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अर्जुन

A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
अर्जुन  mfn. mfn. (cf.ऋज्र॑ and √ रज्) white, clear (the colour of the day, [RV. vi, 9, 1]; of the dawn, [RV. i, 49, 3]; of the lightning; of the milk; of silver, &c.)
made of silver, [AV. iv, 37, 4]
अर्जुन  m. m. the white colour, [L.]
a peacock, [L.]
cutaneous disease, [Sāy.] on [RV. i, 122, 5]
the tree Terminalia Arjuna, [W.] and, [A.]
N. of a man, [RV. i, 122, 5]
of इन्द्र, [VS.]; [ŚBr.]
of the third of the पाण्डव princes (who was a son of इन्द्र and कुन्ती), [MBh.] &c.
of a son of कृतवीर्य (who was slain by परशुराम), ib.
of a शाख्य (known as a mathematician)
of different other persons
the only son of his mother, [L.]
अर्जुन  n. n. silver, [AV. v, 28, 5 and 9]
gold, [L.]
slight inflammation of the conjunctiva or white of the eye, [Suśr.]
a particular grass (used as a substitute for the सोम plant), [PBr.] &c.
रूप   (= ) shape, [Naigh.]
अर्जुन  m. m. pl. the descendants of अर्जुन, [Pāṇ. 2-4, 66] Sch.

अर्जुन [arjuna] a.  a. [अर्ज्-उनन् णिलुक् च [Uṇ.3.58]] (-ना,
-नी  f. f.).
White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च [Rv.6.9.1;] पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् [Śi.1.6.]
Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना [Av.4.37.5.]
नः The white colour.
A peacock.
A sort of cutaneous disease.
A tree (Mar. अर्जुनसादडा), with useful rind; [Mb.3.64.3.]
 N. N. of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (पृथिव्यां चतुरन्तायां वर्णो मे दुर्लभः समः । करोमि कर्म शुद्धं च तेन मामर्जनं विदुः). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṁvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛiṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛiṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharatakhaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛiṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛiṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. अर्जनः फाल्गुनो जिष्णुः किरीटी श्वेतवाहनः । बीभत्सुर्विजयः कृष्णः सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः ॥
 N. N. of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See कार्तवीर्य.
 N. N. of a country [Bṛi. S.14.] 25.
The only son of his mother.
 N. N. of Indra.
 N. N. of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. अईन). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree.
नी A procuress, bawd.
A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा [Mb.13.73.42.]
A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु˚ [Av.2.24.7.]
 N. N. of Uṣhā, wife of Aniruddha.
 N. N. of a river commonly called करतोया.
(न्यौ,
-न्यः   dual and pl.) N. of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावोऽर्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते [Rv.1.85.13.]
नम् Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् [Av.5.28.5.]
Gold.
Slight inflammation of the white of the eye.
Grass.
-न   (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् ...Nm.-Comp.
-अभ्रम  N. N. of a medicament.
-ईश्वरतीर्थम्  N. N. of a holy place. [Siva P.]
-उपमः   the teak tree; also शाकद्रुम and महापत्राख्यवृक्ष.
-काण्ड a.  a. having a white stem or appendage. बभ्रोरर्जनकाण्डस्य यवस्य ते [Av.2.8.3.]-च्छवि a. white, of a white colour.
-ध्वजः   'whitebannered', N. of Hanūmat.
-पाकी  N. N. of a plant and its fruits.
-बदरः   The fibre of the Arjuna plant; अर्जुन- बदरा मेखलाः क्रियन्ताभू । ŚB. on [MS.9.4.25]
-मिश्रः   Name of a commentator on the [Mb.]
-सखिः   (L.) Kriṣṇa.-सिंहः N. of a prince (Inscriptions).

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अर्जुन  m.  (-नः)
1. The third of the Pāndavas, the son of INDRA and friend of KRISHNA.
2. The name of a king with a thousand arms. See कार्त्तवीर्य्य.
3. A tree, (Pentaptera arjuna.)
4. A peacock.
5. The only son of his mother.
6. White, (the colour.)
 nf.  (-नं-नी)
1. Grass. 2. Slight inflammation of the conjunctiva or white of the eye.
 f.  (-नी)
1. A cow.
2. USHĀ, the wife of ANIRUDDHA.
3. The Karatoyā river in the north of Bengal.
4. A procuress, a bawd.
 mfn.  (-नः-नी-नं) White.
E. अर्ज to gain, उनन् Unādi affix, fem. ङीप्, also read अर्ज्जुन.

 पु. पांच पांडवांतील मध्यम पांडव . हा फार पराक्रमी असल्यामुळें लक्षणेनें पराक्रमी वीर असा अर्थ होतो . ' आमचा अर्जुन गेला एक बाजू खचली .' - भाव १७ .
दहा नांवें - अर्जुन , फाल्गुन , जिष्णु , किरीटी , श्वेत  वाहन , बीभत्सु , विजयी , कृष्ण , सव्यासाची , व धनंजय . ( सं .)
 पु. 
  1. पांच पांडवांपैकीं तिसरा ; पार्थ .
  2. सहस्त्रार्जुन कार्तवीर्य

अर्जुनसादडा - साताडा ; पांढरा ऐन . याचा पांढरा डीक औषधी आहे . हें झाड कोंकणांत होतें . याच्या सालींचा उपयोग कातडें कमाविण्यास व औषधास होतो . पानें वीतभर लांब , फुलें पांढरीं . साल पांढरी , लांकूड हरकामास उपयोगी . अइन पहा .
 वि. पांढरा ; श्वेत . [ सं . ]
०वाद्य  न. बोंब ; शंखध्वनि ; अर्जुनाचें दुसरें नांव फाल्गुन यावरुन फाल्गुनांतील वाद्य म्हणजे बोंब . अर्जुन वाद्यें केलीं - ख १९३० .
०रुख  पु. एक झाड ; अर्जुनसादडा , अर्जुन ( अर्थ ३ ) पहा . जै अर्जुनाचें रुख मोडिलें । - दाव ३३६ . [ सं . अर्जुन + वृक्ष ]

अर्जुन n.  (सो. पूरु.) कुन्ती को दुर्वास द्वारा दिये गये इन्द्रमंत्रप्रभाव से उत्पन्न पुत्र । यह कुन्ती का तृतीय पुत्र था । इसका जन्म होते ही इसका पराक्रम कथन करनेवाली आकाशवाणी हुई [म.आ.११४.२८] । यह इंद्र के अर्ध सामर्थ्य से हुआ [मार्क. ५.२२] । इसके जन्म के समय, उत्तराफाल्गुनी समवेत पूर्वाफाल्गुनी नक्षत्र, फाल्गुन माह में था, अतएव इसका नाम फाल्गुन प्रचलित हुआ [म. वि. ३९.१४] । इसका जन्म हिमालय के शतशृंग नामक भाग पर हुआ । पांडू की मृत्यु के पश्चात्, इसके उपनयनादि संस्कार, वसुदेव ने काश्यप नामक ब्राह्मण भेज कर, शतशृंग पर ही करवाए [म.आ.११५ परि. १.६७]
अर्जुन n.  यद्यपि सब कौरव पांडवों ने शस्त्रविद्या द्रोण से ही ग्रहण की, तथापि विशेष नैपुण्य के कारण, द्रोण की इसपर विशेष प्रीति थी । इस की अध्ययन में भी प्रशंसनीयदक्षता थी । द्रोण सब शिष्यों को पानी भरने के लिये छोटें पात्र देता हा, परंतु अपने पुत्र का समय व्यर्थ न जावे, इसलिये अश्वत्थामा को बडा पात्र देता था । यह बात, सर्वप्रथम अर्जुन के ही ध्यान में आयी तथा बडी कुशलता से इसनें अश्वत्थामा के साथ आने का क्रम जारी रखा । इसीसे यह सब से आगे रहा परंतु अश्वत्थामा से पीछे न रहा । एकबार भोजनसमय, हवा के कारण बत्ती बुझ गयी परंतु अंधकार होते हुए भी इसका भोजन ठीक तरह से पूर्ण हुआ । तब इस ने तर्क किया कि, अंधकार में भी गलती न करते हुए मुँह में ग्रास जाने का कारण दृढाभ्यास है । तुरंत, अंधकार में भी लक्ष्यवेध करने का इसने प्रारंभ किया, तथा यह धनुर्विद्या में अत्यंत निष्णात हो गया । द्रोण को भी इसके लिये काफी अभिमान था, अतएव अर्जुन का पराभव कोई भी न कर सके, इसलिये उसने कपट से अपने शिष्य एकलव्य का अंगूठा मांग लिया । इतनी अधिक गुरुकृपा का स्वाभाविक परिणाम यह हुआ कि, ‘रथी तथा महारथियों में अग्रेसरत्व ले कर लडनेवाला,’ ऐसी इसकी ख्याति हो गई ।
अर्जुन n.  एकबार परीक्षा लेने के लिये, द्रोण ने वृक्ष पर रखे एक चिन्ह पर लक्ष्य वेध करने के इसे कहा, तथा सबको पूछा कि, तुम्हें क्या दिख रहा है । । केवल अर्जुन ने ही कहा कि, लक्ष्य के मस्तिष्क के अतिरिक्त मुझे और कुछ भी नही दिखता । तब से द्रोण इसपर अधिक प्रसन्न रहने लगे । एकबार जब द्रोण, गंगास्नान के लिये गये थे तब मगर ने उसे पकड लिया । सभी शिष्य दिङ्‍मूढ हो गये परंतु अर्जुन ने पांच बाण मार कर द्रोण की मगर से रक्षा की । द्रोणाचार्याद्वारा ली गई शिष्यपरीक्षा में अर्जुन के प्रथम आनेके उपलक्ष में, ब्रह्मशिर नामक उत्कृष्ट अस्त्र उसने इसे दिया [म.आ.१२३], तथा कहा कि, इस अस्त्र का प्रयोग मानव पर न करना [म.आ.१५१.१२-१३ कुं.] । एकबार द्रोण ने अपने सब शिष्यों क शस्त्रास्त्रनैपुण्य दर्शाने के लिये एक बडा समारंभ किया । उस समय अर्जुन ने लगातार पांच बाण ऐसे छोडे कि, पांचों मिल कर एक ही तीर नजर आवे । एक लटकते तथा हिलते सींग में इक्कीस बाण भरना इ. प्रयोग कर इसने दिखाये, तथा सबसे प्रशंसा प्राप्त की । परंतु कर्ण इसे सहन कर कर सका । अर्जुन द्वारा किये गये समस्त प्रयोग उसने कर दिखाये, तथा अर्जुन के साथ द्वंद्वयुद्ध करने की इच्छा प्रदर्शित की । तब अर्जुन ने आंगुतुक कह कर उस का उपहास किया । तथापि द्रोण की इच्छानुसार यह युद्ध के लिये सुसज्ज हुआ, परंतु ‘तुम कुलीन नही हो, अतएव राजपुत्र अर्जुन तुमसे युद्ध नही करेगा,’ ऐसा कृपाचार्य ने कहा । तब दुर्योधन ने कर्ण को अभिषेक कर के, अंगदेश का राजा बनाया । युद्ध की भाषा प्रारंभ हुई, परंतु गडबडी में यह प्रसंग यहीं समाप्त हुआ [म.आ.१२६.१२७] । आगे चल कर, गुरुदक्षिणा के रुप में द्रुपद को जीवित पकड कर लाने का कार्य जब द्रोण ने शिष्यों को दिया, तब केवल अर्जुन ही यह काम कर सका [म.आ.१२८]
अर्जुन n.  अर्जुन ने आगे चल कर, सौवीराधिपति दत्तामित्र नाम से प्रसिद्ध सुमित्र को जीता । उसी प्रकार, विपुल को, जो पांडु द्वारा नही जीता गया, जीता । पूर्व तथा पश्चिम दिशायें जीतीं । कुछ प्रतियों में तो कहा है कि, अर्जुन ने पंद्रहवें वर्ष की उम्र में दिग्विजय किया [म.आ.१५१.४४.५० कुं.] । पांडवों की चारों तरफ प्रसिद्धी होने के लिये, अर्जुन के पराक्रम का बहुत ही उपयोग हुआ । आगे चल कर, जतुगृह से छुटकारा होने के बाद, सब पांडव ब्राह्मणवेष में द्रौपदीस्वयंवर के लिये गये । राह में रात्रि के समय, अंगारपर्ण गंधर्व ने इन्हे रोका । तब उसका तथा अर्जुन का युद्ध हो कर अंगारपर्ण का इस ने पराभव किया । अंगारपर्ण ने इसे चाक्षुषीविद्या दी, तथा अर्जुन ने उसे अग्न्यस्त्र दे कर उसमे मैत्री की (अंगारपर्ण देखिये) । पांचालनगरी में अर्जुन नें, द्रौपदी के स्वयंवरार्थ लगाये गये मत्स्ययंत्रभेदन की शर्यत जीती, तथा द्रौपदी ने अर्जुन का वरण किया [म.आ.१७९] आगे चल कर, धृतराष्ट्र ने विदुर को भेज कर पांडवों को हस्तिनापुर से वापस लाया । एक बार, आयुधागार में युधिष्ठिर तथा द्रौपदी जब एकांत में थे, तब अर्जुन को विवश हो कर वहॉं जाना पडा । कोई ब्राह्मणों की यज्ञीय गौए चोरी हो गई थीं, इस लिये वे राजा को सूचना देने आये थे । अर्जुन ने निर्भय होने का आश्वासन उन्हें दिया तथा अयुधागार से शस्त्र लेकर गायें आपस लोंटा कर लाई । युधिष्ठिर तथा द्रौपदी को एकांत में देखा, इस लिये नियत शर्त के अनुसार यह बारह महीनो तक तीर्थाटन करने गया [म.आ.२०५]
अर्जुन n.  अर्जुन ने इस तीर्थाटन काल में, कौख्य नाग की उलूपी नामक कन्या से, पाताल में विवाह किया[म.आ.२०६] । तदनंतर यह हिमालय पर गया । वहॉं से बिंदुतीर्थ पर गया । वहॉं से, पूर्व की ओर मुड कर उत्पालिनी नदी, नंदा, अपरनंदा, कौशिकी, महानदी, गया तथा गंगा नामक तीर्थस्थान इसने देखे । वहॉं से अंग, वंग तथा कलिंग देश देख कर, यह समुद्र की ओर मुडा । महेंद्र पर्वत पर से मणिपूर के राज्य में प्रविष्ट हुआ । मणिपूर राजा चित्रवाहन की चित्रांगदा नामक एक सुन्दरी कन्या थी । अर्जुन ने उसे अपने लिये मांग लिया । राजा ने इस शर्त पर कन्या दी कि, कन्या का पुत्र उसे मिले । अर्जुन मणिपूर में तीन वर्ष रहा । उस अवधी में चित्रागंदा को एक पुत्र हुआ । उसका नाम बभ्रुवाहन । आगे मगरो के कारण, सब के द्वारा त्यक्त पंचतीर्थ में से सौभद्रतीर्थ पर अर्जुन प्रथम गया, तथा वहॉं शाप से मगर बनी हुई अप्सराओं का उद्धार कर के, पुनश्व मणिपूर वापस आया । वहॉं चित्रांगदा तथा बभ्रुवाहन से मिल कर गोकर्ण गया । वहॉं से प्रभासक्षेत्र में जाने पर कृष्णार्जुन मीलन हुआ । वहॉं से रैवतकपर्वत तथा द्वारका जा कर, कृष्ण की सहायता से सुभद्राहरण करने का इसने सोचा, तथा उसके लिये धर्मराज की संमति प्राप्त की । मृगया के निमित्त्य से बाहर गये अर्जुन ने, रैवतक पर्वत के देवाताओं का दर्शन तथा प्रदक्षिणा किया । पश्चात् द्वारका वापिस जानेवाली सुभद्रा को अपने रथ में बिठाया तथा वहॉं से पलायन किया । पश्चात् अर्जुन का पक्ष ले कर, कृष्ण ने बलराम की ओर से अर्जुन को निमंत्रण दिया, तथा बडे धूमधाम से विवाह करवाया । वहॉं एक वर्ष रह कर, अर्जुन ने बाकी दिन पुष्करतीर्थ में बिताये । परंतु निम्नलिखित लोकप्रसिद्धि कथा भी कुछ स्थानों पर वर्णित है । सुभद्रा के दुर्योधन से होनेवाले विवाह की वार्ता, अर्जुन को प्रभासक्षेत्र में मालूम हुई । उसे प्राप्त करने के लिये, त्रिदण्डी सन्यास ले कर द्वारका में चातुर्मास बिताने का निश्चय इसने किया । वहॉं सब पौरजनों में यह अत्यंत प्रसिद्ध हुआ । तब बलराम ने भी इसे अपने घर में भोजन का निमंत्रण दिया । सीधे साधे भोले बलराम इसे पहचान न सके । वहॉं सुभद्रा तथा अर्जुन की दृष्टिभेट हुई । यात्रा के लिये, शर से बाहर गई हुई सुभद्रा को रथ में डाल कर अर्जुन ने हरण कर लिया, तथा विरोधकों को मार भगाया । अर्जुन के त्रिदण्डी संन्यास कीं कथा भागवत तथा महाभारत की कुंभकोणम्‍ प्रति में ही केवल है [भा.१०.८६];[ म.आ.२३८.४ कुं.] । स्कंद.ुराण में भी अर्जुन की तीर्थयात्रा का उल्लेख है तथा नारद ने अर्जुन को अनेक क्षेत्रों का महात्म्य कथन किया है [स्कंद. १.२.५]
अर्जुन n.  अर्जुन को अनेक व्यक्तियों से भिन्न वस्तु प्राप्त होने का उल्लेख है । मय ने बिंदुसर पर से उत्तम आवाज करनेवाला देवदत्त नामक वारुण महाशंख अर्जुन कों दिया [म.स.३.७.१८] । उसी प्रकार, अग्नि ने अर्जुन को, खांडववन भक्षणार्थ देने के उपलक्ष में ,गांडीव धनुष्य, दो अक्षय तूणीर, कपिध्वजयुक्त सफेद अश्वों का रथ, आदि चीजें दीं [म.आ.५५.३७];२५१ कुं. । ये सारी चीजें अग्नि ने वरुण से तथा वरुण ने सोम प्राप्त की थी । अर्जुन यद्यपि इन्द्रांश से उत्पन्न हुआ था, तथापि खांडवदाह के समय वर्षा कर के विरोध करने के कारण, इन्द्र का अर्जुन से युद्ध हुआ, तथा उसमें इन्द्र को पीछे हटना पडा [म.आ.२१८] आगे चल कर, इन्द्र ने इसे कवच तथा कुंडल दिये [म.व.१७१.४]
अर्जुन n.  वनवास के पहले, राजसूययज्ञ के समय इसने किये दिग्विजय की कल्पना निम्नांकित वर्णन से आएगी । प्रथम कुलिंद देश के राजा को जीता । आनर्त तथा कालकूट देशों पर सत्ता स्थापित कर, सुमंडल राज का पराजय किय । आगे चल कर, उसे साथ लेकर, शाकलद्वीप तथा प्रतिविंध्य पर आक्रमण किया । उस समय शाकलद्वीप के तथा सप्तद्धीप के सब राजाओं को अर्जुन ने जीता तथा उनके साथ प्राग्ज्योतिष देश पर आक्रमण किया । वहॉं भगदत्त के साथ अर्जुन का आठ दिनों तक भयंकर युद्ध हुआ । अन्त में जब भगदत्त ने कर देना स्वीकर किया, तब अर्जुन ने कुबेर के प्रदेश पर आक्रमण किया । वहॉं के सब राजाओं से कर वसूल कर, उलूक देश पर आक्रमण किया । उलूक देश के राजा का नाम बृहन्त था । उसे युद्ध में पराभूत कर तथा कर ले कर, उसके सहित सेनाबिंदु पर आक्रमण किया, तथा गद्दी से उसे पदच्युत किया । तदनंतर मोदापूर का वामदेव, सुदामन तथा उत्तर उलूक के राजाओं को इकट्टा कर के उनसे कर वसूल किया । तदनंतर पंचगण देश को जीत कर सेनाबिंदू के देवप्रस्थ नगर को यह गया । वहॉं से इसने राजा पौरव विश्वगश्व पर आक्रमण किया । उसे जीत कर, पर्वत में रहनेवाले सात उत्सवसंकेत गणों को जीता, तदनंतर काश्मीर के वीरों को जीता तथा दस मांडलिकों के साथ लोहित को जीता । त्रिगर्त, दार्व तथा कोकनद से कर ले कर अभिसारी नगरी जीती । उरगा नगरी के रोचमान को जीता । चित्रायुध का सिंहपूर नगरी को ध्वस्त किया । तदनंतर सुह्य तथा चौल देश उध्वस्त कर के, बाल्हीक देश में प्रविष्ट हुआ । वह देश जीत कर, कांबोज तथा दरद देश हस्तगत किये । उत्तर की ओर के दस्युओं को हस्तगत कर के, आगे लोह, परम कांबोज तथा उत्तर ऋषि को अर्जुन ने जीता । ऋषिक देश में भयंकर युद्ध करना पडा, परंतु अन्त में विजय प्राप्त हो कर, मयूरवर्ण तथा शुकोदरवर्ण अश्व करभार के रुप में प्राप्त हुए । इस प्रकार, निष्कुटसहित हिमालय जीत कर, अर्जुन श्वेत पर्वत पर आ कर रहने लगा [म.स.२४] । वहॉं से, किंपुरुषावास देश पर आक्रमण करके, राजा द्रुमपुत्र से कर वसूल किया । हाटक देश में जाकर, सामनीती से, गुह्यक के पास से कर लिया । मान सरोवर पर ऋषियों द्वारा निकाली गई नहरें देखीं । गंधर्वो के देशों पर आक्रमण कर के, त्तित्तिरिकल्माष तथा मंडूक नामक उत्तम अश्व करभार के रुप में प्राप्त किये । तदनंतर जब यह हरिवर्ष पर आक्रमण करने जा रहा था, तब द्वारपाल ने इसे रोका, तथा यहीं दिग्विजय रोकने के लिये कहा । क्यों कि, उत्तर कुरु देश में सब चीजें अदृश्य है । तब अर्जुन धर्मराज की सत्ता को मान्यता ले कर वापस आ गया, तथा इन्द्रप्रस्थ में प्रविष्ट हुवा [म.स.२३-२५]
अर्जुन n.  वनवास में पाशुपतास्त्र-प्राप्ति के लिये, इन्द्रकील पर्वत पर अर्जुन ने तपश्चर्या की तथा शंकर को प्रसन्न कर लिया । किरातवेष में आये शंकरर्से इसने मूकवध पर से युद्ध किया तथा अंत में उससे पाशुपतास्त्र प्राप्त किया । पाशुपतास्त्र का रहस्यपूर्ण ज्ञान इसने शंकर से प्राप्त किया [म.व.३८.४१] । अन्य देवों ने भी अर्जुन को अनेको अस्त्र दिये [म.व.४२] तदनंतर इन्द्र के निमंत्रण के कारण, उससे भेजे गये रथ में बैठ कर, यह स्वर्ग गया । वहॉं इन्द्र ने अर्जुन का काफी सम्मान कर अपने अर्धासन पर इसे जगह दी । वहॉं अर्जुन ने अनेक अस्त्रों की शिक्षा प्राप्त की । इस प्रकार इसने अपने पांच वर्ष स्वर्ग में बिताये । इन्द्र के कथनानुसार, वाद्य बजाना, नृत्यकला तथा गानकला की भी शिक्षा इसने ली । इस काम में चित्रसेन नामक गंधर्व का अत्याधिक उपयोग हुआ [म.व.४५.६] । एकबार अर्जुन के पास उर्वशी ने संभोगयाचना की । परंतु इसने उसे नही कर दी । इससे क्रोधित हो कर, ‘तुम नपुंसक बनोगे,’ ऐसा शाप उसने अर्जुन को दिया । परंतु इन्द्र ने उसे बताया कि, अज्ञातवास के समय एक वर्ष तक तुम नपुंसक रहोगे, तथा इस शाप का तुम्हें उपयोग ही होगा [म. व. परि. ६] । इंद्र ने लोमश के द्वारा अर्जुन का समाचार भी अन्य पांडवों को भेजा । अर्जुन कुछ कालोपरांत अपने बांधवों के बीच आते ही, अज्ञातवास के लिये द्रौपदी को विराटनगर तक कंधों पर ले जाने का कार्य अर्जुन ने किया [म. वि.५]
अर्जुन n.  अज्ञातवास में अर्जुन ने बृहन्नला नाम तथा नपुंसकत्व का स्वीकार किया, तथा स्वयं ही को द्रौपदी की परिचारिका बता कर, उत्तरा को नृत्यगायनादि सिखाने का काम पाया । आगे जब विराटादि सब लोग, दक्षिणगोग्रहण में मग्न थे, तब दुर्योधनादि ने उत्तरगोग्रहण किया । रजवाडे में अकेला भूमिंज्य (उत्तर) ही था । उसके पास सारथि न था । बृहन्नला सारथ्य कर सकती है यह ज्ञात होने के पश्चात् वह युद्ध के लिये निकला । परंतु ऐन समय पर घबरा कर, रथ से कूद कर भागने लगा । बृहन्नला ने उसे समझा कर, स्वयं युध करने का निश्चय किया, तथा शमीवृक्ष पर के आयुध ले कर उत्तर को अपना परिचय दिया । घमासान युद्ध करते गौओं को पुनः प्राप्त करते समय, इसने कर्ण को भगा कर उस के भाई को जान से मारा । इसके उपलक्ष में, अर्जुन को उपहार रुप में उत्तरा को देने का विचार विराट ने प्रकट किया, परंतु अर्जुन ने उसका स्वीकार अभिमन्यु के लिये किया [म. वि.६७]
अर्जुन n.  भारतीय युद्ध की तैय्यारी जब चालू थी, तब दुर्योधन कृष्ण की सहायता प्राप्त करने के लिये द्वारका गया । अर्जुन भी वहीं उपस्थित हुआ । दुर्योधन सराने की ओर बैठा, तथा अर्जुन नम्रता से पैरों की ओर बैठा । उठते ही प्रथम अर्जुन दिखा । उसी प्रकार यह दुर्योधन से छोटा भी था, अतएव कृष्ण ने प्रथम अर्जुन को मॉंग प्रस्तुत करने को कहा । दश कोटि गोपालों की नारायण नामक सेना, तथा निःशस्त्र स्वयं ऐसा विभाजन कर, जो चाहिये उसे मांगने की सूचना कृष्ण ने की । तब अर्जुन ने कृष्ण को मांग लिया । अपनी ओर हजारो सैनिक आये, इस बात पर दुर्योधन संतुष्ट हुआ [म.उ.७] कृष्ण जब पांडवो के मध्यस्थ कार्य के लिये गया, तब अर्जुन ने कहा कि, उसे जो योग्य प्रतीत हो वही वह तय करे [म.३.७६]
अर्जुन n.  युद्ध के आरंभ में ही, अर्जुन को युद्ध का परिणाम दिखाई देने लगा था । यह सोचने लगा कि, वह स्वयं किसी अविचारी कृत्य में प्रवृत्त हो गया है । इस विचार के कारण, यह युद्ध से निवृत्त होने लगा । परंतु कृष्ण ने इसे कर्तव्यच्युत होने से परावृत्त किया । यही भगवद्‍गीता है [म.भी.२३.४०] । युद्ध के प्रारंभ में ही भीष्मार्जुन युद्ध प्रारंभ हुआ । तीसरे दिन ऐसा प्रतीत होने लगा कि, भीष्म पांडवों को बिल्कुल नही बचने देंगे । परंतु कृष्ण ने प्रतिज्ञा तोड कर हाथ में चक्र लिया, तथा अर्जुन ने भी जोर लगाया । तीसरे दिन के अंत में, कौरवों का इसने काफी नुकसान किया । नववे दिन, अर्जुन का द्रोणाचार्य के साथ युद्ध हुआ । भीष्म के साथ भी जोरदार युद्ध हुआ । संध्या होने के कारण युद्ध रोका गया, परंतु भीष्म के सामने किसी की शक्ति काम नही आती थी, इससे सब निराश हो गये । धर्मराज एवं कृष्ण ने विचार किया, वे भीष्म को ही पूछे, कि उसका वध किस प्रकार किया जा सकता है । भीष्म ने भी सरल स्वभाव से कहा कि, शिखंडी को आगे रख कर, अर्जुन अगर मुझ से लडे तो मेरा वध हो सकता है । क्यो कि, अभद्र ध्वजयुक्त तथा एकबार स्त्री रहनेवाले शिखंडी के समान लोगों पर अपने नियमानुसार भीष्म शस्त्र नही चलाते थे ।
अर्जुन n.  दसवे दिन, शिखंडी को भीष्म के सामने छोड कर, अर्जुन ने कौरव सेना को बिल्कुल त्रस्त कर डाला । कौरवों ने पांडवों को रोकने का अंतिम प्रयत्न किया, परंतु सफलता हाथ न लगी । अर्जुन ने शिखंडी के आड में रह कर, हजारों बाण भीष्म पर बरसाये तथा भीष्म को नीचे गिरा दिया । हजारों बाण जिसके शरीर में भिदे है, ऐसा भीष्म जब वीरोचित शय्या पर विश्रांति कर रहा था, तब उसकी गर्दन नीचे लटकने लगी अतएव उसने तकिया मांगा । कईयो ने उसे नरम तकिये का दिये, परंतु अर्जुन ने वीरशय्या के लिये उचित तीन बाणोंका तकिया तैय्यार कर के उसे प्रसन्न किया । उसी प्रकार भीष्म के पानी मांगने पर, सबने पानी ला दिया । परंतु उसका स्वीकार न कर, अर्जुन ने भूमि में बाण मार कर उत्पन्न किये जल का स्वीकार भीष्म ने किया [म. भी.११६] । इसके सिवा, युद्ध में शत्रुओं को मारेंगे अथवा मरेंगे, ऐसी प्रत्तिज्ञा कर के बाहर आये हुए त्रिगर्त देश का राजा सत्यरथ, सत्यवर्मा, सत्यव्रत, सत्येषु तथा सत्यकर्मा तथा प्रस्थलाधिपति सुशर्मा, तथा मावेल्लक, लालिस्थ तथा मद्रक आदि अन्य राजाओ को अर्जुन ने परलोक दर्शया [म. द्रों १६];[ म.क. १३,३२, ३९] । तदनंतर अर्जुन ने हाथी की सहायता से लडनेवाले भगदत्त को मार डाला । भगदत्त ने एक बार अर्जुन पर प्राणघातक अंकुश फेका, परंतु कृष्ण ने बीच में आ कर उसे अपनी छाती पर लिया तथा अर्जुन को बचाया [म.द्रो.२८]
अर्जुन n.  जयद्रथ ने अभिमन्यु को मृत्यु के बाद लाथ मारने के कारण, अर्जुन ने प्रतिज्ञा की कि, दूसरे दिन सूर्यास्त के पहले मैं उसकी हत्या करुंगा । रात्रि में शंकर ने इसके स्वप्न में आ कर, इसको धीरज बंधा कर पुनः पाशुपतास्त्र दिया [म. द्रो.५७] । अर्जुन में वीरश्री का संचार हुआ तथा इसने दुःशासन दुर्योधनादि का कई बार पराभव किया । कर्ण को भगाया । अंबष्ट, श्रुतायुस् तथा अश्रुतायुस का वध किया [म. द्रो.६८] । इस प्रकार तुमुल युद्धप्रसंग में, सूर्यास्त होने के पहले ही, अर्जुन ने जयद्रथ का शिरच्छेद किया [म. द्रो. १२१]
अर्जुन n.  तदुपरांत, कर्ण के द्वारा धर्मराज का पराभव होने के कारण, धर्म के मन में कर्ण के प्रति अत्यंत द्वेष उत्पन्न हो गया । परंतु कर्ण के सामने किसी का बस नही चलता था । तब धर्म ने अर्जुन की निर्भत्सना की, तथा कहा कि, कर्णवध करने की शक्ति अगर नही है, तो गांडीव किसी और को दे दो । उसने कर्णवध किये बिना रण से वापस लौट आने के लिये, अर्जुन को दोष दिया । यह सुनते ही, पूर्वप्रतिज्ञा के अनुसार, गांडीव कीसी दूसरे को दे दो, ऐसे कहनेवाले धर्मराज का वध करने के लिये खड्‌ग लेकर दौडा । तब कृष्ण ने धर्माधर्म का भेद बना कर कहा कि, धर्मराज के लिये ‘आप’ शब्द का प्रयोग करने के बदले अगर ‘तुम’ या ‘तू’ कहा तो यह अपमान वधतुल्य है । अर्जुन ने यह मानकर, धर्मराज के प्रति कुत्सित शब्दों का उपयोग कर, उसका अत्यंत अपमान किया । अंत में, ऐसा करने का कारण बता कर, यह कर्णवध के काम में लग गया । कृष्ण इसे लगातर उत्तेजन दे ही रहा था । कर्णार्जुन का तुमुल युद्ध शुरु हुआ । अर्जुन ने कर्ण को घायल कर के एक बार बेहोश कर दिया, तथा बाण पर बैठ पर आये हुए तक्षक का वध किया । परंतु युद्ध के ऐन रंग में ही, कर्ण के रथ का पहिया पृथ्वी ने निगल लिया । कर्ण नें रथ से कूद कर पहिया उठाने का प्रयत्न किया, परंतु कुछ लाभ नही हुआ । उसने धर्मयुद्ध के अनुसार अर्जुनको रुकने का उपदेश किया, परंतु उसका भी कुछ लाभ न हो कर, अर्जुन ने कर्ण का मस्तक उडा दिया [म. क. ६७]
अर्जुन n.  दुर्योधन की मृत्यु के बाद सब उसके शिबिर में आये । तब अनेक अस्त्रप्रयोगों से दग्ध, परंतु कृष्ण के, सामर्थ्य से सुरक्षित अर्जुन का रथ, कृष्णार्जुन के नीचे उतरते ही, अपने आप जल कर खाक हो गया [म. श. ६१] । आगे चल कर, अश्वत्थामा ने चिढ कर रात्रि के समय ब्रह्मास्त्र का प्रयोग किया, तथा सबको जलाना प्रारंभ किया । तब उसके परिहार के लिये अर्जुन ने भी ब्रह्मास्त्र का प्रयोग किया । परंतु वह सब लोगों को अधिक कष्ट देनेवाला सोच कर इसने वापस ले लिया [म. सौ.१५] । यद्यपि भारतीय युद्ध में, अर्जुन का सारथी कृष्ण था [म. ३.७. ३४] । तो भी पुरु नामक एक सारथि अर्जुन के पास निरंतर रहता था [म. स.३०]
अर्जुन n.  जब युधिष्ठिर ने अश्वमेध का अश्व छोडा, तब उसके संरक्षणार्थ अर्जुन की योजना कीं गई थी । अर्जुन प्रथम अश्व के पीछे उत्तर दिशा की ओर गया । राह में कई छोटे बडे युद्ध हुए । उनमें से केवल महत्त्वपूर्ण युद्धों का वर्णन महाभारत में दिया है । त्रिगर्त का राजा सूर्यवर्मा, उसी प्रकार उसका भाई केतुवर्मा तथा धृतवर्मा का पराजय अर्जुन ने किया । प्राग्ज्योतिषपुर का राजा भगदत्तपुत्र यज्ञदत्त को इसने अच्छा पाठ सिखाया । तदनंतर यह सिंधु देश में गया । सिंधुराजा जयद्रथ का वध अर्जुन के द्वारा होने के कारण, वहॉं के निवासियों में अर्जुन के प्रति त्वेष जागृत था । उनके द्वारा जोरदार आक्रमण होने के कारण, अर्जुन के हाथों से गाण्डीव छूट गया । परंतु उसके बाद भी इसने जोरदार युद्ध शुरु किया । अर्जुन के आगमन की सूचना मात्र से जयद्रथपुत्र सुरथ मृत हो गया । परंतु जयद्रथ की पत्नी तथा दुर्योधन भगिनी दुःशला, अपने नाती सहित अर्जुन के पास आई, तथा इसे शरण आ कर युद्धसे परावृत्त किया ।$पुत्रभेट---तदनंतर अर्जुन मणलूर देश में गया । तब इसका पुत्र बभ्रुवाहन अनेक लोगो के साथ, इसके स्वागत के लिये आया । परंतु क्षत्रियोचित वर्णन न करने के कारण अर्जुन ने उसकी निर्भत्सना की । पाताल से उलूपी वहॉं आई तथा उसने भी अपने सापत्न पुत्र को युद्ध के लिये प्रोत्साहन दिया । बभ्रुवाहन ने घनघोर युद्ध प्रारंभ कर के अर्जुन को मूर्च्छित किया, तथा स्वयं भी मूर्च्छित हो गया । उसकी माता चित्रांगदा रणक्षेत्र में आई तथा पुत्र एवं पति के लिये उसने अत्यंत विलाप किया । बभ्रुवाहन ने प्रायोपवेशन किया । तब, इस पिता पुत्र युद्ध के लिये, उलूपी को सबके द्वारा दोष दिये के जाने कारण, केवल स्मरण से प्राप्त होने वाले संजीवनीमणि से उसने अर्जुन को जागृत किया । शिखण्डी को सामने रख कर भीष्मवध करने के कारण अजिंक्य अर्जुन का पराभव बभ्रुवाहन कर सका । तदुपरांत, अर्जुन मगध देश में गया तथा जरासंधपौत्र मेघसंधी का इसने पराभव किया । उसके बाद वंग, पुण्ड्र तथा केरल देश जीत कर, दक्षिण की ओर मुडकर इसने चेदि देश पर आक्रमण किया । वहॉं शिशुपालपुत्र शरभ से सत्कार प्राप्त कर, काशी, अंग, कोसल, किरात तथा तङ्गण देश पार कर, यह दशार्ण देश में गया । वहॉं चित्रांगद से युद्ध कर के उसे अपने काबू में लाया । निषादराज एकलव्य के राज्य में जा कर, उसके पुत्र से युद्ध कर के उसे जीता । पुनःदक्षिण की ओर आ कर, द्रविड, आन्ध्र, रौद्र, माहिषक तथा कोल्लगिरेय, इनको सुगमता से जीत कर सुराष्ट्र के आसपास गया । वहॉं से, गोकर्ण, प्रभास, द्वारका इ. भाग से, समुद्रकिनारे से पंचनद देश में गया तथा वहॉं से गांधार गया । गांधार में, शकुनिपुत्र से इसका भयानक युद्ध हुआ तथा शकुनिपुत्र की सेना का इसने संहार किया । अपने पुत्र की भी यही स्थिति होगी यह जानकर, शकुनि की पत्नी ने, अर्जुन को युद्ध से परावृत्त किया । इस, प्रकार, बडे गौरव के साथ अश्व के पीछे पीछे दिग्विजय कर के, अर्जुन हस्तिनापुर लौट आया । उस समय माघ पौर्णिमा थी, तथा यज्ञ चैत्र पौर्णिमा के समय होने वाला था । इस के लिये अर्जुन ने सब को आमंत्रण दिया था [म.आश्व. ७१ ८५- कुं.] युधिष्ठिर को अर्जुन के आगमन की वार्ता प्रथम जासूसों द्वारा मालूम हूई । तदनंतर अर्जुन के शरीर स्वास्थ्य के बारे में उसने कृष्ण के पास विशेष पूछताछ की [म. आश्व. ८९. कु.] । अर्जुन ने आनेवाले राजाओं का सन्मान करने के बारेमें बताते समय, बभ्रुवाहन का विशेष सन्मान करने के लिये कहा [म. आश्व. ८८.१८-२१ कुं.]
अर्जुन n.  सब यादवों का संहार हुआ, ऐसी वार्ता दारुक ने हस्तिनापूर में आ कर बताई । तब अर्जुन को ऐसा लगा कि, यह वार्ता गलत है । परंतु स्वयं द्वारका में आ कर देखने के बाद, उसे विश्वास हुआ । कृष्णपत्नियों का हृदयभेदी विलाप बडे कष्ट से सुन कर इसने सबको धीरज बँधाया, तथा यह वसुदेव से मिलने आया । ऑंखों में पानी ला कर इसने वसुदेव का चरण स्पर्श किया । वृद्ध वसुदेव ने अर्जुन का आलिंगन कर के शोक किया, तथा शूर राम-कृष्ण की मृत्यु हो गई, केवल मैं जीवित बचा, ऐसें खेदजनक शब्द कहे । द्वारका जल्द ही समुद्र में डूबने वाली है, ऐसा बता कर, स्त्रियॉं, रत्न तथा राज्य सम्हालने के लिये वसुदेव ने अर्जुन से कहा तथा देहत्याग किया [म. मौ. ६-७] । अर्जुन ने सब को द्वारका छोड कर इन्द्रप्रस्थ जाने की तैय्यारी करने के लिये कहा, तथा वसुदेव, राम तथा कृष्ण को अग्नि दी । तदनंतर, इसके नेतृत्व में अवशिष्ट यादवस्त्रियॉं तथा पौर इन्द्रप्रस्थ निकले ही, कि इधर द्वारका समुद्र ने निगल ली इन्द्रप्रस्थ की ओर आते समय, पंचनद देश में अर्जुन ने डेरा डाला । अर्जुन अकेला ही अनेक स्त्रियों को ले कर जा रहा है यह देख, वहॉं के आभीर लोगों ने अर्जुन पर आक्रमण किया । अर्जुन उस समय वृद्ध हो चला था, भाग्य भी बदला गया था । इससे पहले के समान, धनुष सज्ज कर बाण नही छोड सकता था । अस्त्रमंत्र याद नही आ रहे थे, बाण भी समाप्त हो गये थे । अंत में, धनुष्य का लाठी के समान उपयोग कर अर्जुन सब को मारने लगा । इससे कई स्त्रियॉं भगाई गई, कई स्वयं भाग गई, तथा बचे हुए परिवार के साथ बडी कठिनाई से अर्जुन इन्द्रप्रस्थ लौट सका (अष्टावक्र देखिये) । जो कुछ अंकुर यादव वंश के बचे थे, उनकी इसने व्यवस्था की । हार्दिक्यतनय को मृत्तिकावत का राज्य दिया, अश्वपति को खाण्डववन का राज्य दिया तथा बाकी सब को इन्द्रप्रस्थ में रख कर, वज्र को इन्द्रप्रस्थ का राजा बनाया [म. मौ. ८];[ पद्म. ३. २७९. ५६];[ब्रह्म. २१०-२१२];[ विष्णु. ५.३७.३८];[ अग्नि.१५] । इस प्रकार व्यवस्था कर के, अर्जुन उद्विग्र अवस्था में व्यास आश्रम में गया, तथा व्यास का दर्शन ले कर, हस्तिनापूर आ कर, सब निवेदन युधिष्ठिर को किया [म. मौ९ कुं]
अर्जुन n.  तदपुरांत जब सब पांडव हिमालय पर जा रहे थे, तब १०६ वर्ष की उम्र में इसका पतन हुआ । भीम ने पूछा कि, बीच में ही इसका पतन क्यों हुआ? तब धर्म ने कहा कि, यह हमेशा कहता था कि, मैं अकेले ही शत्रूओं को नष्ट करुंगा, परंतु उसने ऐसा किया नही । उसी प्रकार, अन्य धनुर्धारियों का यह अवमान भी करता था, इस लिये इसका पतन हुआ [म. महा. ३.२१-२२]
अर्जुन n.  अर्जुन को द्रौपदी उत्पन्न पुत्र श्रुतकीर्ति भारतीय युद्ध में मृत हो गया । सुभद्रा से उत्पन्न पुत्र अभिमन्यु चक्रव्यूह में मृत हुआ, तथा चित्रांगदापुत्र बभ्रुवाहन मणिपूर का राजा बना । उलूपीपुत्र इरावर की मृत्यु भी युद्ध में हुई । आगे चल कर, अर्जुन का पौत्र परीक्षित राजा बना । अर्जुन ने हिरण्यपुर के पौलोम, कालकेय तथा दानव का वध किया [ब्रह्मांड. ३.६.२८] । यह नर का अवतार है ।
अर्जुन n.  परशुराम द्वारा की गई नरस्तुति में अर्जुन के निम्नांकित अस्त्रों का वर्णन है १. काकुदिक (काम), २. शुक (क्रोध), ३. नाक (लोभ), ४. अक्षिसंतर्जन (मोह), ५. संतन (मद), ६. नर्तक (मान), ७. घोर (मत्सर), ८. आस्यमोदक (अहंकार), [म.उ.९६] । अर्जुन की उपासना पाणिनी के समय लोक करते थे, ऐसा पाणिनीसूत्रों से ज्ञात होता है [पा. सू. ४.३.९८] । इसके रथ का नाम नंदिघोष [गरुड. ३.१४५.१६] । इसने ६५ वर्षो तक गांडीव का उपयोग किया [म. वि. ४७.७]
अर्जुन II. n.  रैवत मनूका पुत्र (मनु देखिये) ।
अर्जुन III. n.  कार्तवीर्य देखिये ।

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ARJUNA   The third of the Pāṇḍavas.
1) Genealogy.
Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā, Atri, Candra, Budha, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti, Pūru, Janamejaya, Pracinvān, Pravīra, Namasyu, Vītabhaya, Śuṇḍu, Bahuvidha, Saṁyāti, Rahovādi, Raudrāśvan, Matināra, Santurodha, Duṣyanta, Bharata, Suhotra, Suhotā, Gala, Gardda, Suketu, Bṛhatkṣetra, Hasti, Ajamīḍha, Ṛkṣa, Saṁvaraṇa, Kuru, Jahnu, Suratha, Viḍūratha, Sārvabhauma, Jayatsena, Ravyaya, Bhāvuka, Cakroddhata, Devātithi, Ṛkṣa, Bhīma, Pratīca, Śantanu, Vyāsa, Pāṇḍu, Arjuna.
2) Previous birth.
Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are often referred to as Naranārāyaṇas (Nara and Nārāyaṇa). In their previous life they were two Ṛṣis called Nara and Nārāyaṇa, and from that time onwards they lived as inseparable companions and sons of the same parents. They entered Mahāsamādhi at Badaryāśrama in the Himālayas. Of the two Nārāyaṇarṣi was a partial incarnation of Viṣṇu. About the Nararṣi the [Devī Bhāgavata] has the following to say: “Dharma had his origin in the heart of Brahmā, and he earned great reputation for truthfulness and adherence to Vedic dharma. He married the daughters of Dakṣa. Dharma had four sons, Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Nara and Nārāyaṇa. Of the four sons Hari and Kṛṣṇa became great yogīs, and Nara and Nārāyaṇa, great tapasvins. Nara and Nārāyaṇa did tapas, worshipping Brahmā for 1000 years at the holy Badaryāśrama in the plains of the Himālayas. Nara was born in the next birth as Arjuna. [Devī Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha]. See Nara.
3) Birth.
To Vicitravīrya son of Śantanu was born Dhṛtarāṣṭra by Ambikā, and Pāṇḍu by Ambālikā. Pāṇḍu had two wives, Kuntī and Mādrī. The curse of a Muni made physical contacts with his wives impossible for Pāṇḍu. (See Pāṇḍu). Kuntī, before her marriage had attended on Maharṣi Durvāsas who pleased with her service made a gift of five mantras to her. The effect of the mantras was that Kuntī would become mother of a son from him about whom she was thinking while she repeated the mantra. As soon as she got the mantras she retired to a solitary place and thinking of the Sun- God repeated the first mantra. At once Sūryadeva appeared and Karṇa was born to her by him. After assuring her that the incident would not affect her chastity Sūrya disappeared. Kuntī abandoned the child to float in the river Gaṅgā, and stayed with Pāṇḍu keeping the other four mantras to herself. Since Pāṇḍu could not contact the body of his wives, with his permission Kuntī began practising the other four mantras one by one. By three mantras she got three sons, Dharmaputra from Kāla, Arjuna from Indra and Bhīmasena from the wind God [Vāyu]. The remaining one mantra Kuntī gave to Mādrī. She repeated it thinking of the Aśvinī Devas, and two sons, Nakula and Sahadeva were born to her. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 63 onwards].
4) Festival of birth.
At the birth of Arjuna Kuntī heard a heavenly voice declare as follows: “Oh! Kuntī! your son will be equal to Śiva in prowess and unconquerable just as Indra is. After defeating all the Kings he will perform the Aśvamedha thrice. He will please Śiva and get the great weapon called Pāśupata from him. On the orders of Indra he will kill Nivātakavacas. Hearing the above prophecy the Devas played ecstatic music and flowers were showered from the sky. The Saptarṣis, Prajāpatis and other sages arrayed themselves in the sky. Thus, all animate and inanimate objects celebrated the birth of Arjuna.
5) Naming.
Sages from the top of the Śataśṛṅga mountain came together to perform the christening ceremony of Arjuna. While enumerating the various names of Arjuna, it is said in the Virāṭa Parva that Kṛṣṇa was the name Pāṇḍu gave to his son. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 123, Verse 20].
6) Childhood.
The Pāṇḍavas spent their childhood at Hastināpura with the Kauravas. Then Arjuna studied the art and science of using weapons, dance, music etc. along with the other boys. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 129, Verse 1]. Kaśyapa, the high priest of Vasudeva did for Arjuna the usual Saṁskāras like Upanayana (wearing of the holy thread) etc. Arjuna was taught the first lessons in Dhanurveda (Science of archery) by Rājarṣi Śuka. Afterwards, Kṛpācārya became the preceptor of the Pāṇḍavas in Dhanurveda, and it was then that Droṇācārya came. There is a particular story about Droṇācārya becoming the guru. (See Droṇa).
7) Special favour of Droṇa.
Arjuna showed very great interest in the science of the use of weapons. Droṇa, the master, wanted to teach Aśvatthāmā, his son, certain special things, and he began sending all his disciples to fetch water. Aśvatthāmā used to be the first to return with the water, and before the others returned Droṇa began teaching Aśvatthāmā the special lessons. Arjuna came to understand this programme and he began returning with water along with Aśvatthāmā. Then the guru began teaching the special things to both Aśvatthāmā and Arjuna. Droṇa instructed the cook not to serve Arjuna food in the darkness. While Arjuna was once taking his food, wind blew out the burning lamp, and Arjuna alone continued eating. Because of constant practice Arjuna was quite sure about the position of the hand and the mouth in the process of eating, and Arjuna surmised from this that archery also could be practised in darkness. He began practising them. The guru came to know of it, and witnessing Arjuna's performance praised Arjuna as a unique archer. [Bhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 132].
8) Ekalavya's finger was cut.
Ekalavya, son of Hiraṇyadhanus, King of the Niṣādas (a tribe of hunters, forestmen) approached Droṇa to learn the science of the use of weapons. Droṇa, the Brahmin, refused the prayer of this prince of the forest tribe. Ekalavya, after prostrating at the feet of Droṇa returned to the woods, made an image of Droṇa with earth and meditating upon it as guru began practising the use of weapons. The Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas went hunting in the forest. Seeing there Ekalavya with his matted hair and clad in deer skin the hunting dogs began barking at him. Ekalavya shot into the mouth of the dog seven arrows at one and the same moment. With the arrows thrust in the mouth the dogs ran back to the Pāṇḍavas, and they found out the culprit, Ekalavya, who claimed himself to be a disciple of Droṇa. Grief-stricken at this claim Arjuna hurried up to Droṇa and said: “You had pronounced me to be your foremost disciple without an equal. But, today Ekalavya, another disciple of yours has relegated me to the second place”. Thereupon Droṇa went and saw Ekalavya in the forest. Ekalavya, in all devotion stood up and saluted the guru. And the guru said as follows: “Oh! Ekalavya if thou art my disciple give me the dakṣiṇā (fee) due to the guru, and I desire to get the thumb of your right hand as my fee”. At once Ekalavya cut his thumb and gave it to Droṇa. Henceforth Arjuna became Droṇa's unequalled disciple. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 132].
9) Arjuna got Brahmaśirāstra.
When once Droṇa and his disciples were bathing in the river Gaṅgā, a whale caught hold of the leg of the guru. The combined efforts of the disciples failed to extricate the leg from the grip of the whale. Ultimately Arjuna shot an arrow and released the guru's leg. Greatly pleased at this Droṇa imparted to Arjuna knowledge about Brahma- śirāstra, and Arjuna was enjoined not to use the astra against men, but to use it only when confronting higher beings than men. [Bhārata (Malayalam), Ādi Parva, Chapter 133].
10) Competition in arms.
When the training of the princes was almost over Dhṛtarāṣṭra decided to have a rehearsal of their attainments, and the scene for it also was set. The princes with bows and arrows appeared on the scene. Yudhiṣṭhira and others first exhibited their skill in shooting arrows in the order of their seniority. Every scene was explained to Dhṛtarāṣṭra by Vidura and to Gāndhārī by Sañjaya. Duryodhana and Bhīma clashed with each other. Aśvatthāmā pacified them and kept them apart. And, then Arjuna and Karṇa appeared on the scene, and the onlookers declared them to be equal in skill in archery. When their shooting exhibition was over, Karṇa who got angry again rushed to the stage. Arjuna also got ready. Arjuna challenged Karṇa's eligibility on the ground that he was low-born and not a Kṣatriya. At once Duryodhana proclaimed him as the King of Aṅga. Though this pacified the scene, this competition in archery served much to make the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas the bitterest of enemies. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters, 136, 137].
11) Arjuna's gurudakṣiṇā (Offering of fee to the preceptor).
At the starting of training the princes Droṇa told them: “I have one thing in mind, and you must do it for me when you have completed the course of training. All the disciples except Arjuna kept silent at this, but Arjuna promised to fulfil the guru's wish at the proper time The training was over, and it was time for gurudakṣiṇā. Droṇa asked to be brought bound before him Drupada, King of Pāñcāla. (For Droṇa's enmity towards Drupada see Drupada). Thereupon the Pāṇḍavas marched to Pāñcāla, and in a fierce battle Arjuna defeated Drupada. Though Bhīma tried to kill Drupada Arjuna did not permit it, but took him bound to Droṇa. This ended Droṇa's hatred towards Drupada, who now gifted half his kingdom to Droṇa. Droṇa was very much pleased with Arjuna for the above act, and advised him to fight even him (Droṇa) if the latter opposed him (Arjuna). To this Arjuna replied ‘Yes’. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 139, Verse 14]. With this promise to fight even the guru in case the guru attacked him Arjuna became the most reputed archer in Bhārata.
12) Jealousy of Dhṛtarāṣṭra.
After the gurudakṣiṇā Arjuna marched against the neighoouring kingdom. He defeated very easily in war the King of Yavana and the Kings Sauvīra, Vipula and Sumitra. These victories of Arjuna made the Kauravas very anxious; Dhṛtarāṣṭra brooded over it. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 138, Verses 20-23].
13) Escape from the waxen palace.
Duryodhana made up his mind to destroy the Pāṇḍavas somehow or other. He got the Pāṇḍavas to shift their residence to a palace made of wax at Vāraṇāvata, and one year after this the palace was set fire to. The Pāṇḍavas escaped death by fire through a tunnel and entered the forest, the next day. (See Arakkillam).
14) Arjuna on the banks of river Gaṅgā.
The Pāṇḍavas walked much through the terrible forest, and after midnight reached the banks of the Gaṅgā. At that time Aṁgāraparṇa (Citraratha), the Gandharva was enjoying his time in the river with some Apsarā women. The presence of men at the scene, the Gandharva did not relish. Arjuna and the Gandharva crossed in words, which led to a duel. In the duel the Gandharva was defeated. As the wife of the Gandharva prayed with tears in her eyes Arjuna spared him his life. The grateful Gandharva told the Pāṇḍavas many interesting stories. He also made a present of divine horses and imparted to them the esoteric knowledge called Cākṣuṣīvidyā. The Gandharva finally told the Pāṇḍavas that they were attacked because they came without Agni and Āhuti in their front. He also explained this fact that Arjuna could subjugate him on account of his (Arjuna's) genuine celibacy. (See Citraratha).
15) Pāñcālisvayaṁvara.
Citraratha, during his talks with the āṇḍavas had pointed out to them the need to have a priest to lead and guide them in all matters, and accordingly they visited Dhaumyāśrama and installed the Maharṣi (Dhaumya) as their priest. And, meantime seeing thousands of people on their way to attend the Svayaṁvara (marriage by open choice of husband by the girl) of Kṛṣṇā (Pāñcālī) daughter of the King of āñcāla, the Pāṇḍavas also followed the crowd. Veda Vyāsa, whom the Pāṇḍavas met on their way blessed them. King Drupada wished to give his daughter Kṛṣṇā in marriage to Arjuna. The news that the ṇḍa as were burned to death in the palace of wax grieved Drupada. Yet he had made arrangements for a trial of strength by Heroes at the Svayaṁvara. A tremendous bow was got ready and installed on the ground, and a machine constructed which was kept suspended in the air. The target was placed inside the machine. And then Drupada spoke thus: “My daughter shall be married to him who will bend the bow and with the first arrow hit the target placed inside the machine”. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 11]. Great warriors like Duryodhana, Karṇa, Śiśupāla, Śiṁśumāra took their seats in the marriage hall. All the kings failed even to lift the bow up. Ultimately Arjuna lifted the bow and hit the target very easily. Pāñcālī put the wedding garland on Arjuna's neck. When the Pāṇḍavas returned to their mother with Pāñcālī in the evening the mother from inside her room said: “What you have got today, my sons, you enjoy among yourselves.” Kuntī said this under the impression that what her sons had got was some Bhikṣā. At any rate, in obedience to the above injunc- tion of the mother Pāñcālī became wife to the five Pāṇḍavas. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters 190, 191].
16) Arjuna at Indraprastha.
The svayaṁvara of Pāñcālī broadcast news about the whereabouts of the Pāṇḍavas. Dhṛtarāṣṭra brought them back to Indraprastha, and installed them in a new palace built at the place called Khāṇḍavaprastha. (Indraprastha). Dharmaputra ruled a part of the country with Indraprastha as capital. Nārada went there once and advised the Pāṇḍavas to guard themselves against mutual quarrels as the five of them claimed one and the same woman as wife. Thenceforth it was set forth that Pāñcālī would live with each husband in turn for one year. It was also settled that during a particular year if any other husband than the one whose turn it was to live with Pāñcālī saw her the intruder was to go on a pilgrimage for one year. Once a brahmin came to the palace complaining that his cows were stolen by thieves, and Arjuna promised to help him. Arjuna did so without remembering that all his weapons were stored in Dharmaputra's palace. That year Pāñcālī was living with Dharmaputra. Forgetting the fact Arjuna went to Dharmaputra's palace, got his weapons and helped the brahmin. For thus breaking the rule Arjuna left his palace on a pilgrimage for one year. 17
A) Arjuna married Ulūpikā and Citrāṅgadā.
Arjuna with his bow and arrows went into the forest. Many brahmins followed him. Arjuna reached the banks of Gaṅgā and entered the waters for a bath. Here Arjuna was attracted by Ulūpikā, daughter of the Nāga King and he married her. A son was born to them called Irāvān. After visiting places like Agastyavaṭam, Vasiṣṭhagiri Arju3na reached Manalur. He married Citrāṅgadā, daughter of Citrāṅgada, King of Manalur. After a stay of three months there he went southwards. Citrāṅgadā gave birth to a son named Babhruvāhana. 17
B) The mark on Arjuna's flag is Hanūmān, and the following story is attached to it.
Arjuna, once during a tour of the country was much surprised to see the Dam constructed by Śrī Rāma from Rāmeśvara to Laṅkā. He also felt that it was not at all proper on the part of Śrī Rāma to have sought the help of monkeys to construct the dam. Śrī Rāma could have made a dam with arrows. Arjuna put this question to a great scholar (Pandit) who was sitting nearby reading the Rāmāyaṇa. Neither the Pandit nor the other brahmins gathered there could give a convincing answer to Arjuna's doubts. Then a monkey child went up to Arjuna and told him with pride that a dam made of arrows would have broken when the monkeys walked on it. Arjuna said then, “no, no, no monkey will be able to break the dam built with Rāma's arrows; which monkey will break a dam of arrows made even by me?” And, a debate began about the subject. The monkey and Arjuna agreed to a bet that if a monkey broke the dam made by Arjuna he would end his life by jumping into fire, and if the monkey could not break the dam it would for ever be Arjuna's slave. Arjuna constructed a dam with arrows. And, as soon as the monkey set foot on it it was broken. Arjuna tried again. Though now it caused some efforts on the part of the monkey the dam broke this time also. Arjuna was thus left with no alternative but to die by jumping into fire and a fire was accordingly lit. Before Arjuna jumped into the fire a brahmin boy, who was bathing in the river ran upto Arjuna and told him that his attempt at self annihilation was not justified as the bet was made without an arbiter. When Arjuna who was wedded so much to truth brushed aside this argument and got ready to end his life the boy said: “If you are so very insistent about it you (Arjuna and the monkey) compete once again with me as arbiter. This suggestion of the boy was accepted. The monkey child tried its best to break the dam, but it failed. It developed its body to the size of a mountain and jumped on the dam. Even then it did not break. Then he ran up to the boy who was acting as arbiter and prostrated at his feet crying ‘Rāmacandra’. At the same moment Arjuna also prostrated before the boy crying ‘Śrī Kṛṣṇa, slave to devotees’. The boy asked both of them to get up, and after admonishing them for their conceit gave them good advice. He also asked the monkey child to keep his word by remaining as the emblem of Arjuna's flag. (The monkey boy was actually Hanūmān and the brahmin boy Śrī Kṛṣṇa). 17
C) Arjuna married Subhadrā.
Arjuna went to the holy place called Saubhadratīrtha and redeemed the woman named Vargā from the curse she was labouring under. (See Vargā). Arjuna continued his journey and reached Gokarṇa and Prabhāsa tīrtha, where he met Gada, brother of Śrī kṛṣṇa. Gada described to Arjuna the great beauty of his sister, Subhadrā. Arjuna went to Dvārakā and paid his respects to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. A few days later the yādavas celebrated a great festival at mount Raivataka. Arjuna went there disguised as a Sannyāsin and forcibly took away Subhadrā with him with the permission of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Though the yādavas got ready for a fight they were ultimately pacified, and Subhadrā was married to Arjuna. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapter, 218-224]. 17
D) Brahmin boy saved.
When once Arjuna was in Dvārakā with Śrī Kṛṣṇa a brahmin appeared on the scene lamenting that his child died as soon as it was born. Nobody paid any heed to this, and then Arjuna rose up and assured protection to the next child to be born to the brahmin and asked him to return home in peace. Arjuna also vowed that he would end his life by jumping into fire if he failed to protect the next child of the brahmin. As the time for the delivery of his wife approached the brahmin took Arjuna home. Arjuna made the house secure by making an enclosure with his arrows. Yet the child died; not only that, at the time of birth itself its body disappeared. And, the brahmin heaped insults on Arjuna, who looked very foolish. Rendered thus an object of ridicule Arjuna began to make a fire for him to jump into. At this Śrī Kṛṣṇa appeared before Arjuna and prevented him from jumping into fire. And then both Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna went to Viṣṇuloka and submitted the case of the brahmin to him. Viṣṇu told them: “Oh! Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, it was I who took away the brahmin boys for the pleasure of seeing you both here. You may immediately return with the brahmin boys. And, Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna returned with the boys to the brahmin, who now felt very happy. [Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha, Chapter 89]. 17
E) Burning of Khāṇḍava forest.
While Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were spending their days on the banks of river Yamunā in the summer season Agni Bhagavān (the fire-god) requested them to give the Khāṇḍava forest as food to him. (See Khāṇḍavadāha). Arjuna agreed to oblige Agni Bhagavān, who presented to Arjuna the bow called Gāṇḍīva, a white horse and many other powerful arrows. When Agni began burning the forest, Indra sent a heavy shower of rain. By creating a tent with arrows Arjuna saved the forest from the rain. Arjuna killed Takṣaka's wife, cursed the N ga called Aśvasena and saved Maya, the architect of the Asuras who was put up in the forest. Indra was pleased and gifted many divine arrows to Arjuna. Maya gave the famous conch, Devadattam to Arjuna. By now the one year of the pilgrimage of Arjuna was over and he returned to Indraprastha. [M.B., Ādi Parva, Chapters 233-239]. 17
P) Fight between Arjuna and Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
(See Gālava, para 4).
18) Again to the forest.
Maya, who escaped death in Khāṇḍava forest, in his great gratitude, went to Indraprastha, and with the permission of Dharmaputra built for the Pāṇḍavas an exceptionally beautiful palace. And then the Pāṇḍavas made the conquest of all the earth, and after killing enemy kings like Jarāsandha, the Kimpuruṣas, the Hādakas, Śiśupāla, Kurundha and Bhagadatta returned to Idraprastha and performed the Rājasūya yajña. The Kauravas who got jealous at this went on a visit to Indraprastha. When they entered the palace built by Maya they were put into many a ludicrous situation. (See Sabhāpraveśa). Insulted and humiliated they returned to Hastināpura and challenged the Pāṇḍavas to a game of dice, and in the game the Pāṇḍavas lost not only their kingdom and other riches, but Pāñcālī as well. Duśśāsana dragged Pāñcālī and stripped her of her clothes in the royal assembly and thus mercilessly insulted her. According to the terms and condition agreed to with reference to the game of dice, the Pāṇḍavas had to lead forest life for twelve years and live for one year incognito. The Pāṇḍavas again started for the forest. [M.B., Sabhā Parva].
19) Pāṇḍavas in Kāmyaka forest.
A number of brahmins also accompanied the Pāṇḍavas to the forest. The noble brahmin, Śaunaka consoled the aggrieved Dharmaputra in the Dvaitavana. Dharmaputra felt worried that he could not feed the brahmins who accompanied him into the forest. Pāñcālī prayed to the Sun-God, and he gave the Akṣayapātra to her. (See Akṣyapātra). And, after this the Pāṇḍavas, along with the brahmins, entered the Kāmyaka forest. [M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 36].
20) Arjuna secured divine arrows.
Dharmaputra asked Arjuna to do tapas in the Himālayas and thus secure divine arrows. Accordingly Arjuna went south and saw Indra in the Indrakīla mountain. Indra gave him boons. There Arjuna killed Mūkāsura. And, then Arjuna went to Mount Kailāsa and prayerfully concentrated his mind on Śiva. Śiva appeared in the guise of a forest dweller. (See Pāśupatāstra). After that he got the Daṇḍāstra from Yama, Pāśāstra from Varuṇa and Antardhānāstra from Kubera. [M.B., Vana Parva, Chapters 37-41].
21) Arjuna in Indraloka.
Indra, who was so very pleased that Arjuna got so many divine arrows deputed his charioteer, Mātali, to bring Arjuna to Devaloka, and at Devaloka he learned more about archery and music. The Apsarā women forgot themselves when they saw the exceptionally handsome Arjuna. Urvaśī, mad with love, sent her messenger Citrasena to Indra. Being told about Urvaśī's love Arjuna closed both his ears with hands, and reminded the messenger of Urvaśī's maternal position with reference to him. Urvaśī cursed and turned Arjuna into an eunuch. Indra consoled Arjuna by assuring him that Urvaśī's curse will turn out to be of great benefit to him. Afterwards Arjuna stayed in Devaloka for a few days with Citrasena, and during the period he killed Nivātakavaca and Kālakeya. Arjuna became a friend of Maharṣi Lomaśa, who had gone to Devaloka to see Indra. Promising Arjuna that he would protect Dharmaputra Lomaśa returned to the earth. Arjuna left the Kāmyaka forest and returned to his brothers after an absence for five years. He met the brothers at Mount Gandhamādana. [M.B., Vana Parva, Chapters 42-47].
22) Procession.
At last a witty and humorous brahmin went to Dhṛtarāṣṭra and dilated upon the hardships being suffered by the Pāṇḍavas, and Duryodhana and others were extremely pleased and happy to hear it. Yet, they shed crocodile tears. But, Duryodhana was in a mighty hurry to see with his own eyes the pitiable plight of the Pāṇḍavas. On the pretext of going out for hunting Duryodhana and others with the permission of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, started for the forest with a number of attendants. 8,000 chariots, 30,000 elephants, thousands of infantry soldiers, 9,000 horses, merchants, ornaments, courtesans and thousands of hunters formed this procession into the forest. Just like roaring winds during the rainy season the procession caused thunderous noise. Duryodhana approached the pool in the Dvaita forest and waited at a distance. [M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapter 239, Verses 25-29]. Duryodhana and attendants put up tents in the forest. The Gandharvas obstructed Duryodhana, and he and the Gandharva called Citrasena clashed with each other. Duryodhana was made a prisoner. Arjuna came on the scene and released him. And, thus humiliated Duryodhana returned to Hastināpura with the attendants. (M.B., Āraṇya Parva, Chapters 239-253).
23) Arjuna lost consciousness.
While once Pāñcālī was alone King Jayadratha forcibly took her away. Within seconds the Pāṇḍavas confronted Jayadratha and regained Pāñcālī. Jayadratha and his men were killed. The Pāṇḍavas, who were very weary and tired walking in the forest felt extremely thirsty. Nakula, at the instance of Dharmaputra climbed a tree and looked around and sighted a pool of clear water. When Nakula went to the pool and began to draw water a voice from above was heard saying as follows: “Do not be so very daring. This is my ancestral wealth. If you answer my questions you may not only drink the water but also take some with you”. Without paying any heed to this warning Nakula drank water from the pool, and lo! he fell down unconscious immediately. Sahadeva who went to the pool in search of Nakula and drank water from the pool also met with the same fate as Nakula. Arjuna and Bhīma also had the same fate at the pool. Lastly Dharmaputra went to the pool and understanding what happened to his brothers requested permission to drink water. At once a Yakṣa appeared and brought the brothers of Dharmaputra back to consciousness. In fact, the Yakṣa was none other than Yamadharmadeva. (For questions and answers of the Yakṣa see Dharmaputra.) [M.B., Araṇya Parva, Chapters 312-315].
24) Life incognito.
Now the twelve years of forest life being over the Pāṇḍavas decided to spend the one year of life incognito in the Virāṭa palace. Arjuna disguised himself and deposited his clothes and weapons in the hollow of a Śami tree in the forest. And the Pāṇḍavas in various disguises reached the Virāṭa palace. They assumed false names: Dharmaputra as Kaṅka, Bhīma as Valāla, Arjuna as Bṛhannala, Nakula as Granthika and Sahadeva as Ariṣṭanemi and Draupadī as Mālinī. When the life incognito of the Pāṇḍavas for one year was about to expire a rumour reached the Kauravas that the Pāṇḍavas were at the Virāṭa capital, and the Kauravas thought that the Pāṇḍavas will appear on the scene if a war was fought against King Virāṭa. The Kauravas, with this object in view, lifted the cows of Virāṭa and that led to war. Uttara, the prince of Virāṭa boasted that he would fight provided he had a good charioteer. Bṛhannala (Arjuna) agreed to act as such and they started for the warfield. At the sight of the massive army of the Kauravas Uttara got frightened and tried to run away from the field. But Bṛhannala tightly bound Uttara to the chariot, drove it very fast to the forest, took back from the hollow of the Śami tree his weapons and returned to the battle-field. The Kauravas were absolutely defeated in the war and they took to their heels. They understood that the very clever and terrible warrior in disguise was Arjuna himself. But, by the time the period of the Pāṇḍavas life incognito was over. The king of Virāṭa, greatly pleased over this victory in war gave his daughter, Uttarā in marriage to Abhiṁanyu, son of Arjuna. [M.B., Virāṭa Parva].
25) Preparations for war.
After the forest life and life incognito the Pāṇḍavas returned. The Kauravas refused to give them half the Kingdom. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, on behalf of the Pāṇḍavas, implored that half the kingdom or five districts or five houses or at least one house be given to them. But the Kauravas took the stand that not even an iota of land would be given to the Pāṇḍavas. And, war was perforce decided upon. Duryodhana went to Kṛṣṇa at Dvārakā to request for support in war. Kṛṣṇa, who favoured the Pāṇḍavas lay in false sleep as he did not want to fight against them. Duryodhana sat at the head of Kṛṣṇa. Arjuna, who came after some time sat at the feet of Kṛṣṇa and remained there standing. Awakening from sleep, it was Arjuna whom Kṛṣṇa saw first. After the greetings were over with Arjuna, Kṛṣṇa saw Duryodhana also. Between Kṛṣṇa without any arms and the armed forces of Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna chose Kṛṣṇa and Duryodhana his armed forces to help each side in the impending war. [Udyoga Parva].
26) War.
Both the Parties were encamped in Kurukṣetra ready for war. Śrī Kṛṣṇa acted as Charioteer to Arjuna. He stopped the chariot in between the opposing armies. Arjuna felt deep anguish to find his own people arrayed on the opposite side for war. Reluctant to kill relations, elders, friends and preceptors Arjuna laid down his arms in the chariot. Then did Kṛṣṇa instruct him in Karmayoga (the philosophy of action). That instruction and advice of Kṛṣṇa is the world-famous Bhagavad Gītā. The Gītā cleared off Arjuna's illusions and he praised the Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who revealed his all comprehensive form (Viśvarūpa) to Arjuna. On the first day of the war Arjuna fought a duel with Bhīṣma, and the second day he fought the Kaurava forces with exceptional prowess. And then Arjuna pre- vented Kṛṣṇa from killing Bhīṣma. But, the Kaurava army faced defeat that day. On the third day Arjuna defeated Bhīṣma, Aśvatthāmā, Trigartta, Bhagadatta and others. Thereupon a really fierce fight began. The war lasted for 18 days. The important incidents during the 18 days can be summarised as follows:--
(1) Fierce fight between Arjuna and Bhīṣma.
(2) Fight between Arjuna and Aśvatthāmā.
(3) Arjuna destroyed the Kaurava army.
(4) Irāvān, son of Arjuna, was killed.
(5) Arjuna fought against Droṇa and Suśarmā.
(6) Took the vow to kill Bhīṣma.
(7) Śikhaṇḍī prompted to kill Bhīṣma.
(8) On the appearance of Śikhaṇḍi the Kaurava army, took fright and fled in great disarray.
(9) Arjuna fought a duel with Duśśāsana.
(10) Duel with Bhagadatta.
(11) Duel again with Bhīṣma.
(12) Bhīṣma fainted and fell on the ground.
(13) Duel again with Duśśāsana.
(14) With Śikhaṇḍī in the front made an attack on Bhīṣma.
(15) Arjuna discharged three arrows to serve as pillow to Bhīṣma who, dislodged from the chariot, was lying on a bed of arrows.
(16) Cool water sprinkled on the face of Bhīṣma with the aid of divine arrows.
(17) Fought against Droṇa and defeated his forces.
(18) Satyajit deputed to remain with Dharmaputra to help him.
(19) Sudhanvā killed.
(20) Again fought with Bhagadatta.
(21) Supratīka, the elephant of Bhagadatta killed.
(22) And after that, Bhagadatta also killed.
(23) Vṛṣaka and Acala killed by Arjuna.
(24) Śakuni defeated.
(25) Arjuna killed the three brothers of Karṇa and confronted Karṇa.
(26) Abhimanyu, son of Arjuna, killed.
(27) Hearing about the death of Abhimanyu, Arjuna fell down unconscious.
(28) Awakened, Arjuna vowed to kill Jayadratha.
(29) Arjuna performed Śiva Pūjā.
(30) Arjuna dreamt that night to have paid homage to Śiva along with Kṛṣṇa and that Śiva gave him divine arrows like Pāśupata.
(31) Marched forth routing the elephant regiment of Durmarṣaṇa.
(32) Routed Duśśāsana in fight.
(33) Again fought Droṇa, Kṛtavarmā, Śrutāyudha, Sudakṣiṇa, King of Kāmboja.
(34) Sudakṣiṇa killed in fight.
(35) Śrutāyu, Acyutāyu, Niyutāyu, Ambaṣṭha and the Mlecchas' army killed.
(36) Vinda and Anuvinda killed.
(37) Warfield converted into a house of arrows, on account of the great collection of arrows.
(38) Arjuna defeated Duryodhana.
(39) Fought the nine great warriors on the Kaurava side.
(40) Arjuna cut off the right hand of Bhūriśravas at the instance of Kṛṣṇa.
(41) Cut off the head of Jayadratha with arrows. The head and the arrows were thrown on the lap of Jayadratha's father.
(42) Alambuṣa, King of Rākṣasas killed.
(43) Daṇḍadhāra killed with his elephant.
(44) Arjuna killed the six brothers of Suśarmā, viz., Satyasena, Candrasena, Mitrasena, Śrutañjaya, Sauśruti and Mitradharmā
(45) Difference of opinion arose between Dharmaputra and Arjuna about the failure to kill Karṇa, and in the heat of excitement Arjuna called his elder brother ‘thou’.
(46) Immediately repenting Arjuna drew sword to kill himself. But, regained mental peace by begging pardon of the brother.
(47) Killed Vṛṣasena, son of Karṇa,
(48) Karṇa brought down Kṛṣṇa's crown by his arrow resembling the face of the serpent. Enraged at this Arjuna killed Karṇa.
(49) Killed Satyakarmā, Satyeṣṭha and others.
(50) After bowing to Vyāsa, Arjuna withdrew arrow. M.B.;[Bhīṣma Parva];[ Droṇa Parva];[ Karṇa Parva];[Śalya Parva];[ Sauptika Parvas].
27) After the war.
In the great war the Kaurava army, to the very last man, was annihilated. The Pāṇḍavas assembled together. Thoughts about the future came up. Śrī Kṛṣṇa consoled the sorrowing Dharmaputra. As desired by Vyāsa, Kṛṣṇa, Dharmaputra and others returned to Hastināpura and took up the reins of governing the country, and the idea of performing an Aśvamedha Yāga was seriously mooted. A King named Marutta agreed to give money needed for the yajña. Arjuna defeated all enemy kings. [M.B., Śānti Parva].
28) Death and rebirth of Arjuna.
On his way back after digvijaya Arjuna was killed by the arrows of his son, Babhruvāhana. Immediately did Ulūpī, Arjuna's wife bring back to life her husband by Mṛtasañjīvanī mantra. Then Arjuna questioned Ulūpī about the reason for his son killing him, and also as to how she happened to be present at the time. Ulūpī described the story of a curse in answer to Arjuna's querry. [M.B., Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 79].
29) The story of the curse.
Ulūpī said: You shall not get angry. Yes, all is for the best. In war you killed Bhīṣma by unrighteous means, viz. with the help of Śikhaṇḍī. On his death, the Aṣṭavasus and Gaṅgā Devī cursed you with hell. I told about this curse to my father, who begged the Vasus for redemption, and they said that you would be redeemed from the curse when your son, Babhruvāhana, killed you. Accordingly he has been brought here to kill you. The above story pleased Arjuna. [Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 81].
30) Aśvamedham.
Arjuna again defeated Meghasandhi, the King of Magadha, Śakuniputra and others and returned to Hastināpura, where the Aśvamedha yajña was performed. The Yādava dynasty was extinguished before long. Arjuna did all the rites due to them on death. He grieved over the departure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. [Bhāgavata, Skandha 11, Chapter 31]. And then he went to Indraprastha with the consorts of Kṛṣṇa. On the way dacoits overcame Arjuna and snatched away some of the females. Arjuna felt very sad. Then Vyāsa appeared and told him that he would be strong and powerful only in the presence of Kṛṣṇa. [Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 15].
31) Pāṇḍavas' journey to the other world.
Now, it was time for the Pāṇḍavas to journey to the other world. It was at this juncture that the Yādava dynasty ended and Śrī Kṛṣṇa was killed, and some of Kṛṣṇa's consorts were abducted. Arjuna could not save them, and they jumped into the river and died. Arjuna, who lost all his power began the great journey with his brothers. On their way Agnideva advised him to deposit reputed bow, Gāṇḍīva in the sea, and Arjuna did so. [Mahāprasthāna Parva, Chapter 1, Verses 1-42]. The Pāṇḍavas continued their journey, Yudhiṣṭhira leading them. They reached the Himālayas, and there Pāñcālī expired. To Bhīma's querry as to why Pāñcālī expired first, Yudhiṣṭhira replied that it was due to her having been more partial to Arjuna. The others continued their journey and then Sahadeva died. Yudhiṣṭhira explained that Sahadeva died second due to his arrogance and conceit. And, the others continued going forward. An emaciated dog was already with the Pāṇḍavas during their journey. Nakula was the third to die, and Yudhiṣṭhira attributed it to his (Nakula) extreme conceit about his beauty. And, Arjuna's death next, Yudhiṣṭhira said, was due to his having not kept his vow, once made, to kill the whole lot of enemies in a day. After proceeding a short distance further Bhīma also fell dead, and Yudhiṣṭhira thought to himself that it was due to Bhīma's voracious eating. And, then Devendra came in his chariot of gold and welcomed Yudhiṣṭhira to Svarga. But, he refused the offer saying that he would not do go alone, leaving his brothers behind. When Indra assured him that his brothers were already there, in Svarga, Yudhiṣṭhira got into the chariot and reached Svarga, and he was elated to find his brothers there happy with Pāñcālī. [Mahāprasthāna Parva];[ Svargārohaṇa Parva].
32) The meanings of the word, Arjuna.
(1) White. Śuklaśubhraśuciśveta- Viśadaśvetapāṇḍavāḥ Avadātassito gauro Valakṣo dhavalo'rjunaḥ Hariṇaḥ pāṇḍuraḥ. (Amarakośa)
(2) The plant called vīrataru. Nadīsarjo vīrataru- Rindradṛuḥ kakubhor'rjunaḥ. (Do)
(3) Grass. Śaṣpam bālatṛṇaṁ ghāso yavasam tṛṇaṁarjunam. (Do)
(4) Indra. [Ṛgveda, Chapter 1, Anuvāka 7, Sūkta 112].
33) Synonyms used in the Mahābhārata of Arjuna.
Aindri, Bhārata, Bhīmānuja, Bhīmasenānuja, Bībhatsu, Bṛhannala, Śākhāmṛgadhvaja, Śakraja, Śakranandana, Śakrasūnu, Śakrātmaja, Śakrasuta, Śvetāśva, Śvetahaya, Śvetavāha, Devendratanaya, Dhanañjaya, Gāṇḍīvabhṛt, Gāṇḍīvadhanvā, Gāṇḍīvadhārī, Gāṇḍīvī, Guḍākeśa, Indrarūpa, Indrasuta, Indrātmaja, Indrāvaraja, Jaya, Jiṣṇu, Kapidhvaja, Kapiketana, Kapipravara, Kapivaradhvaja, Kaunteya, Kaurava, Kauravaśreṣṭha, Kauravya, Kirīṭamāli, Kauraveya, Kirīṭabhṛt, Kirīṭavān, Kirīṭī, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇasārathi, Kuntīputra, Mahendrasūnu, Mahendrātmaja, Nara, Pākaśāsani, Pāṇḍava, Pāṇḍaveya, Pāṇḍunandana, Pārtha, Paurava, Phālguna, Prabhañjanasutānuja, Savyasācī, Tāpatya, Tridaśeśvarātmaja, Vānaradhvaja, Vānaraketana, Vānaraketu, Vānaravaryaketana, Vāsavaja, Vāsavanandana, Vāsavātmaja, Vāsavi, Vijaya.
34) Origin of certain words.
Towards the close of his life incognito, Arjuna went to the Śami tree to take out Gāṇḍīva kept in its hollow. Uttarā also was with Arjuna. Then Arjuna revealed himself to Uttarā, and also elaborated the meaning of his various names as follows:-- I shall tell you my ten names. Arjuna, Phālguna, Jiṣṇu, Kirīṭi, Śvetavāhana, Bhībhatsu, Vijaya, Kṛṣṇa, Savyasācī and Dhanañjaya....I am called Dhanañjaya, because even after having conquered all the lands and amassed wealth I stand in the centre of righteousness ....I am called Vijaya because in fights with haughty opponents I always succeed.....I am called Śvetavāhana because white horses are harnessed in war to my chariot decked with golden ornaments....I am called Phālguna because I was born in the month of Phālguna and under the star, Phālguna...I am kirīṭī because during my fight with the Daityas I put on my head crown glowing as Sun...I am called Bībhatsu by men and Devas because I never resort to revolting means during war...Devas and men call me Savyasācī because both my hands are adept in using the bow, Gāṇḍīva....I am Arjuna because, in the world people are rare who possess such fair colour as I do, and moreover I do only white (just and ethical) acts....I am called Jiṣṇu, because I am unassailable and unconquerable, and I subjugate and conquer, and also because I am the son of Indra...My father gave me the tenth name of Kṛṣṇa because I was very attractive (Kṛṣṇa=attractive). [Mahābhārata (Malayalam)].
35) Wives of Arjuna.
(1) Pāñcālī
(2) Ulūpī
(3) Citrāṅgadā
(4) Subhadrā.
36) Sons of Arjuna.
Śṛtakirīṭi, Irāvān, Babhruvāhana, Abhimanyu.
ARJUNA II   A son of Emperor, Nimi. One Arjuna, son of emperor Nimi, got philosophical advice from a Muni named Asita [Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa, Chapter 47].
ARJUNA III   (See Kārttavīryārjuna).
ARJUNA IV   A member of Yama's assembly. The other members are: Kapotaroma, Tṛṇaka, Sahadeva, Viśva, Sāśva, Kṛśāśva, Śaśabindu and Mahīśvara. [M.B., Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 17].

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