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चाणक्य-सूत्राणि - द्वितीयोऽध्यायः

नीतिवर्णनात्मक संस्कृत ग्रंथांमध्ये, चाणक्य-नीतिदर्पण ग्रंथाचे महत्वपूर्ण स्थान आहे. जीवन सुखमय आणि ध्येयपूर्ण बनविण्यासाठी, विविध विषयांचे वर्णन या ग्रंथात आहे. व्यवहार संबंधी सूत्रे तसेच राजनीति संबंधी श्लोकांचा यात समावेश आहे.


द्वितीयोऽध्यायः
१ - अर्थमूलं सर्वकार्यम्, यदल्पप्रयत्नात् कार्यसिद्धिर्भवति ।
२ - उपायपूर्वं कार्यं न दुष्करं स्यात् ।
३ - अनुपायपूर्व कार्यं कृतमपि विनश्यति ।
४ - कार्यार्थिनामुपाय एव सहायः ।
५ - कार्यं पुरुषकारेण लक्ष्यं संपद्यते ।
६ - पुरुषकारमनुवर्तते दैवम् ।
७ - दैवं विनाऽतिप्रयत्नं यत् करोति तद्विफलम् ।
८ - असमाहितस्य कार्यं न विद्यते  ।
९ - पूर्वं निश्चित्य पश्चात् कार्यमारभेत ।
१० - कार्यान्तरे दीर्घसूत्रता न कर्तव्या ।
११ - न चलचित्तस्य कार्यावाप्तिः. ।
१२ - हस्तगतावमाननात् कार्यव्यतिक्रमो भवति ।
१३ - दोषवर्जितानि कार्याणि दुर्लभानि ।
१४ - दुरनिबन्धं कार्यं न आरभेत ।
१५ - कालवित् कार्यं साधयेत् ।
१६ - कालातिक्रमात् काल एव फलं पिबति ।
१७ - क्षणं प्रति कालविक्षेपं न कुर्यात् सर्वकृत्येषु ।
१८ - देशकालविभागौ ज्ञात्वा कार्यमारभेत ।
१९ - दैवहीनं कार्यं सुसाधमपि दुस्साधं भवति ।
२० - नीतिज्ञो देशकालौ परीक्षेत ।
२१ - परीक्ष्यकारिणि श्रीश्चिरं तिष्ठति ।
२२ - सर्वाश्च संपदः सर्वोपायेन परिगृह्णीयात् ।
२३ - भाग्यवन्तमप्यपरीक्ष्यकारिणं श्रीः परित्यजति ।
२४ - ज्ञात्वाऽनुमानैश्च परीक्षा कर्तव्या ।
२५ - यो यस्मिन् कर्मणि कुशलस्तं तस्मिन्नेव योजयेत् ।
२६ - दुस्साधमपि सुसाधं करोत्युपायज्ञः ।
२७ - अज्ञानिना कृतमपि न बहुमन्तव्यम्, यादृच्छिकत्वात् ।
२८ - कृमयोऽपि हि कदाचित् रूपान्तराणि कुर्वन्ति ।
२९ - सिद्धस्यैव कार्यस्य प्रकाशनं कर्तव्यम् ।
३० - ज्ञानवतामपि दैवमानुषदोषात् कार्याणि दुष्यन्ति ।
३१ - दैवं दोषं शान्तिकर्मणा प्रतिषेधयेत् ।
३२ - मानुषीं कार्यविपत्तिं कौशलेन विनिवारयेत् ।
३३ - कार्यविपत्तौ दोषान् वर्णयन्ति बालिशाः ।
३४ - कार्यार्थिना दाक्षिण्यं न कर्तव्यम् ।
३५ - क्षीरार्थी वत्सो मातुरूधः प्रतिहन्ति ।
३६ - अप्रयत्नात् कार्यविपत्तिर्भवेत ।
३७ - न दैवमात्रप्रमाणानां कार्यसिद्धिः ।
३८ - कार्यबाह्यो न पोषयत्याश्रितान् ।
३९ - यः कार्यं न पश्यति सोऽन्धः ।
४० - प्रत्यक्षपरोक्षानुमानैः कार्याणि परीक्षेत ।
४१ - अपरीक्ष्कारिणं श्रीः परित्यजति ।
४२ - परीक्ष्य तार्या विपत्तिः ।
४३ - स्वशक्तिं ज्ञात्वा कार्यमारभेत ।
४४ - स्वजनं तर्पययित्वा यश्शेषभोजी सोऽमृतभोजी ।
४५ - सम्यगनुष्ठानादायमुखानि वर्धन्ते ।
४६ - नास्ति भीरोः कार्यचिन्ता ।
४७ - स्वामिनः शीलं ज्ञात्वा कार्यार्थी कार्यं साधयेत् ।
४८ - धेनोश्शीलज्ञो हि क्षीरं भुङ्क्ते ।
४९ - क्षुद्रे गुह्यप्रकाशनमात्मवान् न कुर्यात् ।
५० - आश्रितैरप्यवमन्यते मृदुस्वभावः ।
५१ - तीक्ष्णदण्डस्सर्वेषामुद्वेजनीयो भवति ।
५२ - यथार्हदण्डकारी स्यात् ।
५३ - अल्पसारं श्रुतवन्तमपि न बहुमन्यते लोकः ।
५४ - अतिभारः पुरुषमवसादयति ।
५५ - यस्संसदि परदोषं शंसति स स्वदोषबहुत्वमेव प्रख्यापयति ।
५६ - आत्मानमेव नाशयत्यनात्मवतां कोपः ।
५७ - नास्त्यप्राप्यं सत्यवताम् ।
५८ - न केवलेन साहसेन कार्यसिद्धिर्भवति ।
५९ - व्यसनार्तो विस्मरत्यवश्यकर्तव्यान् ।
६० - नास्त्यनन्तरायः कालविक्षेपे ।
६१ - असंशयविनाशात् संशयविनाशः श्रेयान् ।
६२ - केवलं धनानि निक्षेप्तुं न स्वार्थं न दानं न धर्मः ।
६३ - नार्या आगतोऽर्थः तद्विपरीतमनर्थभावं भजते ।
६४ - यो धर्मार्थौ न व्यर्थयति स कामः तद्विपरीतोऽनर्थसेवी ।
६५ - ऋजुस्वभावपरो जनो दुर्लभः ।
६६ - अवमानेनागतमैश्वर्यमवन्यत एव साधुः ।
६७ - बहूनपि हि गुणानेकदोषो ग्रसति ।
६८ - महात्मना परं साहसं न कर्तव्यम् ।
६९ - कदाचिदपि चारित्रं न लङ्घयेत् ।
७० - क्षुधाऽऽर्तो न तृणं चरति सिंहः ।
७१ - प्राणादपि प्रत्ययो रक्षितव्यः ।
७२ - पिशुनो नेता पुत्रदारैरपि त्यज्यते ।
इति द्वितीयोऽध्यायः ॥
Translation - भाषांतर
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Last Updated : 2011-10-05T08:27:14.4230000

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BALABHADRA(बलभद्र)

  • (Balabhadrarāma, Balarāma, Baladeva). The elder brother of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the eighth incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu.
    1) Birth.
    When the number of wicked kings increased Bhūmīdevī (goddess of Earth) turned herself into a cow and took refuge in Mahāviṣṇu. Mahāviṣṇu then promised to be born as the sons of Vasudeva named Balabhadrarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and destroy the wicked. Vasudeva was the son of the Yādava, Śūrasena, King of Madhurā. To Devaka the brother of another Yādava King, Ugrasena, was born a daughter Devakī. The marriage of Devakī with Vasudeva was celebrated but on the same day an Aśarīriṇī (a heavenly voice from above) said that the eighth child of Devakī would kill Kaṁsa. Instantly Kaṁsa put both Vasudeva and Devakī in jail. The first six sons born to Devakī were killed the moment they were born by striking them against the ground. Devakī became pregnant for the seventh time. The babe in the womb was Ananta incarnate by Viṣṇu's directive to be of help to him when he would also be born soon as Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it was necessary to save the child from the cruel hands of Kaṁsa as it was certain he would kill the babe the same way he had killed all the others before. So he ordered Māyādevī to take the child from the womb of Devakī and place it in that of Rohiṇī, another wife of Vasudeva. Māyādevī did so and the boy got the name Saṁgharṣaṇa, also because of this. The news spread that Devakī aborted. Rohiṇī delivered a boy and was named Saṁgharṣaṇa alias Balabhadrarāma. [Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata].
    2) The colour of Balarāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
    Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the eighth child of Devakī. The elder brother Balarāma is white in complexion while the younger, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is black in complexion. There is a story behind this. The devas decided to be born as Gopālas (shepherds) in the earth to be of help to Kṛṣṇa in his duty of killing the wicked. They informed Mahāviṣṇu of their decision and the Lord was immensely pleased. He then took one white hair from his head and said that it would go to Rohiṇī's womb and change into Balarāma and taking a black hair said that it would go into Devakī's womb and change into Śrī Kṛṣṇa. It was thus that Balabhadra became white and Śrī Kṛṣṇa black. [Chapter 199, Ādi Parva, M.B.].
    3) Brothers.
    Balabhadrarāma had six brothers born of his mother Rohiṇī. They were: Gada, Sāraṇa, Durddama, Vipula, Dhruva, and Kṛta. [Navama Skandha, Bhāgavata]. 4) Till their marriage Śrī Kṛṣṇa spent his childhood in Aṁbāḍi and Balarāma, in Madhurā. Once the sage Garga went to the house of Vasudeva and it was he who then told the story behind the births of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa. Hearing this Vasudeva went to Madhurā and brought Balabhadrarāma also to Aṁbāḍi. Gargamuni then performed all those sacred rites which were usually done to boys of that age and both of them then remained in Aṁbāḍi. Several important events happened during their stay here, notable among which are: Pūtanāmokṣam (killing of the demoness Pūtanā and giving her salvation). Śakaṭāsuravadha (killing the asura, Śakaṭa), Tṛṇāvarttavadha (killing the asura, Tṛṇāvartta), Vatsāsuravadha (killing the asura, Vatsa), Bakavadha (killing the demon bird, Baka), Aghāsuravadha (killing the asura, Agha), Dhenukāsuravadha (killing the asura, Dhenuka), Kāliamardana (beating the snake, Kālia) and Pralambavadha [killing Pralamba]. (See under Kṛṣṇa for more details). Kaṁsa conducted a Cāpapūjā (worship of the bow) to kill Kṛṣṇa. It was on a festive scale and both Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma went to Madhurā to attend the same. There they killed Kaṁsa and after that went to the āśrama of Sāndīpani Maharṣi for education. When they completed their education they at the request of the preceptor gave as Gurudakṣiṇā (The fee you pay in the end for the instructions given) the lost child of the guru. Then they went to Madhurā and there several events took place, important among which was the fight between Kṛṣṇa and Jarāsandha. By this time the Yādavas were becoming lean financially and so to make some money Kṛṣṇa and Rāma went to the diamond-infested mountain of Gomantaka. On their way they met Paraśurāma doing penance under a Banyan tree. On the advice of Paraśurāma they killed Sṛgālavasudeva and got immense wealth. On their return Rāma and Kṛṣṇa along with many Yādavas went and settled down in the island, Dvārakā, in the western ocean. [Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata].
    5) Marriage.
    Before the advent of Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa the island Dvārakā was known as Kuśasthalī. It was ruled over by a famous Rājarṣi, Revata. This king was the son of King Ānartta and grandson of emperor Śaryāti. Revata got a hundred sons, Kukudmin being the first and a daughter named Revatī. When the time for marriage of his daughter came the King was anxious to find out a fitting husband for her and he went to Brahmaloka to take the advice of Brahmā. Revatī also accompanied him. There stupefied he saw Vedas, Yajñas, mountains, rivers, oceans, Ṛtus, all in divine figures standing before Brahmā, worshipping him. The sweet celestial songs gave them both untold happiness. He then told Brahmā the purpose of his visit and Brahmā meditating for some time told him that Balabhadrarāma, son of Vasudeva, was the only one person suited for her. The king returned to Dvārakā and gave his daughter in marriage to Balarāma. [Saptama Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata].
    6) A pilgrimage.
    When the great Pāṇḍava-Kaurava battle started Kṛṣṇa became the charioteer of Arjuna and Balarāma went to the forest, Naimiśa. He was not much interested in the battle. At the forest of Naimiṣa he saw Sūta telling Purāṇic stories to the several sages assembled there before him. Sūta did not rise up when he saw Balarāma and the latter moved to anger very soon cut off the head of Sūta. The sages assembled there decried the act of Balarāma and lamented deeply over the incident. At this Balarāma promised that he would give birth, from the dead body of Sūta, to one who will be well versed in all the Vedas, śāstras and sciences. The sages then blessed Balarāma. During that time there lived in the vicinity of Naimiṣa forest a demon called Balvala (Vatkala). He used to annoy the sages there and the sages requested Balarāma to put a stop to the atrocities of that demon. He immediately killed the demon by his weapon, Hala, and then raised from the dead body of Sūta a paṇḍita of great erudition. Later, to remedy the sin of killing Sūta, Balarāma, repentant, visited all the sacred places in Bhārata. Once when he heard about the grim battle between Duryodhana and Bhīmasena, he went to the battle-field and tried his best to stop the war. Disappointed he returned to Dvārakā. [Daśama Skandha, Chapter 79, Bhāgavata].
    7) Death.
    Once the ṛṣis Nārada, Kaṇva and Viśvāmitra came to Dvārakā. To make fun of them some of the Yādavas dressed a Yādava like a pregnant woman and producing her before the sages asked them what child she would deliver. Enraged at this the munis said in one voice that she would deliver a mace and that iron mace would be the cause of the end of all Yādavas. After the Mahābhārata battle the Yādava dynasty remained alive only for thirtysix years. After that by the curse of the brahmin the Yādavas were all killed in a drunken brawl between themselves in the very presence of Kṛṣṇa and Balabhadra. This happened on the shore of Prabhāsa tīrtha and Balarāma was sitting there then in deep meditation. Suddenly the soul of Balarāma went out from his mouth in the shape of a white serpent and the serpent entering the nether world was given a warm welcome by the prominent serpents there. [Mausala Parva, M.B.].
    8) Other details.
    (1) It was Balabhadrarāma who taught Bhīmasena the mace-fight. [Śloka 4, Chapter 138, Ādi Parva, M.B.].
    (2) Balabhadrarāma was present along with Śrī Kṛṣṇa at the marriage of Pāñcālī. [Śloka 17, Chapter 185, Ādi Parva, M.B.].
    (3) Balabhadrarāma became very indignant when he heard about Arjuna carrying away Subhadrā and it was Kṛṣṇa who pacified him. [Chapter 22, Ādi Parva, M.B.].
    (4) He was present at the marriage of Abhimanyu conducted at the city of Upaplāvya. [Śloka 21, Chapter 72, Virāṭa Parva, M.B.].
    (5) He was very insistent that the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas should come to a truce. [Chapter 2, Udyoga Parva, M.B.].
    (6) He witnessed the battle of maces between Duryodhana and Bhīmasena at Kurukṣetra. [Chapter 34, Śalya Parva, M.B.].
    (7) Balarāma conducted a pilgrim tour and visited all the holy places of Bhārata at a time when the Pāṇḍava- Kaurava war was in full swing. [Chapter, 35-54, Śalya Parva, M.B.].
    (8) Balarāma was of opinion that it was unjust of Bhīmasena to have killed Duryodhana and was about to kill Bhīmasena. [Śloka 4, Chapter 60, Śalya Parva, M.B.].
    (9) Once Balarāma spoke in extolling terms about the secrets of Dharma. [Śloka 17, Chapters 126, Śalya Parva, M.B.].
    (10) It was Balarāma who performed the obsequies of Abhimanyu. [Śloka 6, Chapter 62, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.].
    (11) He went to Hastināpura when Yudhiṣṭhira performed the Aśvamedha yāga. [Śloka 4, Chapter 66, Aśvamedha Parva, M.B.].
    (12) Balarāma introduced Prohibition in Dvārakā. [Śloka 29, Chapter 1, Mausala Parva, M.B.].
    (13) Once he made dry the river Kālindī. (See Kālindī).
    Note: *) Since the life of Balabhadra is so mixed with that of Kṛṣṇa a complete life story of Balarāma could be had only if it is read along with that of Kṛṣṇa.]
     
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