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Chanakya Niti - Chapter Seven

आर्य चाणक्य अपने चाणक्य नीति ग्रंथमे आदर्श जीवन मुल्य विस्तारसे प्रकट करते है।
Nitishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life, and shows Chanakya's in depth study of the Indian way of life.


Chapter Seven
1. A wise man should not reveal his loss of wealth, the vexation of his mind, the misconduct of his own wife, base words spoken by others, and disgrace that has befallen him.

2. He who gives up shyness in monetary dealings, in acquiring knowledge, in eating and in business, becomes happy.

3. The happiness and peace attained by those satisfied by the nectar of spiritual tranquillity is not attained by greedy persons restlessly moving here and there.

4. One should feel satisfied with the following three things; his own wife, food given by Providence and wealth acquired by honest effort; but one should never feel satisfied with the following three; study, chanting the holy names of the Lord (japa) and charity.

5. Do not pass between two brahmanas, between a brahmana and his sacrificial fire, between a wife and her husband, a master and his servant, and a plough and an ox.

6. Do not let your foot touch fire, the spiritual master or a brahmana; it must never touch a cow, a virgin, an old person or a child.

7. Keep one thousand cubits away from an elephant, a hundred from a horse, ten from a horned beast, but keep away from the wicked by leaving the country.

8. An elephant is controlled by a goad (ankusha), a horse by a slap of the hand, a horned animal with the show of a stick, and a rascal with a sword.

9. Brahmanas find satisfaction in a good meal, peacocks in the peal of thunder, a sadhu in seeing the prosperity of others, and the wicked in the misery of others.

10. Conciliate a strong man by submission, a wicked man by opposition, and the one whose power is equal to yours by politeness or force.>

11. The power of a king lies in his mighty arms; that of a brahmana in his spiritual knowledge; and that of a woman in her beauty youth and sweet words.

12. Do not be very upright in your dealings for you would see by going to the forest that straight trees are cut down while crooked ones are left standing.

13. Swans live wherever there is water, and leave the place where water dries up; let not a man act so -- and comes and goes as he pleases.

14. Accumulated wealth is saved by spending just as incoming fresh water is saved by letting out stagnant water.

15. He who has wealth has friends and relations; he alone survives and is respected as a man.

16. The following four characteristics of the denizens of heaven may be seen in the residents of this earth planet; charity, sweet words, worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and satisfying the needs of brahmanas.

17. The following qualities of the denizens of hell may characterise men on earth; extreme wrath, harsh speech, enmity with one's relations, the company with the base, and service to men of low extraction.

18. By going to the den of a lion pearls from the head of an elephant may be obtained; but by visiting the hole of a jackal nothing but the tail of a calf or a bit of the hide of an ass may be found.

19. The life of an uneducated man is as useless as the tail of a dog, which neither covers its rear end, nor protects it from the bites of insects.

20. Purity of speech, of the mind, of the senses, and a compassionate heart are needed by one who desires to rise to the divine platform.

21. As you seek fragrance in a flower, oil in the sesamum seed, fire in wood, ghee (butter) in milk, and jaggery (guda) in sugarcane; so seek the spirit that is in the body by means of discrimination.>

Translation - भाषांतर
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Last Updated : 2013-12-18T03:22:00.5870000

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BRAHMACARYA(ब्रह्मचर्य)

  • In ancient India an ideal life was considered to pass through four stages, and Brahmacarya is one of the stages of life. The four stages are Brahmacarya (Vedic student vowed to chastity), Gārhasthya (married householder), Vānaprastha (forest hermit) and Sannyāsa (an ascetic who has renounced the world). Brahmacarya, the first stage of the four is considered as the period of education. The rules and conduct of a Brahmacārī are given in [Manusmṛti, Chapter 2]. The brahmacārī who lives with the teacher has to obey certain rules and principles. He should bathe in the river at sun-rise and offer oblations to gods and manes. A brahmacārī has to abstain from using honey, meat, fragrance, flowers, flower of chrysanthemum (Ind.) women, curd, milk, ghee, churned-curd, slaughter, bath applying oil, anointing the eyes with collyrium, sandals, umbrella, lust, anger, covetousness, dance, music, gambling, slander, ridicule, falsehood, and causing injury to others. A Brahmacārī should go to bed alone. Semen should not be made to discharge through lust. If seminal discharge occurs in dream he should take bath early in the morning and worship the Sun, pronouncing the mantra or spell ‘Punaḥ’ thrice. The Brahmacārī should live on alms. It is the duty of the brahmacārī to bring water, flower for oblation, cowdung, soil and darbha (grass) for the teacher. He should receive alms only from the houses of those who believe in the Vedas and sacrifices. He should not go to the house of his teacher or his heirs and their families for alms. Provided there are no other houses he may receive alms from the houses of his teacher's relatives and in the absence of such houses he may approach the houses of heirs to his teacher and in the absence of such houses he may receive alms from the house of the teacher. He should fetch ‘Camata’ (fuel chiefly from butea frondosa) from a place of purity in the forest, as instructed in rules and dry it in the sun; in the absence of which it may be got dried in a sheltered place. This fuel should be put in the sacrificial fire in the mornings, at noons, and in the evenings. If a healthy Brahmacārī fails in doing his duties consecutively for seven days it will be considered that his vow of Brahmacarya is broken and then he will have to take the vow of ‘Avakīrṇi’ again. Without waiting for the order of the teacher, the Brahmacārī (student) should engage himself in devotion and meditation and in the service of the teacher daily. When the student is before the teacher he should stand with folded hands controlling his body, speech, brains, sensitive organs, and mind. Only when he is asked to sit, should he do so before the teacher, covering the portions of his body, which are to be covered, with clothes. He should rise up in the morning before his teacher wakes up, and go to bed only after the teacher has retired for sleep. When his teacher calls him, he should not give reply lying, sitting, walking, eating or looking in the opposite direction. He should not gainsay the teacher. The student should attend to the orders of the teacher and comply with them, sitting if the teacher is sitting, standing if the teacher is standing, standing back if the teacher is advancing towards him, running behind if he is walking, standing close by when he is facing the opposite direction, folding his limbs when the teacher is lying or sitting near. The student should have his seat and bed one step lower than those of his teacher. The student should not sit in a careless manner in places where the teacher's eyes could reaeh. He should not utter the name of his teacher. If anybody speaks ill of his teacher he should close his ears and run away from the spot. If a Brahmacārī scoffs his teacher, he will be born as a donkey, and as a dog if he scorns him, and as a worm if he steals the wealth of his teacher and as a beetle if he becomes jealous at the greatness of his teacher. When the teacher is angry the brahmacārī should not go near him. The Brahmacārī should not speak unasked. A Brahmacārī could sit with his teacher only when they are in a vehicle, or on a camel or in a tower or on the steps or on rocks or in a boat. He should consider the teacher of his teacher as his teacher. He should not address his parents who visit the house of the teacher, without the permission of his teacher. He should respect learned men, holymen, sons of the teacher and those who are born of his family, as a teacher. If the wife of the teacher is of the caste of the teacher, the brahmacārī should consider her as his teacher. If the wife is not of the same caste the brahmacārī needs only to stand up and make obeisance to her. A brahmacārī should not apply oil to the body of his teacher's wife, wash her, massage her body, and comb her hair. A brahmacārī may either shave his head or grow matted hair. He should never be asleep at sunrise or sunset. For learning Vedas etc. the student should not give the teacher cows, clothes etc. as free gifts beforehand. On completion of education, when the student asks the teacher for permission to get married, he should give the teacher what he demands. A brahmacārī who has fully complied with the rules mentioned above, will attain heaven after his death. 
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