28) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Śikhaṇḍī and the Pāṇḍavas should not be killed. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 20].
(29) Bhīṣma offered pūjā to Paraśurāma. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 27].
(30) Aṁbā who was allowed by Bhīṣma to marry her lover, King Śālva, was rejected by him and returned to Bhīṣma again. But he did not accept her. Although Paraśurāma pleaded with him on behalf of Aṁbā, Bhīṣma did not marry her. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 178, Verse 32].
(31) In connection with Ambā's case, a duel was fought on the field of Kurukṣetra between Bhīṣma and Paraśurāma. Bhīṣma started the duel after asking for the permission of Paraśurāma. Pleased with the fight, the Vasus presented to Bhīṣma, the Prasvāpana arrow. But he did not use that arrow against Paraśurāma, since the gods and Nārada prevented him from doing so. At the request of the gods, pitṛs and Gaṅgādevī, Bhīṣma stopped the fight and prostrated at the feet of Paraśurāma. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 178-185].
(32) Bhīṣma narrated to Duryodhana the story of Ambā who was re-born as Śikhaṇḍī. [Udyoga parva, Chapters 188-192].
(33) Bhīṣma himself told Duryodhana that he had the strength to annihilate all the Pāṇḍavas. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 14].
(34) Before the beginning of the battle, Yudhiṣṭhira went to Bhīṣma and asked for his permission to start it. Bhīṣma granted him permission and blessed him. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 44].
6) Bhīṣma in Bhārata Yuddha.
(1) On the first day of the battle a duel took place between Bhīṣma and Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 8].
(2) In the battle Bhīṣma killed Śveta, the son of king Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 3].
(3) There was again a terrible fight with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 52].
(4) Sātyaki killed Bhīṣma's charioteer. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 114].
(5) Seeing that the army of the Kauravas was being scattered in all directions by the violent strokes of Arjuna Bhīṣma ordered to stop the second day's battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 42].
(6) Bhīṣma challenged Śrīkṛṣṇa for the fight. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 96].
(7) Fought again with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 25].
(8) Bhīṣma gave orders to Droṇācārya and Duryodhana to save Bhagadatta who fell in danger. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, verse 64].
(9) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa were the incarnations of Nara and Nārāyaṇa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 65-68].
(10) Bhīṣma praised the greatness of Brahmapūta Stotra. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 2].
(11) Seeing Śikhaṇḍī rushing forward to oppose him, Bhīṣma put an end to the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 29].
(12) A terrible fight took place between Bhīṣma and Bhīmasena. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 70].
(13) There was again a fight with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71].
(14) Bhīṣma wounded Bhīmasena and defeated Sātyaki. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 21].
(15) Bhīṣma wounded King Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 73, Verse 2].
(16) Duryodhana who was frightened by Bhīmasena's deeds of valour, was encouraged by Bhīṣma. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 8].
(17) He deprived Dharmaputra of his chariot. [Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 86, Verse 11].
(18) When Bhīmasena killed Bhīṣma's charioteer, the horses turned round and ran away, dragging the chariot with them. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12].
(19) He ordered Bhagadatta to fight with Ghaṭotkaca. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17].
(20) He swore that all except Śikhaṇḍī would be killed. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 4].
(21) Sātyaki and Bhīṣma fought again. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 29].
(22) Bhīṣma killed 14,000 Mahārathīs who belonged to the Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa countries. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 18].
(23) Bhīṣma explained to Dharmaputra, the method by which he (Bhīṣma) could be killed. [Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 107, verse 76].
(24) He declared that he would not fight with Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 43].
(25) He allowed Yudhiṣṭhira to launch an attack on himself (Bhīṣma). [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 13].
(26) Bhīṣma, shot by Arjuna's arrow, fell down unconscious. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 64].
(27) Bhīṣma who recovered and rose again, killed Śatānīka, brother of King Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 27].
(28) Bhīṣma routed the Pāṇḍava army most disastrously. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 118, 119].
(29) He considered the misery of life and the sweetness of death. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 34].
(30) Bhīṣma who was wounded by Arjuna's arrows, described to Duśśāsana, the heroism of Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 56].
(31) Arjuna shot his arrow at Bhīṣma and made him fall down from his chariot. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 87].
(32) He told Haṁsa that he would remain alive until the sun came to Uttarāyaṇa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 104].
(33) Bhīṣma who fell and lay on a bed of arrows begged for a pillow to the Kings. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 34].
(34) When he found that they were not paying any heed to his entreaties, he asked for a pillow to Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter, 120, Verse 28].
(35) He exhorted the Kings to put an end to the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 51].
(36) Bhīṣma begged for water to Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 18].
(37) He advised Duryodhana to end the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 38].
(38) As Karṇa wished for ‘Vīrasvarga’ (Heaven for the valiant) Bhīṣma permitted him to fight. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 122, verse 34].
(39) Vyāsa sent Dharmaputra to Bhīṣma to learn the mysteries of “Dharma” from Bhīṣma before his (Bhīṣma's) death. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 5].
(40) Bhīṣma said that Śrī Kṛṣṇa was more competent to give advice on “Dharma” than himself. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 2].
(41) When the frightened and ashamed Yudhiṣṭhira approached him, Bhīṣma cheered him up. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 19].
(42) Bhīṣma explained to Yudhiṣṭhira, with the help of various examples and illustrations, “Rājya Dharma”, “Āpaddharma”, and “Mokṣa Dharma”. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 56, to Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165].
(43) After giving his advice to Yudhiṣṭhira Bhīṣma gave him permission to enter Hastināpura. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 166, verse 50].
(44) He gave advice to Dhṛtarāṣṭra regarding his duties and responsibilities. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30].
(45) He asked for Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission to renounce his body. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 37].
(46) With Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission, Bhīṣma renounced his body. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 2].
(47) The Kauravas performed the funeral rites and Jalāñjali (purification by sprinkling water) of Bhīṣma [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 10].
(48) Gaṅgādevī lamented that Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman, killed Bhīṣma. [Anuśāsana Parva, 168, Verse 21].
(49) Vyāsa and Śrī Kṛṣṇa told Gaṅgādevī that Bhīṣma died by Arjuna's arrow. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 30].
(50) On a later occasion Vyāsa invoked into the river Gaṅgā, those who died in the battle and among them Bhīṣma was also present. [Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 32, verse 7].
(51) After his death, Bhīṣma remained in Heaven as Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. [Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 11]. Other names of Bhīṣma. Āpageya, Āpagāsuta, Bhāgīrathīputra, Bhārata, Pitāmaha, Bharatarṣabha, Bharatasattama, Bhīṣmaka, Śāntanava, Śantanuputra, Śantanusuta, Śantanuja, Devavrata, Gaṅgāsuta, Gāṅgeya, Jāhnavīputra, Kaurava, Kauravanandana, Kauravya, Kuruśārddūla, Kuruśreṣṭha, Kurūdvaha, Kurukula- śreṣṭha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurumukhya, Kurunandana, Kurupati, Nadīja, Prapitāmaha, Sāgaragāsuta, Satyasandha, Tāladhvaja, Vasu are other names of Bhīṣma used in the Mahābhārata.
Note: 1) Satyavatī's original name was Kālī. The fisherman got her from the stomach of a fish. (See the word Adrikā). Since she had the smell of fish she got the name of “Matsyagandhī.” She used to assist a fisherman in his work as a ferryman in the river Gaṅgā. Once the sage Parāśara happened to get into her boat and he fell deeply in love with her. The sage removed the smell of fish from her and gave her the perfume of musk instead. By this mystic power he created a mist at noon and under its cover, he had a sexual union with her. As a result of it the child Kṛṣṇa (Vyāsa) was born. The child immediately left the mother to perform tapas in the forest after promising to return to her whenever she wished for his presence. Although she gave birth to a child, Parāśara blessed that she would again remain a virgin. The whole episode remained a secret. As usual, Satyavatī returned to the fisherman's cottage in the evening and continued to live with him. It is at this stage that Śantanu was attracted by the perfume of musk and came to the cottage where he met Satyavatī.]

BHĪṢMA   
1) Genealogy.
From Viṣṇu were descended in the following order--Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas- Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Pūru-Janamejaya-Prācinvā- Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha- Saṁyāti-Rahovādi-Raudrāśva-Matināra- Santurodha- Duṣyanta-Bharata- Suhotra-Suhotā-Gala- Gardda Suketu-Bṛhatkṣetra-Hasti- Ajamīḍha-Ṛkṣa-Samvaraṇa-Kuru- Jahnu-Suratha-Viḍūratha- Sārvabhauma- Jayatsena-Ravyaya-Bhāvuka-Cakroddhata-Devātithi- Ṛkṣa-Bhīma-Pratīpa-Śantanu-Bhīṣma.
2) Birth and Boyhood.
Bhīṣma's name in his boyhood was Devavrata. He was the eighth son of Śantanu, a king of the lunar dynasty and Gaṅgādevī. This boy was the human embodiment of Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. Śantanu, his father was the re-birth of another king, Mahābhiṣeka. The story concerning this, as given in the Mahābhārata is as follows:-- King Mahābhiṣeka after his death, attained Viṣṇuloka. Once he went to visit Brahmā at Satyaloka. At that time Gaṅgādevī was also present in Brahmā's assembly. In that pious atmosphere, a gentle breeze began to blow and Gaṅgādevī's clothes were slightly deranged. Just at that moment, Mahābhiṣeka took a stealthy glance at her and she also returned that glance. This was noted by Brahmā who turned both of them into human beings by a curse. Gaṅgādevi begged pardon and Brahmā lifted the curse and blessed her that the Aṣṭavasus would come to the earth to be born as her sons and that afterwards she could come back to Heaven. After that Gaṅgādevī was born as a mortal woman in the world under the name Gaṅgā and she spent her days in the forests near the Gaṅgā river valleys. In those days the ruler of the Lunar dynasty was a king named Pratīpa. Having no children, he went to the bank of the river Gaṅgā and performed tapas there. Gaṅgādevī who was moving about in the forests nearby, saw the King deeply absorbed in his tapas. She approached him and sat on his right thigh. She wanted the King to be her husband. He explained to her that the right thigh is the proper seat of a daughter-in-law and so she would become his son's wife in due course. In course of time, Pratīpa had a son, Śantanu, born to him. When Śantanu grew up into a young man, one day he went for a hunt to the Gaṅgā-valley and there he met Gaṅgādevī. He fell in love with her at first sight and courted her. Gaṅgādevī agreed to become his wife on condition that he should not say anything to displease her and if he violated that condition she would leave him. The king accepted the condition and they became man and wife. At about that time, the wife of Dyo, one of the Aṣṭavasus, happened to see the sacrificial cow of the sage Vasiṣṭha and wished to have it. She expressed her desire to her husband, Dyo. Dyo, with the other seven vasus went and took away by force, Vasiṣṭha's cow. Vasiṣṭha in his anger cursed the Aṣṭavasus to be born as mortals. They repented and begged pardon from Vasiṣṭha. The sage told them that all of them would be born as the sons of Gaṅgādevī and all except Dyo, who actually stole the cow, would return to Heaven at the time of birth itself. As for Dyo, he would continue to live in the world for a long time, as an adventurous hero. Gaṅgādevī became pregnant and gave birth to her first child. She carried the child to the river Gaṅgā and threw it into the river. Śantanu who followed her up to the river bank, did not say anything against her, remembering his promise. Seven children were born to her and she threw all of them into the river in this way. When she gave birth to the eighth child, Śantanu insisted that he would not allow her to throw away that child into the river. As he had violated the condition, the angry Gaṅgādevī left the palace with her child. She named it Devavrata and brought him up in the forest. The sage Vasiṣṭha and Gaṅgādevī taught him all branches of knowledge. Thirtytwo years later, the king went to the same forest for hunting. He saw a handsome boy stopping the flow of the river Gaṅgā. Getting interested in the boy, the King approached him. But by that time he had disappeared. The King prayed to Gaṅgādevī to give back the child. She appeared with the child and after handing over the child to him vanished. The king returned to the palace with the child. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapters 95-100].
3) The name Bhīṣma.
Devavrata was anointed, as heir-apparent. One day King Śantanu reached the forest near the Gaṅgā river valley, for hunting. As he was hunting, absorbed in the beauty of the forest scenery, he felt the perfume of musk filling the air in the forest. He wondered from where it could come. He went on and on trying to find out the source of this smell until he reached the cottage of a fisherman. The fisherman had a daughter named Satyavatī. It was from her that the fragrance of musk spread all around. The king fell in love with her at first sight. He asked the fisherman to give the girl in marriage to him. But the brave fisher- man did not yield to the king's demand immediately. He laid down several conditions, one of which was that Satyavatī's sons should succeed to the throne of Śantanu. The king was in a fix. Devavrata was the eldest son and heir-apparent. To deny kingship to his sons would be highly improper. Unable to find a solution to this difficult problem, the king returned to the palace, much depressed and gloomy. There he avoided all company and took to his bed, passing his time in sadness and solitude. When Devavrata knew about his father's condition, he called the Ministers and asked them about it. They told him everything in details. At once, without informing even his father, Devavrata went to the fisherman's cottage on the bank of the river Gaṅgā and begged for Satyavatī on behalf of his father. The fisherman repeated his former condition. Devavrata agreed that Satyavatī's son shall be given the right of Kingship. The fisherman pointed out that disputes were likely to arise between Devavrata's sons and Satyavatī's children regarding the right of succession to the throne. At once Devavrata stood up and made a solemn pledge that he would remain a bachelor for life. The fisherman gave Satyavatī to Devavrata to be taken to the King. Devavrata took her to the palace and presented her to his father. The King, when he came to know of the part played by his son in the matter, rose from his bed and embraced Devavrata with tears of joy and gratitude. The gods showered flowers on the scene. Because he had taken such a solemn oath, it was declared that henceforth he would be known by the name “BHĪṢMA”. The loving father Śantanu also gave him a boon that Bhīṣma would die only when he wished. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 100].
4) Affairs of the Kingdom in crisis.
Two sons named Vicitravīrya and Citrāṅgada were born to Satyavatī by Śantanu, who died shortly afterwards. As desired by Satyavatī, Bhīṣma crowned the boy Citrāṅgada as king. Although Citrāṅgada's reign was a prosperous one, it could not last long. Once a Gandharva named Citrāṅgada attacked him at Kurukṣetra and after a battle which lasted for three years, the Gandharva Citrāṅgada killed the King Citrāṅgada. It was Bhīṣma who performed the funeral rites of the King Citrāṅgada. After that Vicitravīrya was crowned King. It was at that time that the Svayaṁvara of the three daughters of the King of Kāśī, Aṁbā, Aṁbikā and Aṁbālikā, was held. Bhīṣma thought that it would be good if Vicitravīrya married them. So Bhīṣma attended that function. The presence of Bhīṣma who was an old man, at the Svayaṁvara, frightened the girls. The other kings who were present, stopped him from entering the place, since he had taken an oath to remain a lifelong bachelor. The old Bhīṣma stood up and spoke at length about the eight different forms of marriage and after defeating several kings like Śālva, he seized the three daughters of the King of Kāśi and took them with him in his chariot to Hastināpura. Preparations were made for the marriage of Vicitravīrya with the three princesses. Then Ambā approached Bhīṣma and told him that she had already dedicated her heart to the king of Śālva. Bhīṣma generously allowed her to return home. For the rest of Ambā's story, see the word “Ambā”. Vicitravīrya married Ambikā and Ambālikā. He ruled over the country for seven years at the end of which he died of consumption. The dynasty faced a crisis, as there was no one to succeed him. Satyavatī approached Bhīṣma with a suggestion to beget children by Vicitravīrya's wife. But Bhīṣma stood firmly on his solemn oath to continue as a life-long bachelor. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Verse 100-104].
5) Bhīṣma's Wire Pulling.
After that Satyavatī summoned Vyāsa to Hastināpura and sons were born to Ambikā, Ambālikā and their maid by him. Ambikā gave birth to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Ambālikā gave birth to Pāṇḍu and the maid gave birth to Vidura. They grew up and Dhṛtarāṣṭra married Gāndhārī and Pāṇḍu married Kuntī and Mādrī. Duryodhana and his brothers were born to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, while the Pāṇḍavas were born to Pāṇḍu. Pāṇḍu died at the Śataśṛṅga vana and Mādrī observed satī by jumping into his funeral pyre and burning herself alive. After that, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas who lived in the palace at Hastināpura, split up into two blocs. When the palace made of lac was destroyed by fire, the Pāṇḍavas went into the forest and came back to the country after their marriage with Pāñcālī. They ruled over the country with Indraprastha as their capital. In the gambling contest between Dharmaputra and Duryodhana, the Pāṇḍavas lost their kingdom and everything and so they went to the forest again. They lived for twelve years in the forest and spent one year incognito in the palace of the King of Virāṭa. At that time the Pāṇḍavas reappeared in the battle which took place as a result of the theft of King Virāṭa's cows by the Kauravas. Duryodhana asserted that he would not give so much land to the Pāṇḍavas as to put a dot with a needle. With the failure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's mediation, the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas encamped on the opposite sides of the field of Kurukṣetra, preparing for a grim battle. Bhīṣma was the chief protagonist in all these events relating to the Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas. At every stage in the story we see Bhīṣma's influence. The main events in which this superman who used to give shelter to Kauravas and Pāṇḍavas alike, played a decisive role, are given below:--
(1) Bhīṣma sent a messenger to Subala, king of Gāndhāra, to ask for the hand of Gāndhārī, to be married to Dhṛtarāṣṭra. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 11].
(2) He went to the palace of Śalya, king of Madra and secured Mādrī to be married to Pāṇḍu. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 112].
(3) He brought about the marriage between Vidura and the daughter of Devaka. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 2].
(4) The Maharṣis who were the inhabitants of Śatasṛṅga told Bhīṣma about the birth of the Pāṇḍavas. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 22].
(5) Bhīṣma offered ‘Jalāñjali’ (worship with holy water) to Pāṇḍu at his death. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 126, Verse 27].
(6) He performed the death anniversary of Pāṇḍu. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 127, Verse 1].
(7) He engaged Droṇācārya to teach archery to the princes. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 130, Verse 77].
(8) He burst into tears and wept bitterly on hearing that Pāṇḍavas were burnt to death in the palace of lac and was about to offer them ‘Jalāñjali’. Just then, Vidura came to him and secretly informed him that the Pāṇḍavas were not dead. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 149, Dākṣiṇātya Pāṭha].
(9) He advised Duryodhana to give half the kingdom to the Pāṇḍavas. [M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 202].
(10) He had taken part in Dharmaputra's Rājasūya Yajña. Dharmaputra had entrusted to Bhīṣma, the arrangements for that yajña. [M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 6].
(11) He advised Yudhiṣṭhira to give the highest place of honour in that yajña to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. [M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 36, Verse 28].
(12) Bhīṣma ridiculed Śiśupāla [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 33].
(13) Śiśupāla insulted Bhīṣma. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 41].
(14) Bhīṣma stopped Bhīma who rushed out to kill Śiśupāla. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 42, Verse 13].
(15) It was Bhīṣma who narrated the life story of Śiśupāla. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 43].
(16) In the battle against Śiśupāla, Bhīṣma selected powerful Kings to help Śrī Kṛṣṇa. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 44, Verse 41].
(17) Once Bhīṣma asked the sage Pulastya about the value and importance of pilgrimage. [Vana Parva, Chapter 82, Verse 4].
(18) Bhīṣma advised Duryodhana to be on friendly terms with the Pāṇḍavas. [Vana Parva, Chapter 253, Verse 4].
(19) In the battle which was fought by Kauravas against King Virāṭa, Bhīṣma arranged the regiments in order, after sending Duryodhana to Hastināpura. [Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 16].
(20) A grim fight took place between Arjuna who went to help the Virāṭa army and Bhīṣma. At last, it was the charioteer who removed Bhīṣma, (who had fallen down unconscious) from the battlefield. [Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 64].
(21) When the Kauravas were contemplating to fight against the Pāṇḍavas who had returned after their incognito life, Bhīṣma ridiculed Karṇa and praised Arjuna. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 16].
(22) At that time, he explained to Duryodhana, the greatness of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 49, verse 2].
(23) Duryodhana proposed to bind the hands and feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa who was expected to come as the envoy of the Pāṇḍavas. Hearing this, Bhīṣma in great anger, walked out of the council hall. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 19].
(24) Bhīṣma strongly advised Duryodhana to make a treaty of peace with the Pāṇḍavas. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 125, Verse 2].
(25) He declared that he would not kill the Pāṇḍavas but would kill 10,000 soldiers of the Pāṇḍavas everyday. Udyoga Parva, Chapter 156, Verse 21).
(26) As desired by Duryodhana, Bhīṣma declared the Rathīs and Mahārathīs who belonged to the Kaurava side. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 165-168].
(27) Bhīṣma described all the Mahārathīs of the Pāṇḍava side to Duryodhana. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 169- 172].
(28) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Śikhaṇḍī and the Pāṇḍavas should not be killed. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 172, Verse 20].
(29) Bhīṣma offered pūjā to Paraśurāma. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 27].
(30) Aṁbā who was allowed by Bhīṣma to marry her lover, King Śālva, was rejected by him and returned to Bhīṣma again. But he did not accept her. Although Paraśurāma pleaded with him on behalf of Aṁbā, Bhīṣma did not marry her. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 178, Verse 32].
(31) In connection with Ambā's case, a duel was fought on the field of Kurukṣetra between Bhīṣma and Paraśurāma. Bhīṣma started the duel after asking for the permission of Paraśurāma. Pleased with the fight, the Vasus presented to Bhīṣma, the Prasvāpana arrow. But he did not use that arrow against Paraśurāma, since the gods and Nārada prevented him from doing so. At the request of the gods, pitṛs and Gaṅgādevī, Bhīṣma stopped the fight and prostrated at the feet of Paraśurāma. [Udyoga Parva, Chapters 178-185].
(32) Bhīṣma narrated to Duryodhana the story of Ambā who was re-born as Śikhaṇḍī. [Udyoga parva, Chapters 188-192].
(33) Bhīṣma himself told Duryodhana that he had the strength to annihilate all the Pāṇḍavas. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 193, Verse 14].
(34) Before the beginning of the battle, Yudhiṣṭhira went to Bhīṣma and asked for his permission to start it. Bhīṣma granted him permission and blessed him. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 43, Verse 44].
6) Bhīṣma in Bhārata Yuddha.
(1) On the first day of the battle a duel took place between Bhīṣma and Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 8].
(2) In the battle Bhīṣma killed Śveta, the son of king Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 3].
(3) There was again a terrible fight with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 52].
(4) Sātyaki killed Bhīṣma's charioteer. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, Verse 114].
(5) Seeing that the army of the Kauravas was being scattered in all directions by the violent strokes of Arjuna Bhīṣma ordered to stop the second day's battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 55, Verse 42].
(6) Bhīṣma challenged Śrīkṛṣṇa for the fight. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 96].
(7) Fought again with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 60, Verse 25].
(8) Bhīṣma gave orders to Droṇācārya and Duryodhana to save Bhagadatta who fell in danger. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 64, verse 64].
(9) Bhīṣma told Duryodhana that Arjuna and Kṛṣṇa were the incarnations of Nara and Nārāyaṇa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 65-68].
(10) Bhīṣma praised the greatness of Brahmapūta Stotra. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 68, Verse 2].
(11) Seeing Śikhaṇḍī rushing forward to oppose him, Bhīṣma put an end to the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 29].
(12) A terrible fight took place between Bhīṣma and Bhīmasena. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 70].
(13) There was again a fight with Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71].
(14) Bhīṣma wounded Bhīmasena and defeated Sātyaki. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 71, Verse 21].
(15) Bhīṣma wounded King Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 73, Verse 2].
(16) Duryodhana who was frightened by Bhīmasena's deeds of valour, was encouraged by Bhīṣma. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 80, Verse 8].
(17) He deprived Dharmaputra of his chariot. [Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 86, Verse 11].
(18) When Bhīmasena killed Bhīṣma's charioteer, the horses turned round and ran away, dragging the chariot with them. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 88, Verse 12].
(19) He ordered Bhagadatta to fight with Ghaṭotkaca. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17].
(20) He swore that all except Śikhaṇḍī would be killed. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 98, Verse 4].
(21) Sātyaki and Bhīṣma fought again. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 104, Verse 29].
(22) Bhīṣma killed 14,000 Mahārathīs who belonged to the Cedi, Kāśi and Karūṣa countries. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 18].
(23) Bhīṣma explained to Dharmaputra, the method by which he (Bhīṣma) could be killed. [Bhīṣma parva, Chapter 107, verse 76].
(24) He declared that he would not fight with Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 108, Verse 43].
(25) He allowed Yudhiṣṭhira to launch an attack on himself (Bhīṣma). [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 115, Verse 13].
(26) Bhīṣma, shot by Arjuna's arrow, fell down unconscious. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 64].
(27) Bhīṣma who recovered and rose again, killed Śatānīka, brother of King Virāṭa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 118, Verse 27].
(28) Bhīṣma routed the Pāṇḍava army most disastrously. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapters 118, 119].
(29) He considered the misery of life and the sweetness of death. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 34].
(30) Bhīṣma who was wounded by Arjuna's arrows, described to Duśśāsana, the heroism of Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 56].
(31) Arjuna shot his arrow at Bhīṣma and made him fall down from his chariot. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 87].
(32) He told Haṁsa that he would remain alive until the sun came to Uttarāyaṇa. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 104].
(33) Bhīṣma who fell and lay on a bed of arrows begged for a pillow to the Kings. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 34].
(34) When he found that they were not paying any heed to his entreaties, he asked for a pillow to Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter, 120, Verse 28].
(35) He exhorted the Kings to put an end to the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 120, Verse 51].
(36) Bhīṣma begged for water to Arjuna. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 18].
(37) He advised Duryodhana to end the battle. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 121, Verse 38].
(38) As Karṇa wished for ‘Vīrasvarga’ (Heaven for the valiant) Bhīṣma permitted him to fight. [Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 122, verse 34].
(39) Vyāsa sent Dharmaputra to Bhīṣma to learn the mysteries of “Dharma” from Bhīṣma before his (Bhīṣma's) death. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 37, Verse 5].
(40) Bhīṣma said that Śrī Kṛṣṇa was more competent to give advice on “Dharma” than himself. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 2].
(41) When the frightened and ashamed Yudhiṣṭhira approached him, Bhīṣma cheered him up. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 19].
(42) Bhīṣma explained to Yudhiṣṭhira, with the help of various examples and illustrations, “Rājya Dharma”, “Āpaddharma”, and “Mokṣa Dharma”. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 56];[ to Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165].
(43) After giving his advice to Yudhiṣṭhira Bhīṣma gave him permission to enter Hastināpura. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 166, verse 50].
(44) He gave advice to Dhṛtarāṣṭra regarding his duties and responsibilities. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 30].
(45) He asked for Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission to renounce his body. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 167, Verse 37].
(46) With Śrī Kṛṣṇa's permission, Bhīṣma renounced his body. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 2].
(47) The Kauravas performed the funeral rites and Jalāñjali (purification by sprinkling water) of Bhīṣma [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 10].
(48) Gaṅgādevī lamented that Śikhaṇḍī, who was neither man nor woman, killed Bhīṣma. [Anuśāsana Parva, 168, Verse 21].
(49) Vyāsa and Śrī Kṛṣṇa told Gaṅgādevī that Bhīṣma died by Arjuna's arrow. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 30].
(50) On a later occasion Vyāsa invoked into the river Gaṅgā, those who died in the battle and among them Bhīṣma was also present. [Āśramavāsika Parva, Chapter 32, verse 7].
(51) After his death, Bhīṣma remained in Heaven as Dyau, one of the Aṣṭavasus. [Svargārohaṇa Parva, Chapter 5, Verse 11]. Other names of Bhīṣma. Āpageya, Āpagāsuta, Bhāgīrathīputra, Bhārata, Pitāmaha, Bharatarṣabha, Bharatasattama, Bhīṣmaka, Śāntanava, Śantanuputra, Śantanusuta, Śantanuja, Devavrata, Gaṅgāsuta, Gāṅgeya, Jāhnavīputra, Kaurava, Kauravanandana, Kauravya, Kuruśārddūla, Kuruśreṣṭha, Kurūdvaha, Kurukula- śreṣṭha, Kurukulodvaha, Kurumukhya, Kurunandana, Kurupati, Nadīja, Prapitāmaha, Sāgaragāsuta, Satyasandha, Tāladhvaja, Vasu are other names of Bhīṣma used in the Mahābhārata.
Note: 1) Satyavatī's original name was Kālī. The fisherman got her from the stomach of a fish. (See the word Adrikā). Since she had the smell of fish she got the name of “Matsyagandhī.” She used to assist a fisherman in his work as a ferryman in the river Gaṅgā. Once the sage Parāśara happened to get into her boat and he fell deeply in love with her. The sage removed the smell of fish from her and gave her the perfume of musk instead. By this mystic power he created a mist at noon and under its cover, he had a sexual union with her. As a result of it the child Kṛṣṇa (Vyāsa) was born. The child immediately left the mother to perform tapas in the forest after promising to return to her whenever she wished for his presence. Although she gave birth to a child, Parāśara blessed that she would again remain a virgin. The whole episode remained a secret. As usual, Satyavatī returned to the fisherman's cottage in the evening and continued to live with him. It is at this stage that Śantanu was attracted by the perfume of musk and came to the cottage where he met Satyavatī.]

BHĪṢMA PARVA   A sub parva in the Mahābhārata.

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