TransLiteral Foundation

अष्ट नायका

(१). श्रीकृष्णाच्या मुख्य
स्त्रिया. १. रुक्मिणी, २. सत्यभामा, ३. जांबवंती, ४. कालिंदी (सूर्यकन्या)
५. मित्रवृंदा (अवंतीराजसुता)
६. याज्ञजिती (यज्ञजितकन्या)
७. भद्रा (कैकेयनृपकन्या)
८. लक्ष्मणा (महेंद्रनाथकन्या). (२). इंद्राच्या आठ नायका - १. ऊर्वशी, २. मेनका, ३. रंभा, ४. पूर्वचिती, ५. स्वयंप्रभा, ६. भिन्नकेशी, ७. जनवल्लभा, ८. घृताची (तिलोत्तमा). (३). साहित्यांतील आठ नायका
१. वासकसज्जा, २. विरहोत्कंठिता, ३. स्वाधीनभर्तुका, ४. कलहांतरिता, ५. खंडिता, ६. विप्रलब्धा, ७. प्रोषितभर्तुका, ८. अभिसारिका.

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  • A phantom city built by Maya.
    1) Origin.
    Kaśyapa Maharṣi son of Marīci and grandson of Brahmā had many wives. Of them Aditi got the first place and Diti the second place. Both of them were daughters of Dakṣa Devas were born of Aditi and the asuras were born of Diti. Armies of asuras under the leadership of Śūrapadma, Siṁhavaktra, Tārakāsura, Gomukha, Hiraṇyākṣa, and Hiraṇyakaśipu gave immense trouble to the devas. The devas joined together under the leadership of Indra and fought the asuras. The nectar received from the ocean of Milk always made the devas the conquerors. When Subrahmaṇya slew Tārakāsura the asuras became very weak. At this stage Kamalākṣa, Tārakākṣa and Vidyunmālī, sons of Tārakāsura, did severe penance and made Brahmā appear before them. They demanded a boon that they would never be killed by anybody in any of the three worlds. Brahmā told them to ask any boon other than that. Then they said: “Great Lord, we must live in three cities and then roam about freely in the three worlds by your grace. Every thousand years all the three of us should join together at a place with our cities. After that meeting, we should separate and roam about freely for another thousand years. If at all there is death for us, it should occur only when we three are together and that also by one arrow.” Brahmā granted the boon and disappeared. The asuras then approached Maya and asked him to construct three separate cities for them. Maya built three wonderful cities. One was with gold, another with silver and the third with iron. Tārakākṣa took the golden one, Kamalākṣa took the silver one and Vidyunmālī took the iron one. The asuras started living in these cities. The three puras were respectively in Svarga, Ākāśa and the Earth. But each city had the power to travel to any other place at will. The power of controlling these cities was given to Bāṇa. Hiraṇyakaśipu's son was Prahlāda. Prahlāda's son was Virocana. Mahābali was Virocana's son and Bāṇa was Mahābali's son [Chapter 14, Padma Purāṇa]. All these three cities together were named Tripura.
    2) Mṛtasañjīvanī Vāpī.
    (The life giving tank). Even with the existence of Tripura the asuras began to die in numbers and the Tripuras thought of a way to escape from this calamity. Hari, son of Tārakāsura, did penance and made Brahmā appear before him in person. According to a request from Hari Brahmā made Maya build a tank wonderful in nature. Brahmā filled the tank with nectar. If any asura died, it was enough if he was dipped in the tank and the dead asura would soon come to life with added strength and vigour. Asuras became immortal since this and the Tripuras started teasing the devas and men with increased ferocity.
    3) Consultation with Śiva.
    The aggrieved devas approached Brahmā and finding him incapable of helping took him to Śiva. Śiva heard everything and assured them that he would kill them when they next met together at the end of a thousand years.
    4) Śiva makes preparations.
    As a first step to the slaughter of the Tripuras, Śiva sent Nārada to Tripura. Nārada by his unusual spiritual powers made the asura women feel more and more attached to the devas. Śiva at that time thinking about the convenience for a fight with the Tripuras came and settled down on the shores of the river Narmadā. That was how Narmadā became a holy river. [Chapter 13, Padma Purāṇa]. Śiva had to make grand preparations for a fight with the Tripuras. He invoked half the strength of the devas to himself to make Śivaśakti (Javelin of Śiva) greater than Asuraśakti. The devas made Viśvakarmā construct a special chariot for Śiva. On the banks of the river Narmadā at a place which became renowned as Maheśvara Śiva stayed for a thousand years thinking about the fight with the Tripuras. He made the mountain of Mandara his bow, Vāsuki, the string and Viṣṇu his arrow. He installed Agni at the tip and Vāyu at the bottom of the arrow. Four devas stood as horses to his chariot. The earth itself was the chariot and all the animate and inanimate objects of the devaloka arrayed at different parts of the chariot. On the wheels stood the Aśvinīdevas and Cakrapāṇi stayed on the axle. Gandharvas took places on the spokes. Indra stayed on the bow and Vaiśravaṇa on the arrow. Yama took his place on the right hand and the dreadful Kāla on the left hand. Brahmā acted as the charioteer. Equipped thus, Śiva stayed in the godly chariot for a thousand years. When the three cities joined together in the sky Śiva split the cities by his three forked spike. Then he sent an arrow to the cities. Bad omens began to appear in Tripura. People became lifeless in the cities. Soon an arrow from Śiva burnt the cities and the Tripuras were burnt to death. [7th Skandha, Bhāgavata];[ Chapters 31 to 34, Padma Purāṇa];[ Chapters 33 and 34, Karṇa Parva].

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