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नारदपरिव्राजकोपनिषत् - सप्तमोपदेशः

आपल्या प्राचीन वाङ्मयामध्ये उपनिषदांना फार महत्त्वाचे, म्हणजे प्रस्थानत्रयी मधील एक, असे स्थान आहे.
Upanishad are highly philosophical and metaphysical part of Vedas. Being the conclusive part of Vedas, Upanishad can be called the whole substance of Vedic


सप्तमोपदेशः
अथ यतेर्नियमः कथमिति पृष्टं नारदं पितामहः पुरस्कृत्य विरक्तः सन्यो वर्षासु ध्रुवशीलोऽष्टौ मास्येकाकी चरन्नेकत्र निवसेद्भिक्षुर्भयात्सारङ्गवदेकत्र न तिष्ठेस्वगमननिरोधग्रहणं न कुर्याद्धस्ताभ्यां नद्युत्तरणं न कुर्यान्न वृक्षारोहणमपि न देवोत्सवदर्शनं कुर्यान्नैकत्राशी न बाह्यदेवार्चनं कुर्यात्स्वव्यतिरिक्तं सर्वं त्यक्त्वा मधुकरवृत्त्याहारमहारन्कृशो भूत्वा मेदोवृद्धिमकुर्वन्नाज्यं रुधिरमिव त्यजेदेकत्रान्नं पललमिव गन्धलेपनमशुद्धिलेपनमैव क्षारमन्त्यजमिव वस्त्रमुच्छिष्टपात्रमिवाभ्यङ्गं स्त्रीसङ्गमिव मित्राह्लादकं मूत्रमिव स्पृहां गोमांसमिव ज्ञातचरदेशं चण्डालवाटिकामिव स्त्रियमहिमिव सुवर्णं कालकूटमिव सभास्थलं स्मशानस्थलमिव राजधानीं कुम्भीपाकमिव शवपिण्डवदेकत्रान्नं न देहान्तरदर्शनं प्रपञ्चवृत्तिं परित्यज्य स्वदेशमुत्सृज्य ज्ञातचरदेशं विहाय विस्मृतपदार्थं पुनः प्राप्तहर्ष इव स्वमानन्दमनुस्मर- न्स्वशरीराभिमानदेशविस्मरणं मत्वा शवमिव हेयमुपगम्य कारागृहविनिर्मुक्तचोरवत्पुत्राप्तबन्धुभवस्थलं विहाय दूरतो वसेत् । अयत्नेन प्राप्तमाहरन्ब्रह्मप्रणवध्यानानुसन्धानपरो भूत्वा सर्वकर्मनिर्मुक्तः कामक्रोधलोभमोहमद- मात्सर्यादिकं दग्ध्वा त्रिगुणातीतः षडूर्मिरहितः षड्भावविकारशून्यः । सत्यवाक्छुचिरद्रोही ग्राम एकरात्रं पत्तने पञ्चरात्रं क्षेत्रे पञ्चरात्रं तीर्थे पञ्चरात्रमनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्नानृतवादी गिरिकन्दरेषु वसेदेक एव द्वौ वा चरेत् ग्रामं त्रिभिर्नगरं चतुर्भि- र्ग्राममित्येकश्चरेत् । भिक्षुश्चतुर्दशकरणानां न तत्रावकाशं दद्यादविच्छिन्नज्ञानाद्वैराग्यसंपत्ति- मनुभूय मत्तो न कश्चिन्नान्यो व्यतिरिक्त इत्यात्मन्यालोच्य सर्वतः स्वरूपमेव पश्यञ्जीवन्मुक्तिमवाप्य प्रारब्ध- प्रतिभासनाशपर्यन्तं चतुर्विधं स्वरूपं ज्ञात्वा देहपतनपर्यन्तं स्वरूपानुसन्धानेन वसेत् । त्रिषवणस्नानं कुटीचकस्य बहूदकस्य द्विवारं हंसस्यैकवारं परमहंसस्य मानसस्नानं तुरीयातीतस्य भस्मस्नानमवधूतस्य वायव्यस्नानं ऊर्ध्वपुण्ड्रं कुटीचकस्य त्रिपुण्ड्रं बहूदकस्य ऊर्ध्वपुण्ड्रं त्रिपुण्ड्रं हंसस्य भस्मोद्धूलनं परमहंसस्य तुरीयातीतस्य तिलकपुण्ड्रमवधूतस्य न किञ्चित् । तुरीयातीतावधूतयोः ऋतुक्षौरं कुटीचकस्य ऋतुद्वयक्षौरं बहूदकस्य न क्षौरं हंसस्य परमहंसस्य च न क्षौरम् । अस्तिचेदयनक्षौरम् । तुरीयातीतावधूतयोः न क्षौरम् । कुटीचकस्यैकान्नं माधुकरं बहूदकस्य हंसपरमहंसयोः करपात्रं तुरीयातीतस्य गोमुखं अवधूतस्याजगरवृत्तिः । शाटिद्वयं कुटीचकस्य बहूदकस्यैकशाटी हंसस्य खण्डं दिगंबरं परमहंसस्य एककौपीनं वा तुरीयातीतावधूतयो- र्जातरूपधरत्वं हंसपरमहंसयोरजिनं न त्वन्येषाम् । कुटीचकबहूदकयोर्देवार्चनं हंसपरमहंसयो- र्मानसार्चनं तुरीयातीतावधूतयोः सोहंभावना । कुटीचकबहूदकयोर्मन्त्रजपाधिकारो हंसपरमहंसयो- र्ध्यानाधिकारस्तुरीयातीतावधूतयोर्न त्वन्याधिकार- स्तुरीयातीतावधूतयोर्महावाक्योपदेशाधिकारः परमहंसस्यापि । कुटीचकबहूदकहंसानां नान्यस्योपदेशाधिकारः। कुटीचकबहूदकयोर्मानुषप्रणवः हंसपरमहंसयोरान्तरप्रणवः तुरीयातीतावधूतयोर्ब्रह्मप्रणवः । कुटीचकबहूदकयोः श्रवणं हंसपरमहंसयोर्मननं तुरीयातीतावधूतयोर्निदिध्यासः । सर्वेषामात्मनुसन्धानं विधिरित्येव मुमुक्षुः सर्वदा संसारतारकं तारकमनुस्मर- ञ्जीवन्मुक्तो वसेदधिकारविशेषेण कैवल्यप्राप्त्युपाय- मन्विष्येद्यतिरित्युपनिषत् ॥
इति सप्तमोपदेशः ॥७॥

Translation - भाषांतर
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Last Updated : 2016-11-11T12:47:05.7630000

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ŚAKUNTALĀ(शकुन्तला)

  • Foster-daughter of sage Kaṇva. 1) Birth. Śakuntalā was a daughter born to Viśvāmitra of the Apsarā woman called Menakā. Viśvāmitra was engaged in intense tapas on the banks of river Mālinī in the Himālayas. Indra deputed Menakā to break the maharṣi's tapas. She enticed him away from his tapas and got pregnant by him. But she forsook the child on the banks of Mālinī and returned to Devaloka. 2) Childhood. Birds gathered round the forsaken orphan-child. While Śakuntas i.e. birds were petting the child Kaṇva came that way, saw the child and took it with him to the āśrama. As śakuntas had petted it, the child was named Śakuntalā.
    3) As queen.
    King Duṣyanta of the lunar dynasty married Śakuntalā and to the couple was born the famous Bharata. This is the original story about Śakuntalā's married life. All the Indian languages contain two different versions of Śakuntalā's life. One version is that related in Vyāsa's Bhārata and the second is that contained in Kālidāsa's Śākuntala. Many scholars opine that in the matter of the Śakuntalā episode Kālidāsa has gone a step further and for the better, and therefore both the versions of the story are to be carefully studied by us.
    (i) Vyāsa's Śakuntalā.
    Śakuntalā, now grown up as a maiden, was alone in the āśrama when King Duṣyanta, out in the forest on a hunting expedition, came there. In the absence of her foster-father Kaṇva, Śakuntalā welcomed the King. They fell in love with each other and the King married Śakuntalā according to the Gāndharva way of marriage and lived with her for a few days. Śakuntalā became pregnant. The King returned to his palace. Kaṇva returned to the āśrama and he was pleased that what had been destined to take place had happened. In due course of time Śakuntalā delivered a boy, who was named Sarvadamana. When the child was grown up, Kaṇva sent his mother along with him to Duṣyanta's palace. The King did not recognise them, but a celestial voice convinced him that the child was his own son. The King heartily welcomed his wife and son and Śakuntalā lived in the palace as his honoured wife.
    (i
    i) Kālidāsa's Śakuntalā.
    Kaṇva brought up Śakuntalā born to Viśvāmitra of Menakā in his āśrama and she had two companions called Anasūyā and Priyaṁvadā. All the three grew up and became maidens. King Duṣyanta, who went out hunting in the forest followed a deer to Kaṇva's āśrama where he saw Śakuntalā watering the garden with her companions. Kaṇva was then away at Cakratīrtha. Duṣyanta, who fell in love with Śakuntalā, married her according to the Gāndharva rules and lived with her at the āśrama for a few days. Meanwhile Śakuntalā became pregnant, and emissaries from the palace came and the King returned with them. He left the āśrama after promising Śakuntalā that he would soon return to her. He gave her his signet ring. Sad over the separation from Duṣyanta and immersed in thought about him, Śakuntalā was sitting there in the āśrama when Durvāsas came there. She did not see the maharṣi nor welcome him respectfully. He got angry at this and cursed her that she be forgotten by him about whom she was so intensely thinking. Śakuntalā did not hear the curse either, but her companions who heard it begged pardon of the muni on behalf of Śakuntalā and prayed for absolution from the curse. Then he said that if Śakuntalā showed the King any sign about their relationship the King would remember her. Her companions did not tell Śakuntalā about the above incidents. Kaṇva gladly welcomed Śakuntalā's wedding with Duṣyanta. Days and months passed by, yet Duṣyanta did not return and Kaṇva sent Śakuntalā, in whom signs of pregnancy had become prominent, to the palace of the King in the company of Gautamī and Śārṅgarava. Anasūyā reminded Śakuntalā to take particular care of the signet ring. On their way to the palace Śakuntalā and others bathed in the Somavāratīrtha, and nobody noticed Śakuntalā losing from her finger the ring in the tīrtha. They reached the King's palace. None noticed them. Duṣyanta did not remember having even seen her. The signet ring was missing. After leaving Śakuntalā at the palace her companions returned to the āśrama. Menakā, whose heart melted at the pathetic wailings of Śakuntalā led her to Kaśyapa's āśrama, left her there and returned to Devaloka. The signet ring lost by Śakuntalā was swallowed by a fish, which was netted by a fisherman, who went about the streets to sell the ring extracted from inside the fish. Servants of the King took the fisherman captive. At the sight of the ring thoughts about the past dawned on the King and he remembered all about Śakuntalā. His days became sad pondering over separation from Śakuntalā. Śakuntalā delivered a boy at the āśrama of Kaśyapa. The child was named Sarvadamana and he grew up as a courageous boy. On his return from the devāsura war, Duṣyanta entered Kaśyapa's āśrama where he saw Sarvadamana counting the teeth of a lion he had captured. Having heard details about him from the boy the King went inside the āśrama and saw Kaśyapa and Śakuntalā. He returned with Śakuntalā and the boy to the palace with Kaśyapa's blessings. It was this boy Sarvadamana, who afterwards became Bharata, the famous emperor of India.
     
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Category : Puranic Literature
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