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हनूमान्

See also:  हनुमंत , हनुमान , हनुमान्
A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
pop. हनुमंत m The monkey-chief Hanumán, the son of the wind, and the friend, ally, and spy of Rámachandra in his invasion of Lanká. Pr. गांव जळाला तरीं हनुमंत निराळा Used of an embroiler who keeps himself clear of the mischief he occasions. Pr. सूर्यापुढें दिवटी हनमंतापुढें कोल्हांटी.

Puranic Encyclopaedia  | en  en |   | 
HANŪMĀN   A monkey born of the elements and aspects of Devas. In the epics of no other country could be found a character that belongs to the animal kingdom who is as powerful, erudite and philosophic as Hanūmān.
1) Birth.
Many and different are the stories about the birth of Hanūmān told in Purāṇic literature, and they are briefly noted below.
(1) The semen discharged by Śiva, whose erotic feelings were excited by the sight of Viṣṇu disguised as Mohinī was received by the Saptarṣis and deposited in the womb of Añjanā, and Hanūmān was born out of it. [Śiva Purāṇa, Śatarudrasaṁhitā].
(2) Daśaratha divided among his wives the divine pāyasa (pudding) got from the putrakāmeṣṭi yajña which was performed so that he might be blessed with children. Somehow or other a kite snatched some pudding and flew off with it. On its way the pudding fell down from the beaks of the kite on the fingers of Añjanā doing tapas in the forest. She ate that pudding and Hanūmān was born as the son of Añjanā due to the extraordinary powers of the pudding. [Ānanda Rāmāyaṇa].
(3) Śiva, once in his fierce and effulgent form (aspect) entered Kesarī, the husband of Añjanā and had coitus with her. After that Vāyu (Wind-god) also had coitus with her. Thus as a result of the sexual act by both the Devas Añjanā got pregnant. Later, Añjanā was about to throw into the valley of the mountain her new-born child as it was an ugly one when Vāyu (Wind god) intervened and saved the child. Hanūmān was the child thus born of Śiva and Vāyu. [Bhaviṣya Purāṇa, Pratisarga Parva].
(4) Hanūṃān's actual father was Śiva. Gaṇapati was born to Śiva and Pārvatī as they played in the forest disguised as elephants. After that Śiva and Pārvatī played about in the forest disguised as monkeys as a result of which Pārvatī got pregnant. Since Pārvatī did not like the idea of being the mother of a monkey, Śiva, by his yogic power entrusted the child, (in embryo) that was in the womb of Pārvatī to Vāyu (Wind god), who carried it with him hither and thither till it became mature, when it was deposited in Añjanā, the monkey woman. The monkey called Kesarī was her husband. Thus Hanūmān was born as the son of Añjanā. Añjanā also has a story of her own. Once upon a time she was the maid-servant called Puñjikasthalā of Bṛhaspati. One day she went out to gather flowers when the love-makings of other young women attracted her so much that, without gathering flowers, and her erotic sentiments being aroused much, she returned home and covered Bṛhaspati with kisses. Bṛhaspati got really angry with the misbehaviour of his maid-servant and cursed her into a female monkey. She was told that, after she had lived for sometime with a monkeyhusband she would get a child from the vitality of Śiva, after which she would return to him as maid servant as of old. And, accordingly, Puñjikasthalā became a female monkey under the name Añjanā and lived at Añjanā forest with a handsome monkey called Kesarī as her husband. It was while Añjanā was doing tapas so that she might become pregnant by Śiva that Śiva and Pārvatī played in that forest disguised as monkeys, and Pārvatī conceived and the child ultimately came out as the son of Añjanā. Even while Añjanā was pregnant the child in her womb had much to suffer at the hands of Bāli. Hearing from Nārada that Śiva's son had been born in Añjanā's womb Bāli feared that the actual birth of such a son would jeopardise his lordship over the monkeys. To ward off the threatened contingency, Bāli, as advised by Nārada, let in the five metals (gold, copper, iron, tin and zinc) in watery form into the stomach of Añjanā. (This is a means of causing abortion). But, the attempt misfired. Instead of the five metals killing the child in Añjanā's womb, they became ear-ornaments for it, and Hanūmān was thus born with ornaments in his ears. [Kaṁba Rāmāyaṇa Pūrvakāṇḍa].
2) Naming and boons.
As soon as Hanūmān was born Añjanā was released from the curse, and she wanted to return to heaven. The monkey child asked its mother what its future would be and how it was to earn its living. She assured him that he would never be destroyed and that fruits as ripe as the rising sun (she pointed the sun out to him) would form his food. And, Añjanā returned to heaven. Thinking that the glowing and glittering Sun was food for him to be eaten, the monkey child made just one jump at it (Sun) and quite neared it. But seeing Rāhu, bigger than the Sun he jumped at it. Then it was that it saw Airāvata and it tried to eat it. And, seeing this attempt of the monkey-child, Indra used his vajrāyudha (Thunderbolt) against it. The weapon hit its chin and wounded it, and in precarious condition it fell down on earth. Vāyu (Wind god) who saw his child falling down wounded carried it off to Pātāla. When Vāyu (air) quitted the earth everything thereon came to a dead-stop. Living things were on the verge of death due to suffocation. And, then Brahmā and others went to Pātāla, comforted Vāyu and congratulated the monkey child. On the basis of Indra's vajra having made a scar on its hanu (jaw-bone or chin) the monkey child was named Hanūmān by the Devas, who, one by one blessed him as follows:-- Brahmadeva; May you live long, so long as Brahmā exists. Mahāviṣṇu: May you live all your life as the greatest devotee of God. Indra: No weapon of any kind will wound or hit your body. Agni: Fire will never affect you. Kāla: May not death ever court you. All the Devas: None will ever equal you in strength and speed. Brahmā blessed Hanūmān again giving him more physical power than Garuḍa and Vāyu blessed him to have more speed than himself. (air). [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 15];[ Uttararāmāyaṇa];[ Kambarāmāyaṇa, Pūrvakāṇḍa]; Adbhutarāmäyaṇa.
3) Education.
Being born of Śiva and on account of the Śivaśakti in him, Hanūmān reached boyhood immediately. To learn the four Vedas and the six śāstras he chose Sūrya mentally as his preceptor, and approached him with the request to be taught the Vedas etc. Sūrya agreed to have Hanūmān as his disciple subject to the condition that the latter would not be permitted to sit with the Bālakhilyas in his (Sūrya's) chariot and study. Hanūmān agreed to the condition to learn from Sūrya walking in front of him. With book opened in his hand and concentrating all his attention on the face of Sūrya Hanūmān traversed the sky and within a short period of sixty hours he mastered all the Vedas and the śāstras thoroughly well. Though Sūrya said that he would consider the great interest Hanūmān took in his studies as dakṣiṇā (tuition fee) Hanūmān wanted Sūrya to accept something more by way of dakṣiṇā, and Sūrya said as follows:--“If you are so very particular about offering me something more as dakṣiṇā I shall tell you. My son Sugrīva is living on earth with Bāli and he is not as strong and powerful as Bāli. You be of help to Sugrīva as his minister and constant companion.” Happy at Sūrya's words Hanūmān returned to the forest and lived as Sugrīva's minister for the rest of his life.
4) Śrī Rāma's servant.
From the day he met Śrī Rāma after the abduction of Sītā by Rāvaṇa till Rāma's death his story is inextricably connected with that of Rāma. (See under Rāma).
5) His music.
Once in a musical competition Hanūmān defeated Nārada. [Adbhutarāmāyaṇa]; also see Para 8 under Nārada.
6) Śivaliṅga at Rāmeśvaram.
There is a story in the Yuddhakāṇḍa of Rāmāyaṇa connecting Hanūmān with the Śivaliṅga installed in the temple at Rāmeśvaram. (See under Rāmeśvaram).
7) Lost his divine power.
Once due to a curse of sage Tṛṇabindu Hanūmān lost his great strength and vitality. But, he would regain the lost power when one reminded him of it. During the search for Sītā Hanumān felt it difficult to jump across the southern sea to Laṅkā due to the above curse. But, when Jāmbavān described to him about his noble origin and powers Hanūmān regained his lost power and vitality, and successfully jumped across the sea to Laṅkā. (See Tṛṇabindu II, Para 2).
8) A fort made of tail.
He made a fort of his tail and saved Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa within it. [See Pātālarāmāyaṇa].
9) Hanūmān and Sahasramukha Rāvaṇa.
(See Sahasramukha Rāvaṇa).
10) Hanūmān and Śatrughna.
Śatrughna, who conducted the horse in connection with the Aśvamedha performed by Śrī Rāma after his return from exile in the forest, fell down unconscious in his fight with King Vīramaṇi, and then Hanūmān brought a herbal medicine called ‘Droṇa’ from the Himālayas and with its aid brought back Śatrughna to consciousness. [Padma Purāṇa, Pātāla Khaṇḍa, Chapter 44].
11) Taken captive by Kuśa and Lava.
The Yajñāśva (sacrificial horse) of the Aśvamedha yajña of Śrī Rāma led by a contingent of Rāma's army was resting in a tent put up near the hermitage of Gautama when Kuśa and Lava together captured the horse. Hanūmān, who rushed over to the spot on receiving intimation of the news was bound hand and foot with creepers by Kuśa and Lava and dragged to the hermitage. Sītā, was then in the hermitage brooding over the past, and the repetition of the word ‘Rāma’ by the humiliated Hanūmān awoke her from her reverie. She was taken aback to see Hanūmān there in that plight and got him released from captivity by her sons. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Uttarakāṇḍa].
12) Old age.
Having witnessed Rāmāvatāra (incarnation of Rāma) to its very end, Hanūmān, who had by now become quite old, spent his days guarding the Kadalī forest. Bhīma, who happened to go there to collect Saugandhika flowers got defeated in fight by Hanūmān. (See Bhīma, Para 7).
13) Arjuna's flag-Symbol
(See under Arjuna 17B).
14) Idols of Hanūmān.
When an idol of Hanūmān is installed in a temple, he must be represented as holding Vajra in one hand and his feet must seem to tear the ground under them. [Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51].

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
 m  The monkey-chief of the रामायण.
गांव जळाला तरी हनुमंत निराळा   Used of an embroller who keeps himself clear of the mischief he occasions.

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