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उप

A Sanskrit English Dictionary | sa  en |   | 
उप  n. ind. (a preposition or prefix to verbs and nouns, expressing) towards, near to (opposed to अप, away), by the side of, with, together with, under, down (e.g.उप-√ गम्, to go near, undergo; उप-गमन, approaching; in the वेद the verb has sometimes to be supplied from the context, and sometimes उप is placed after the verb to which it belongs, e.g.आययुर् उप = उपा-ययुः, they approached). (As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns उप expresses) direction towards, nearness, contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, but with the idea of subordination and inferiority (e.g.उप-कनिष्ठिका, the finger next to the little finger; उप-पुराणम्, a secondary or subordinate पुराण; उप-दश, nearly ten)
उप-मूलम्   sometimes forming with the nouns to which it is prefixed compound adverbs (e.g., at the root; उप-पूर्व-रात्रम्, towards the beginning of night; उप-कूपे, near a well) which lose their adverbial terminations if they are again compounded with nouns (e.g.उपकूप-जला-शय, a reservoir in the neighbourhood of a well)
उप   prefixed to proper names may express in classical literature ‘a younger brother’ (e.g.उपे-न्द्र, ‘the younger brother of इन्द्र’), and in Buddhist literature ‘a son.’ (As a separable adverb rarely expresses) thereto, further, moreover (e.g.तत्रो-प ब्रह्म यो वेद, who further knows the ब्रह्मन्), [RV.]; [AV.]; [ŚBr.]; [PārGṛ.] (As a separable preposition) near to, towards, in the direction of, under, below (with acc.e.g.उप आशाः, towards the regions)
near to, at, on, upon
उप सानुषु   at the time of, upon, up to, in, above (with loc.e.g., on the tops of the mountains)
उप धर्मभिः   with, together with, at the same time with, according to (with inst. e.g., according to the rules of duty), [RV.]; [AV.]; [ŚBr.]उप, besides the meanings given above, is said by native authorities to imply disease, extinction; ornament; command; reproof; undertaking; giving; killing; diffusing; wish; power; effort; resemblance, &c.;
उप   [cf.Zd.upa; Gk.ὑπό; Lat.sub; Goth.uf; Old Germ.oba; Mod.Germ.ob in Obdach, obliegen, &c.]

उप [upa]   ind.
As a prefix to verbs and nouns it expresses towards, near to, by the side of, with, under, down (opp. अप). According to G. M. the following are its senses: उप सामीप्यसामर्थ्यव्याप्त्याचार्यकृतिमृतिदोषदानक्रियावीप्सा- रम्भाध्ययनबुजनेषु: (1) nearness, contiguity उपविशति, उपगच्छति goes near; (2) power, ability उपकरोति; (3) pervasion उपकीर्ण; (4) advice, instructing as by a teachar उपदिशति, उपदेश; (5) death, extinction, उपरत; (6) defect, fault उपघात; (7) giving उपनयति, उपहरति; (8) action, effort उप त्वानेष्ये; (9) beginning, commencement उपक्रमते, उपक्रम; (1) study उपाध्यायः; (11) reverence, worship उपस्थानम्, उपचरति पितरं पुत्रः. It is also said to have the senses of disease, ornament, command, reproof, killing, wish, resemblance &c.
As unconnected with verbs and prefixed to nouns, it expresses direction towards, nearness, resemblance, relationship, contiguity in space, number, time, degree &c., but generally involving the idea of subordination or inferiority; उपकनिष्ठिका the finger next to the little finger; उपपुराणम् a secondary Purāṇa; उपगुरुः an assistant master; उपाध्यक्षः a vice-president. It usually, however, forms Avyayī. comp. in these senses; उपगङ्गम् = गङ्गायाः समीपे; उपकूलम्, ˚वनम् &c.; these are again compounded with other words; उपकूपजलाशयः; उपकण्ठ- निवासिनी. Prefixed to proper nouns it means a 'younger brother'; उपेन्द्रः.
With numerals it forms संख्याबहुव्रीहि and means 'nearly', 'almost'; उपत्रिंशाः nearly thirty; उपविंशाः about twenty &c.
As a separable preposition (a) with acc. when it means inferiority उपोधिकेच (P.I. 4.87) उपहरिं सुराः Sk. the gods are under i. e. are inferior to Hari; शक्रादय उपाच्युतम् Vop. (b) With loc. it expresses (1) over, above, superior to; उपनिष्के कार्षापणम्, उपपरार्धे हरेर्गुणाः; (2) addition; (3) near to, towards, in the direction of, under; (4) at, on, upon; (5) upto, in, above; e. g. उप सानुषु on or above the peaks; वयो न वसतीरुप; or sometimes (c) with the instr.; with, at the same time with, according to.
As a separable adverb it is rarely used in the senses of further, moreover. उपसन्नेऽधिके हीने सादृश्यप्रतियत्नयोः ॥ तद्योगव्याप्तिपूजासु शक्तावारम्भदानयोः ॥ दक्षिणाचार्यकरणदोषाख्यानात्ययेषु च । [cf. Gr.hupo; L. sub; Goth. up; Germ. ob.].

Shabda-Sagara | sa  en |   | 
उप   ind. A particle and prefix to verbs and other words implying,
1. Excess, (over, above, &c.;)
2. Vicinity or assemblage, (near, by the side of, with, together with;)
3. Inferiority. (lesser, secondary, &c.;)
4. Likeness, resemblance;
5. Disease, extinction;
6. Orna- ment;
7. Command;
8. Reproof;
9. Astonishing;
10. Giving;
11. Killing;
12. Diffusion;
13. Wish, desire;
14. Effort, exertion, &c. as उपकर्त्तुं to assist; उपगन्तुं to approach; उपदेष्टुं to advice; उपलब्धुं to revile; उपस्थातुं to worship; also उपपुराणं an in- ferior or minor Purana, उपकुम्भं near the water-pot, उपगङ्गं upon the Ganges, उपकान्तं near or with a lover, उपाग्नि in the vicinity of fire.

A dictionary, Marathi and English | mr  en |   | 
IV. Likeness or resemblance. V. It is often redundant.

अ.  एक उपसर्ग - अर्थ :
अनुगमन . उ० उपदेश , उपालंभ .
अधिकपणा . उ० उपपरार्ध .
हीनपणा ; गौणत्व . उ० उपस्त्री , उपपत्नी , उपपुराण .
कमी प्रतीचा , तीव्रतेचा , गुणाचा . ( इं . ) हायपो ; हा अम्लांत किंवा त्या रसायनांत ( प्राणवायूचा ) कमीपणा आहे असें दाखवितो . उ० नत्रस अम्ल ( नायट्रस अँसिड ) पेक्षां उपनत्रस अम्ल ( हायपोनायट्रस अँसिड ) हें कमी अम्लजन असतें .
समीपता ; सान्निध्य . उ० उपकंठ , उपनदी , उपांत्य .
पहिलेपणा . उ० उपक्रम .
दाक्षिण्य ; आदर . उ० उपचर्या .
साम्य . उ० उपधातु , उपव्याघ्र .
शेवट ; नाश . उ० उपरति .
विकार . उ० उपलेप .
स्वीकार . उ० उपागम , उपाकर्म .
व्यापणें . उ० उपहास .
समूहत्व ; संमेलन ; संकलन . उ० उपार्जन .
शक्ति .
अध्ययन ; अध्यापन ; उ० उपाध्याय .
उद्योग .
कडे ; वर ; खालीं . उ० उपनयन .
निरर्थक म्हणूनहि कधीं हा उपसर्ग लागतो . अप या उपसर्गाचे कांहीं अर्थ याचेहि आहेत .

Aryabhushan School Dictionary | mr  en |   | 
A particle and prefix implying vicinity; inferiority, excess, likeness.

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