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मराठी मुख्य सूची|मराठी साहित्य|अनुवादीत साहित्य|धर्मसिंधु|तृतीय परिच्छेद : उत्तरार्ध १|
श्राद्धदेश.

धर्मसिंधु - श्राद्धदेश.

हिंदूंचे ऐहिक, धार्मिक, नैतिक अशा विषयात नियंत्रण करावे आणि त्यांना इह-परलोकी सुखाची प्राप्ती व्हावी ह्याच अत्यंत उदात्त हेतूने प्रेरित होउन श्री. काशीनाथशास्त्री उपाध्याय यांनी ’धर्मसिंधु’ हा ग्रंथ रचला आहे.

This 'Dharmasindhu' grantha was written by Pt. Kashinathashastree Upadhyay, in the year 1790-91.


श्राद्धदेश.

दक्षिण दिशेस उतरती, गोमयानें सारवलेली, कीटक, अस्थि, केश, श्लेष्मा इत्यादिकांनीं वर्जित, कृत्रिम भूमि वर्जित व रजस्वला दर्शनादिकानें वर्जित, अशा भूमीचे ठिकाणीं श्राद्ध करावें. कुरुक्षेत्र, प्रभास, पुष्कर, प्रयाग, काशी, गंगा, यमुना, नर्मदा, इत्यादिकांचें तीर, नैमिषारण्य, गंगाद्वार, गयाशीर्ष व अक्षय्यवट इत्यादि स्थानीं श्राद्ध केलें असतां महाफल प्राप्त होतें. गयाशिरावर, शमीपत्रप्रमाण पिंड दिला असतां सातगोत्रें व १०१ कुलें यांचा उद्धार होतो. "पिता, माता, भार्या, भगिनी, कन्या, पितृष्वसा व मातृष्वसा हीं सात गोत्रें जाणावीं. "यांचीं गोत्रें म्हणजे क्रमानें २४-२०-१६-१२-११-१० व ८ याप्रमाणें १०१ पुरुष त्यांचा उद्धार होतो. त्यांत पितृकुलांतील मागचे बारा व पुढचे बारा मिळून २४ पुरुष. मातृकुलांतील मागचे १० व पुढचे १० मिळून २०, याप्रमाणें पुढेंही जाणावें. "तुलसीचे अरण्याची छाया, शालिग्रामाचें सान्निध्य व चक्रांकिताचें सान्निध्य या ठिकाणीं मनुष्यें जें स्नानदान, तप व श्राद्ध करतील तें अक्षय्य होतें. गाय, हस्ती व अश्व यांनीं दोषित झालेल्या प्रदेशांत व म्लेंच्छ देशांत श्राद्ध करुं नये. परकीय घर इत्यादि स्थानीं श्राद्ध केल्यास त्या भूमीच्या स्वामीचे पितर त्या श्राद्धाचा भार हरण करितात. म्हणून त्या घराच्या मालकास मूल्य (भाडें) देऊन अथवा त्याची परवानगी घेऊन श्राद्ध करावें. वनें, पर्वत, नदीचें तीर, देवालयें, देवखात व गर्त यांचेवर कोणाचेंही स्वत्व नाहीं. एक वस्त्र धारण करुन अशुचि असतां कोठेंही व द्वीप, अंतरिक्ष अशा स्थळीं श्रुतिस्मृतिविहित कर्म कधींही करुं नये.

Translation - भाषांतर
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Last Updated : 2008-06-28T05:58:42.5000000

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GARUḌA(गरुड)

  • King of birds.
    1) Genealogy.
    Descended from Viṣṇu thus:--Brahmā -Marīci--Kaśyapa--Garuḍa.
    2) Birth.
    Kaśyapa, grandson of Brahmā and son of Marīci married the eight daughters of Dakṣa called Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā. And to Tāmrā five daughters were born, viz. Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śukī. Out of the five women Krauñcī became mother of the owls, Bhāsī delivered the bhāsas (types of birds) and from Śyenī were born vultures and kites. Haṁsa, Kalahaṁsa, Koka etc. are children of Dhṛtarāṣṭrī. From Śukī was born Nalā and from Nalā, Vinatā; Aruṇa and Garuḍa were the two sons born to Vinatā. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 15]. There is a story in the Mahābhārata about the birth of Aruṇa and Garuḍa. Kaśyapa who was much pleased with the service of Vinatā and Kadrū asked them to select any boon they desired. Kadrū chose to have a thousand nāgas as her children while Vinatā chose to have two sons more powerful and heroic than the thousand sons of Kadrū. After granting them the boon Kaśyapa retreated into the forest. After some time Kadrū laid thousand eggs and Vinatā two eggs. Both of them kept their eggs in hot pots. In the 500th year the eggs of Kadrū hatched and thousand serpents of various kinds emerged out of them. But Vinatā's eggs did not hatch yet, and the sight of Kadrū playing with her children pained Vinatā much. She, therefore, broke open one of her eggs in secret, and a half-grown child stepped out of it. That child was Aruṇa. Aruṇa got angry that Vinatā forced open the egg prematurely. He told her that as punishment thereof she would become a slave of Kadrū. But, Aruṇa granted her redemption from the curse thus: After another 500 years the remaining egg of yours will hatch and a son endowed with exceptional power and prowess will be born to you. He will liberate you from slavery.” After telling his mother so much Aruṇa rose to the sky where he became the charioteer of the Sun. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 16. See also Para 6 infra]. After 500 years the egg broke itself open and out came Garuḍa with blazing effulgence, and he rose up in the sky. His body glowed like the sun. The Devas who got themselves dimmed by his effulgence asked Agnideva the reason therefor. Agnideva told them about the birth of Garuḍa and also that he was equally effulgent as himself (Agnideva). Then all of them went to Garuḍa and lavished on his head all possible blessings, and Garuḍa, as requested by them, controlled his effulgence and returned to his mother. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 23].
    3) Slavery of Vinatā:
    The churning of the Milk-ocean was done before Garuḍa was born. Indra got a horse named Uccaiḥśravas from the Ocean of Milk. Between Kadrū and Vinatā a dispute arose as regards the colour of the horse's tail, Kadrū saying that it was black while Vinatā asserted that it was white. They further agreed to test the colour the next day, betting that she who was proved to be wrong would become the slave of the victor. As the nāga sons of Kadrū hung on to the tail of the horse the tail appeared to be black and Vinatā lost the bet and became Kadrū's slave. It was at this juncture that Garuḍa was born, and he felt highly mortified to find his mother working as a slave of Kadrū. Kadrū and her nāga sons once ordered Vinatā to carry them to the nāga residence in the middle of the ocean, called Rāmaṇīyaka (Ramaṇam). Accordingly Vinatā carrying Kadrū on her shoulders and Garuḍa carrying Kadrū's sons on his shoulders rose up in the sky. But, Garuḍa did not relish the slavish work, and he, carrying with him the nāgas, flew up to the sun's orbit. The nāga children fainted due to the excessive heat. But, on the request of Kadrū Indra sent heavy rain and the nāgas regained consciousness. By then they had reached Rāmaṇīyaka island.
    4) Attempt at freeing Vinatā from thraldom.
    Garuḍa, extremely pained at the pitiable plight of his mother, one day asked Kadrū what price she and her children demanded for freeing Vinatā from slavery, and Kadrū demanded Amṛta from Devaloka as the price. Garuḍa decided to get it and informed his mother about his decision to fly to Devaloka. But, what about food till he reached Devaloka? Vinatā solved the problem by advising Garuḍa to eat the niṣādas he will meet on his way to Devaloka at the island called Niṣādālaya, at the same time specially forbidding him from eating on any account, brahmins who might be there, at Niṣādālaya. How to distinguish brahmins from others, queried Garuḍa, and his mother replied by pointing out that the brahmin will burn the throat of him who tries to eat him, like fire. Then Vinatā blessed her son that his wings would be protected by Vāyu, the lower half of his body by sun and moon, the rest of the body by the Vasus and the head by Agni. She also promised to wait there till her son returned.
    5) Garuḍa to Devaloka.
    After saluting his mother Garuḍa set out on his quest for Amṛta. All the fourteen worlds shook at the lashing of his wings. He reached Niṣādālaya, where while consuming whole lots of Niṣādas a brahmin and his wife also happened to get into his throat. Garuḍa felt their presence immediately in his throat and requested them to get out of his mouth. Accordingly they got out and also blessed Garuḍa, who continued on his journey. Next Garuḍa reached the forest where his father Kaśyapa was engaged in tapas. He told him about his mission and requested him for something to eat. Kaśyapa replied thus:--“You see a pool wherein an elephant and a tortoise are living for long as enemies. Long ago two brothers Vibhāvasu and Supratīka quarrelled over their paternal wealth and at the height of it Vibhāvasu cursed Supratīka to become an elephant when Supratīka pronounced the counter curse that Vibhāvasu should turn out to be a tortoise. You, my son Garuḍa may eat that elephant and tortoise. May your journey for Amṛta be crowned with success. Now, Garuḍa after saluting his father, flew up in the sky carrying in his beak the elephant and the tortoise from the pool. As trees were falling uprooted due to the terrific vibrations caused by the lashing of his wings Garuḍa did not find a convenient place to sit down to eat his food. While continuing the journey Garuḍa saw a big tree, its branches spread out in a circumference of a hundred yojanas. But, as soon as Garuḍa set foot on a branch of the tree it (branch) crumbled down. On that broken branch were the sages called Bālakhilyas doing tapas hanging their heads down. Fearing that the sages might fall down Garuḍa continued his flight holding in his beak the torn branch of the tree. But he could not find a safe place to deposit the branch with the sages. So he came again to Mount Gandhamādana and saw Kaśyapa, who apologised to the Bālakhilyas on behalf of his son and also explained to them about his mission. The Bālakhilyas were pleased and they left the place for the Himālayas. As advised by Kaśyapa Garuḍa deposited the branch of the tree on an uninhabited mountain peak. Garuḍa ate the elephant and the tortoise there, and therefrom flew to Devaloka [Ādi Parva, Chapter 29, 30].
    6) Bālakhilyas cursed Indra.
    Even before the arrival of Garuḍa ill omens began appearing in Devaloka. Indra asked Bṛhaspati for explanation about the ill omens. Bṛhaspati with his divine eyes saw Garuḍa approaching Devaloka for Amṛta, and he told Indra about Garuḍa born out of the powers of the tapas of Kaśyapa and the Bālakhilyas. He also told that such a fate as the present one befell Indra due to a curse of the Bālakhilyas. Indra and the other Devas stood guard over the pot of Amṛta ready to repel all possible attacks. There was a reason for Garuḍa's birth from the powers of the tapas of the Bālakhilyas, and also for Indra to be put into the present predicament due to the curse of the Bālakhilyas. Kaśyapaprajāpati, a long time ago, began a terrific yajña for a son, and Indra and the Bālakhilyas who numbered more than 60,000 were deputed by Kaśyapa to collect firewood for the yajña. The Bālakhilyas were only of the size of a thumb, and Indra who very easily collected all the firewood needed for the yajña laughed at the tiny Bālakhilyas who were carrying small twigs etc. for firewood. Angered at the insult the Bālakhilyas removed themselves to another place nearby and began a yajña directed against Indra who alarmed at it sought the help of Kaśyapa who then held peace talks with the Bālakhilyas. They transferred their yāgaśakti (yājñic powers) also to Kaśyapa and agreed to be satisfied with the condition that as the result of Kaśyapa's yajña a son should be born to him, who (the son) would defeat Indra. Thus, for the time being Indra escaped from the wrath of the Bālakhilyas. After the yajña was over Vinatā came to Kaśyapa and he blessed her with a son wishing that he should become exceptionally strong and powerful, and that was Garuḍa. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 30].
    7) Amṛtakalaśāpaharaṇam. (The pot of nectar carried away).
    Garuḍa approached the pot of nectar, and Viśvakarmā who attacked him first was felled to the ground. The dust storm raised by the waving of Garuḍa's wings blinded everybody. The Devas and Indra, nay, even the sun and the Moon lined up against Garuḍa, but he defeated them all, and entered the particular place where the pot of nectar was kept. Two terrific wheels were rotating round the pot and they would cut into mince-meat anybody who tried to lay hands on the pot and a machine circled the wheels. Below the wheels were two monstrous serpents with glowing eyes and protruding tongues like flashes of fire, and the serpents never closed their eyes. The very look with those eyes was enough to poison anyone to death. Garuḍa blinded those eyes by raising a torrent of dust, pierced them in the middle with his beak and and through the hole, his body reduced to such a tiny shape, went nearer to the pot. He destroyed the wheels and the machine, and carrying the pot of nectar in his beaks rose to the sky shielding the light of the sun by his outspread wings. Mahāviṣṇu, who became so much pleased with the tremendous achievements of Garuḍa asked him to choose any boon. Garuḍa requested Viṣṇu that he should be made his (Viṣṇu's) vehicle and rendered immortal without his tasting amṛta. Both the boons were granted.
    8) Garuḍa and Indra became friends.
    Indra hit with the Vajra (his special weapon) the wings of Garuḍa who was returning from Viṣṇu. It did not wound his body, but a feather of his fell in the atmosphere. Everybody who saw the feather acclaimed Garuḍa as Suparṇa (he with the good wings). Indra was wonder-struck, and he approached Garuḍa and requested that they should be friends in future and the pot of nectar be returned. Garuḍa replied that the nectar would be returned if he was granted the power to make nāgas his food, and Indra blessed him that he would live by consuming nāgas. And then Garuḍa told Indra thus: “I took this pot of amṛta not for my own use. The nāgas cheated my mother and made her a slave, and she will be freed if only this pot of nectar is given to them (nāgas). You may snatch off the pot from the nāgas; I shall not object to it.” Indra and Garuḍa thus became friends and the former followed Garuḍa on his way back home.
    9) Garuḍa handed over the pot of amṛta to the nāgas and Indra cheated them of it.
    Garuḍa handed over the pot of nectar to the nāgas, who on the suggestion of the former placed the pot on darbha grass spread on the ground. Also, in accordance with Garuḍa's advice that they should take a purificatory bath before tasting the amṛta the nāgas went out to have the bath, and in their absence Indra carried off the pot of nectar back to Devaloka. Failing to find the pot of nectar on their return from bath the aggrieved nāgas licked the darbha on which the pot was placed with the result that their tongues were cloven into two. It was from that day onwards that the nāgas became double-tongued (dvijihvas). And, thus Garuḍa redeemed his mother from slavery. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 34].
    10) The fig tree which Garuḍa broke with his beaks and Laṅkā.
    It has been noted above that Garuḍa on his way to Devaloka rested on a fig tree. That fig is called Subhadra in [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa]. Rāvaṇa saw the fig tree around which sages were sitting and which bore marks made by Garuḍa sitting thereon. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 35, Verse 26]. There is some connection between this tree and Laṅkā. Garuḍa had, as directed by Kaśyapa, deposited in the sea the branch of the tree on which the Bālakhilyas hung in tapas and with which Garuḍa flew hither and thither fearing about the safety of the Bālakhilyas. At the spot in the sea where the branch was deposited sprang up an island like the peak of a mountain. It was this island which in after years became reputed as Laṅkā. [Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalaṁbaka, Taraṅga 4].
    11) Garuḍa, Saubhari and Kāliya.
    Garuḍa had always entertained great hatred against the nāgas, and now Indra's permission having been obtained by him to eat the nāgas for food, Garuḍa decided to launch a regular nāga-hunting expedition. He began eating the nāgas one by one. Alarmed at this the nāgas planned for their security in a conclave, and approached Garuḍa with the proposal that one nāga would go to him daily to serve as his food instead of his indiscriminate killing of them. Garuḍa accepted their proposal. After some time the nāgas proposed to Garuḍa that they would conduct a sarpa-bali (sacrifice of serpents) and submit the food got out of the bali to him so that his nāgahunting might be stopped for ever. Garuḍa agreed to this also. According to the new agreement daily one nāga began going to Garuḍa with the food got out of the bali. But Kāliya alone did not agree to the programme as he did not recognise Garuḍa to be superior to him in power. And, Garuḍa, who wanted to teach the haughty Kāliya a lesson challenged him to fight, and the fight took place in river Kālindī, Kāliya's abode. During the fight the lashing of Garuḍa's wings raised the water in Kālindī up in the sky and it drenched the sage Saubhari all over, who was performing tapas on the banks of Kālindī. Saubhari cursed that the body of Garuḍa be shattered into a thousand pieces if ever he entered that area in future, and thenceforth the place became a prohibited area for Garuḍa. During after years Kāliya was put up at this place. A kadamba tree alone outlived the eflect of the poison of Kāliya. The tree could outlive the deadly poison because Garuḍa had rested on it on his way back from Devaloka with amṛta. [Bhāgavata daśama Śkandha].
    12) Relationship of Garuḍa with the kings of the solar dynasty.
    King Sagara of the solar dynasty was married to Sumati, the elder sister of Garuḍa, and there is a story behind the marriage. There was once a king called Subāhu in the solar dynasty. He married one Yādavī, but for many years they had no issues. Yādavī had become old by the time she conceived a child as the result of many yajñas etc. But, Subāhu's other wives, viz. co-wives of Yādavī, did not like the prospects of Yādavī becoming a mother. They administered poison to her with the result that Yādavī did not deliver in time, but continued as a pregnant woman for seven years. The sad couple, for their mental relief went into the forest and lived as disciples of a sage called Aurva. But Subāhu died rather soon and Yādavī prepared herself to follow him in the funeral pyre. But, the sage Aurva prevented her from self immolation speaking to her thus: “You shall not act rashly. The child in your womb will become a famous emperor and rule over the whole world.” Yādavī yielded to the sage's advice and did not court death, and soon afterwards she delivered a son, and he was named Sagara, which meant “he who was affected by poison even while he was in the mother's womb. It was this child who, in later years, became reputed as emperor Sagara. Sagara married the elder sister of Garuḍa when he was living as a boy in Aurva's āśrama, and there is a story behind the marriage, a story which related to the time when Garuḍa was not born. Vinatā, mother of Garuḍa, while she was working as the slave of Kadrū, one day went into the woods to collect firewood for her mistress. In the terrible rain and storm that ensued, Vinatā lost her track and wandered in the forest for many days before she could take shelter in the āśrama of a Sannyāsin. The pious man felt sorry for poor Vinatā and blessed her that a son, who would be able to win freedom for her would be born to her. Garuḍa was the son thus born to her. Before the birth of Garuḍa when Kaśyapa and Vinatā were living together with their daughter Sumati the boy sage Upamanyu, son of Sutapas, went to them and told Kaśyapa thus: “While touring round the earth I worshipped the pitṛs at Gayā and I have been told that they (Pitṛs) would get redemption only in case I married and became a father. I, therefore, request you to please give your daughter Sumati to me as wife. Vinatā did not relish this proposal. Upamanyu got angry at the rejection of his offer and cursed Vinatā saying that if Sumati was given in marriage to any other brahmin boy she (Vinatā) would die with her head broken into pieces. It was during this period when Vinatā was in a fix about the marriage of Sumati that Garuḍa was born to her. He also thought over the problem and argued like this: the curse is only against a brahmin boy marrying my sister Sumati; why not Sumati be given in marriage to a Kṣatriya; but where to find an eligible Kṣatriya boy? At this stage Vinatā asked him to go and meet the Sannyāsin, who had promised her an illustrious son, in the forest and this Sannyāsin directed Garuḍa to Aurva, for advice and guidance. When Garuḍa met Aurva and sought his advice about the marriage of his sister, the sage thought that the context offered a very good bride to Sagara. And, according to Aurva's advice Sumati was married to Sagara, and thus Garuḍa became related to the Kings of the Solar dynasty. [Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapters 16, 17 and 18]. The Sixty thousand sons born to Sagara by Sumati were reduced to ashes in the fire which emanated from the eyes of Kapila. (See Kapila). When Aṁśumān, the grandson of Sagara was going around the world to find out these 60,000 sons he met Garuḍa on the way, and it was he who advised that the waters of Gaṅgā should be brought down on earth so that the dead sons of Sagara might get spiritual redemption. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Chapter 41].
    13) Garuḍa's conceit laid low.
    A very beautiful daughter, Guṇakeśī, was born to Mātali, the charioteer of Indra. In the course of his search for a suitable husband for Guṇakeśī he came to Pātālaloka in the company of Nārada, and there Mātali selected a noble nāga called Sumukha as his prospective son-in-law. But a month before Garuḍa had eaten Sumukha's father Cikara, and he had also given notice to Sumukha that within a month's time he too would be eaten. Nārada and Mātali met Sumukha at the abode of his grandfather Āryaka, who was very glad to marry his grandson to Mātali's daughter. But, the threat of Garuḍa that he would eat Sumukha before the month was over stared them all cruelly in their face. So, they appealed to Indra for a solution to the problem, in the presence of Mahāviṣṇu. Indra gave an extension of life to Sumukha and he wedded Guṇakeśī. The marriage enraged Garuḍa so much that he went to Indra's assembly and insulted both Indra and Viṣṇu at which Viṣṇu extended his right hand to Garuḍa asking him whether he could hold the hand. And, when Garuḍa placed Viṣṇu's hand on his head he felt as if the whole weight of the three worlds was put on the head. Garuḍa admitted his defeat. Mahāviṣṇu thus laid low the conceit of Garuḍa. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 105].
    14) Garuḍa helped Gālava.
    Gālava was a disciple of Viśvāmitra. Once Dharmadeva, to test Viśvāmitra, went to his āśrama disguised as Vasiṣṭha and asked for food. As there was no ready-made food at the āśrama just then, Viśvāmitra naturally took some time to cook new food, and he went with it, steaming hot, in a plate to the guest. Saying that he would return within minutes and receive the food, the guest (Dharmadeva) left the place, and Viśvāmitra stood there with the plate in hand awaiting the return of the guest. He had to remain standing thus for one hundred years, and during this whole period it was Gālava who stood there looking after his guru. When hundred years were completed Dharmadeva returned to Viśvāmitra and accepted his hospitality, and then only could the latter take some rest. Viśvāmitra blessed Gālava, and now it was time for him to leave the āśrama. Though Viśvāmitra told that no gurudakṣiṇā (tuition fee) was required Gālava persisted in asking him what fee or present he wanted. Viśvāmitra lost his temper and told Gālava that if he was so very particular about gurudakṣiṇā, eight hundred horses all having the colour of moon, and one ear black in colour might be given as dakṣiṇā. Gālava stood there aghast at the above pronouncement of his preceptor, when Garuḍa happened to go over there and hear from Gālava about his sad plight. Money was required to purchase horses, but Gālava was penniless. At any rate Garuḍa with Gālava on his back flew eastwards and reached Ṛṣabhaparvata and they rested on a peak of it. There the Brahmā woman, Śāṇḍilī was engaged in tapas and she served them with food. After food Garuḍa spoke disparagingly about Śāṇḍilī. Garuḍa and Gālava slept that night on the floor, but when they woke up in the morning lo! Garuḍa was completely shed of his feathers. Garuḍa stood before Śāṇḍilī, his head bent in anguish. Śāṇḍilī blessed Garuḍa, who then got back his old feathers. Continuing their journey Garuḍa and Gālava reached the palace of the very rich King, Yayāti. Garuḍa introduced Gālava to Yayāti, who found it difficult to get 800 horses for Gālava. But, Yayāti gave his daughter Mādhavī to Gālava saying that he might give her to any King and get money enough to purchase 800 horses. After thus showing the means to get money to Gālava, Garuḍa returned home. Gālava gave Mādhavī first to King Haryaśva of Ayodhyā, then to King Divodāsa of Kāśī and next to King Uśīnara of Bhoja and got from them two hundred horses each, and he submitted the horses and also Mādhavī in lieu of the balance of two hundred horses to Viśvāmitra as dakṣiṇā. A son called Aṣṭaka was born to Viśvāmitra by Mādhavī, who had been granted a boon that she would not lose her youth and beauty even though she lived with any number of people. [Udyoga- Parva Chapter 108].
    15) Fight between Garuḍa and Airāvata.
    Śrī Kṛṣṇa once went to Devaloka and plucked the Pārijāta flower from the garden Nandana, and this led to a fight between Indra and Kṛṣṇa in which Garuḍa also joined. Garuḍa directed his main attention on Airāvata which, at his blows, fainted and fell down. [Harivaṁśa, Chapter 73].
    16) Defeated by Vāsuki.
    To churn the Milk-Ocean the Devas and Asuras decided to use Mount Mandara as the shaft and Vāsuki as the rope to rotate the shaft. The attempts of the Devas, the Asuras and the Bhūtagaṇas of Śiva failed to uproot and bring with them the mountain, when Garuḍa, at the instance of Viṣṇu brought the mountain as easily as a kite carries a frog. Again, when others failed to bring Vāsuki from nāgaloka Garuḍa went and asked the nāga chief to follow him to the ocean of Milk. Vāsuki replied that if his presence was so indispensable he must be carried over there. Then Garuḍa caught the middle part of Vāsuki in his beak and rose in the air. But, even though Garuḍa rose beyond the horizon, when he looked down half of Vāsuki still remained on the ground. Garuḍa then tried to fold Vāsuki into two and carry it, but, again to no purpose. Disappointed and humiliated Garuḍa returned without Vāsuki. Afterwards Vāsuki was brought to the ocean of Milk by Śiva's hand stretched down into Pātāla. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa].
    17) Bhīma went in search of the Saugandhika flower on account of Garuḍa.
    While, in the course of their exile in the forest, the Pāṇḍavas were put up at the āśrama of maharṣi Ārṣṭiṣeṇa, Garuḍa picked up from the depths of the sea one day a nāga called Ṛddhimān, and due to the vibration caused by the lashing of Garuḍa's wings Kalhāra flowers from the garden of Kubera were flown to the feet of Pāñcālī. She wore the fragrant flowers in her hair saying that if she were to have good flowers, wind had to bring them. Since there was a mild and veiled insinuation in that statement that Bhīma was inferior to the wind the former did not appreciate that comment by Pāñcālī. And so he rushed to Mount Gandhamādana to collect Kalhāra flowers. [Vana Parva, Chapter 106].
    18) Garuḍa saved Uparicaravasu.
    Once a controversy started between the Devas and the brahmins, the former advocating the use of goat's flesh in performing yajñas while the brahmins contended that grains were sufficient for the purpose. Uparicaravasu, who arbitrated in the debate spoke in favour of the Devas, which the brahmins did not like, and they cursed Vasu to fall from the sky into the pits of the earth. This curse was countered by the Devas blessing him that as long as Uparicaravasu remained on earth he would not feel hungry and that he would regain his old form due to the blessings of Mahāviṣṇu. Vasu prayed to Viṣṇu, who sent Garuḍa to the former, and Garuḍa carried Vasu to the sky on his wings. Thus Vasu became again Uparicaravasu. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 338].
    19) Other information about Garuḍa.
    (1) A dānava once stole away the crown of Śṛī Kṛṣṇa who was on a visit to Mount Gomanta. Garuḍa retrieved it from the dānava and returned it to Kṛṣṇa. [Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha].
    (2) The monkeys who searched for Sītā visited the house of Garuḍa also. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Canto 40, Verse 39].
    (3) Garuḍa had married the four daughters of Dakṣaprajāpati. [Bhāgavata, 6th Skandha].
    (4) He had a son named Kapota. [Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101],
    (5) During the Rāma-Rāvaṇa war Lakṣmaṇa, Sugrīva and all the monkeys swooned hit by the nāgāstra of Indrajit. Śrī Rāma then thought of Garuḍa, who at once came down on earth and bit away the nāgapāśa. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa Yuddhakāṇḍa].
    (6) Garuḍa was present at the birth-day celebrations of Arjuna. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 50].
    (7) At the birth of Subrahmaṇya Garuḍa submitted his own son, Mayūra, as a present. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 86, Verse 21].
    20) Synonyms for Garuḍa.
    Garutmān Garuḍas Tārkṣyo Vainateyaḥ Khageśvaraḥ Nāgāntako Viṣṇurathaḥ Suparṇaḥ Pannagāśanaḥ. (Garutmān, Garuḍa, Tārkṣya, Vainateya, Khageśvara, Nāgāntaka, Viṣṇuratha, Suparṇa, Pannagāśana. (Amarakośa).
    21) Names used in the Mahābhārata to represent Garuḍa.
    Aruṇānuja, Bhujagāri, Garutmān, Kāśyapeya, Khagarāṭ, Pakṣirāja, Patagapati, Patageśvara, Suparṇa, Tārkṣya, Vainateya, Vinatānandavardhana, Vinatāsūnu, Vinatāsuta, Vinatātmaja. (For story regarding how Garuḍa stopped eating nāgas see under Jīmūtavāhana).
     
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