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रसविद्या - भाग ८

रसविद्या, मध्यकालीन भारतातील जी आयुर्वेदीक विद्या आहे, त्यातील एक अग्रणी ग्रंथ म्हणजे आनंदकंद.


भाग ८
रसायनसेवा

सूतो वज्रं सुवर्णं च कान्तलोहं तथाभ्रकम् ।
पञ्चैतान्यमृतानि स्युः कल्पितानि नृणां मया ॥१॥

मत्तकाशिनि यो वेत्ति सोऽपि साक्षान्महेश्वरः ।
अहं रसो रसश्चाहमावयोरन्तरं न हि ॥२॥

तेन युक्तास्तु वज्राद्याः सिद्धिदाः स्युर्न संशयः ।
पुरुषं रससेवार्हं वदामि शृणु पार्वति ॥३॥

स्त्रीक्लीबबालकानां च न हि योज्यं रसायनम् ।
बालाः पञ्चदशाब्दा ये कुमारांस्त्रिंशदब्दकाः ॥४॥

पञ्चाशद्वर्षदेशीया युवानः परिकीर्तिताः ।
अतः परं च स्थविराः भवेयुस्ते रसायने ॥५॥

यथोक्तकाले सिद्धिः स्यात्कुमारस्य रसायनात् ।
तस्माद्द्विगुणकालेन यूनः सिद्धिर्भवेद्ध्रुवम् ॥६॥

तस्मात्त्रिगुणकालेन वृद्धः सिद्धिमवाप्नुयात् ।
ज्ञातव्याः क्रमशो देवि ह्युत्तमो मध्यमोऽधमः ॥७॥

रसायनसेवाक्रमः

पूर्वम् अभ्रकमश्नीयात्ततः कान्तरसायनम् ।
अथ कान्ताभ्रकं देवि पश्चाद्धेमरसायनम् ॥८॥

अथाभ्रकं स्वर्णयोगं कान्तहेमरसायनम् ।
घनकान्तस्वर्णयोगं ततो वज्ररसायनम् ॥९॥

अथाभ्रवज्रसेवां च कान्तवज्रमतः परम् ।
घनायस्कान्तहीरं च हेमवज्रं ततो भवेत् ॥१०॥

पश्चादभ्रस्वर्णवज्रं कान्ताष्टापदवज्रकम् ।
घनकान्तं हेमवज्रमतः पारदभक्षणम् ॥११॥

तथाभ्ररसयोगं स्यात्ततः कान्तरसं भवेत् ।
घनकान्तरसं देवि पश्चाद्धेमरसं भवेत् ॥१२॥

घनहेमरसं पश्चात्कान्तहेमरसं ततः ।
घनकान्तं हेमसूतमतो वज्ररसं भवेत् ॥१३॥

घनवज्ररसं देवि कान्तवज्ररसं ततः ।
घनकान्तं वज्रसूतं हेमवज्ररसं ततः ॥१४॥

घनहेमपवीसूतं कान्तहेमपवीरसम् ।
घनकान्तस्वर्णवज्ररसम् अस्मात्परं न हि ॥१५॥

उत्तरोत्तरतः सर्वे चैते सर्वगुणोत्तराः ।
रसायनानि पञ्च स्युरेकैकानि वरानने ॥१६॥

रसा द्विद्व्यौषधभवास्त्रित्र्यौषधभवा दश ।
चतुश्चतुर्भवाः पञ्च त्वेकः पञ्चौषधोद्भवः ॥१७॥

एकत्रिंशद्वरारोहे रसायनमिति प्रिये ।
घनं कान्तं हेम वज्रं पारदश्चेतरम् ॥१८॥

पूर्वोत्तरोत्तरगुणा भवन्ति प्राणवल्लभे ।
रसस्य क्रामणं वज्रं हेमकान्तघनं भवेत् ॥१९॥

वज्रसंक्रामणं हेम कान्तं व्योम भवेत्प्रिये ।
हेम्नः कान्तभवं योज्यं कान्तस्य क्रामणं घनम् ॥२०॥

अभ्रस्य क्रामणं चाभ्रसत्त्वं सिद्धिप्रदं यतः ।
एकैकौषधसेवायां यथोक्तं क्रामणं भवेत् ॥२१॥

युक्तो द्वित्रिचतुःपञ्चभैषज्यैः क्रामणं न हि ।
त्रिफलामधुसर्पींषि सामान्यक्रामणं भवेत् ॥२२॥

Translation - भाषांतर
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Last Updated : 2015-06-24T13:48:43.4500000

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ŚIVA (RUDRA)(शिव)

  • One of the Trinity.
    1) Birth.
    The seers or spiritual giants of India imagined three forms to God, dividing all the activities into three departments, i.e. creation, sustenance and destruction or annihilation. Brahmā, for creation, Viṣṇu, for sustenance and Śiva, for annihilation-they are the Trinity. Viṣṇu was born first, Brahmā next and Śiva last. The essence of Indian spiritualistic thought is that these three visible forms of God will, at the close of the Kalpa cease to be and become one with the cosmic power, and that the trinity will be born again at the commencement of the Kalpa and will take up their respective functions. The dominant quality or attribute of Śiva is Tamas (darkness). Many stories, with slight variations, are told in the various Purāṇas about the birth of Śiva. Some of the more important stories are summarised below.
    (i) At the begining of the Kalpa, while Brahmā was meditating upon the birth of a son like himself, a child deep blue in colour, appeared on his lap, and the child began running about crying aloud. Brahmā asked the child why it was crying; then the child asked Brahmā to give him a name. Though Brahmā told him that his name was Rudra and asked him not to cry, he cried seven times more. Then Brahmā gave him another seven names, and for the total eight names eight Mūrtis (forms) wives and children were allotted. Bhava, Śarva, Īśāna, Paśupati, Bhīma, Ugra and Mahādeva were the additional seven names, and Sun, Water, Earth, Wind, Fire, Sky, the Brahmin who has taken dīkṣā and Moon were the eight Mūrtis and the presiding deities allotted to them. To these deities the following wives were also allotted, i.e. Suvarcalā, Uṣā, Vikeśī, Śivā, Svāhā, Diśā, Dīkṣā and Rohiṇī. The world is full with their progenies. Śanaiścara, Śukra, Lohitāṅga, Manojava, Skanda, Sarga, Santāna and Budha are the sons of the above eight wives. This Rudra married Satī, daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. [Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 8].
    (ii) Brahmā whose predominant quality or attribute is rajas was born from the navel of Mahāviṣṇu. From the Centre of the brow of Brahmā was born Rudra of Tāmasic quality. Brahmā, by the power of his tapas, acquired the power of creation and created a red-coloured world by his attribute of rajas. The very same world is annihilated by Rudra at the close of the Kalpa period. [Devī Bhāgavata, 7th Skandha].
    (iii) From the wrath of Brahmā was born Rudra, from his lap Nārada, from his finger Dakṣa, from his mind Sanaka and others, and from his left finger a daughter called Vīraṇī. [Devī Bhāgavata, 7th Skandha].
    (iv) Four ‘mental sons’ of Brahmā Sanaka, Sanandana Sanātana and Sanatkumāra showed disinclination to beget progenies. Brahmā got angry at this attitude of the four sons and from the centre of his brow was born a body blue and white in colour, and he, in tears, requested Brahmā for names and stations. Blessing him by saying ‘mā ruda’ (do not cry) Brahmā allotted him names and stations. He became famous by the name Rudra. He was also given eleven more names by Brahmā as follows: Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahān, Śiva, Ṛtudhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava, Kāma, Vāmadeva and Dhṛtavrata. These names are otherwise famous as follows: Aja, Ekapada, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā, Rudra, Hara, Śambhu, T{??}ambaka, Aparājita, Īśāna and Tribhuvana. The eleven Rudras were also allotted the following eleven positions by Brahmā i.e. heart, the five organs of the body, vital force (Prāṇa) wind, fire, water, earth, sun and moon. Rudra has eleven wives, called Dhī, Vṛtti, Uśanā, Umā, Niyutā, Sarpis, Ilā, Ambikā, Irāvatī, Sudhā and Dīkṣā. Rudra, under the name Śiva, is considered to be the third of the trinity. The doctrine is that as long as time is real, deluge, or annihilation does not take place. Therefore, Rudrasaṁhāra (annihilation by Rudra) may be taken to mean only as the beginning of new creation.
    (v) At the commencement of Yuga (era) Brahmā was born from the navel of Viṣṇu. Two asuras called Madhu and Kaiṭabha rushed up to kill Brahmā, and from the brow of Viṣṇu, who got angry towards the asuras was born Śiva holding in his hands Śūla (the three-pronged trident). [Vana Parva, Chapter 12].
    2) Family life.
    Śiva has two wives, Gaṅgā and Pārvatī (See under Gaṅgā and Pārvatī). He lodges Gaṅgā on his head. Umā, Kātyāyanī, Gaurī, Kālī, Haimavatī Īśvarī, Śivā, Bhavānī, Rudrāṇī, Śarvāṇī, Sarvamaṅgalā Aparṇā, Pārvatī, Durgā, Mṛḍānī, Caṇḍikā, Ambikā, Āryā, Dākṣāyaṇī, Girijā, Menakātmajā, Cāmuṇḍā, Karṇamoṭī, Carcikā and Bhairavī--these are synonyms of Pārvatī. Śiva lives on the top of the Mahāmeru, where there are nine cities. At the centre is Brahmā's Manovatī; exactly to the east of it is Indra's Amarāvatī; at the south-eastern corner is Agni's Tejovatī; on the south is Yama's Saṁyamanī; at the south-western corner is Kṛṣṇāñjanā of Nirṛti, on the west is Varuṇa's Śraddhāvatī, at the north-western corner is Gandhavatī of Vāyu, on the north is Kubera's Mahodayā, at the north-eastern corner is Śiva's Yaśovatī--this is the set of the nine cities. Two sons called Subrahmaṇya and Gaṇapati were born to Śiva of Pārvatī, and they are his actual sons. Some other sons also were born to him in his assumed forms and by other women. Such have been Indrajit, Hanūmān and others. For details see the respective words. [Devī Bhāgavata, 8th Skandha, 9th Skandha];[ Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka].
    3) Incarnations.
    Śiva has taken several partial incarnations, the chief of which are given below.
    (i) Durvāsas.
    (See under Durvāsas).
    (i
    i) Vānara (Monkey).
    Śiva, Pārvatī and their attenders like Nandikeśvara once transformed themselves into monkeys and played about on the Himālayas. Rāvaṇa, who came there on the occasion ridiculed Nandikeśvara, who, in great rage, cursed Rāvaṇa that monkeys would destroy him. Being thus cursed Rāvaṇa raised Kailāsa from its foundations and played with it. [Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (ii
    i) Śakti.
    Śiva incarnated himself as Śakti, son of Vasiṣṭha and was devoured by Kalmāṣapāda, who took the form of a Rākṣasa. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 6].
    (i
    v) Varuṇa.
    Śiva once assumed the form of Varuṇa and conducted a yajña which was attended by the Vedas in assumed forms. [M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85].
    4) Boons granted by Śiva.
    The Purāṇas refer to various persons, who had earned boons from him and others who attained heaven on account of their devotion for him. The following are important among such persons.
    (i) Siṁhavaktra--[Skanda Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa].
    (ii) Rukmī--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (iii) Bāṇa--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (iv) Sudakṣiṇa--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (v) Sālva--[Bhāgavata 10th Skandha].
    (vi) Vṛkāsura--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (vii) Ratidevī--[Kathāsaritsāgara, Lāvāṇakalambaka, Taraṅga 1].
    (viii) Indrajit--[Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (ix) Bhṛgu--[Padma Purāṇa, Ādi Khaṇḍa, Chapter 2].
    (x) Gāndhārī--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 107].
    (xi) A ṛṣi girl--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 6].
    (xii) Prabhañjana--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 214, Verse 20].
    (xiii) Śvetakī--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 41].
    (xiv) Jarāsandha--[M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 64].
    (xv) Bāṇāsura--[M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 33, Southern text].
    (xvi) Maṅkaṇa--[Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 132].
    (xvii) Sagara--[Vana Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 15]
    (xviii) Bhagīratha--[Vana Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 1].
    (xix) Jayadratha--[Vana Parva, Chapter 272, Verse 28].
    (xx) Ambā--[Udyoga Parva, Chapter 187, Verse 12].
    (xxi) Somadatta--[Droṇa Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 16].
    (xxii) Viṣṇu--[Droṇa Parva, Chapter 201, Verse 56].
    (xxiii) Paraśurāma--[Karṇa Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 116];[ Śānti Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 33].
    (xxiv) Skanda--[Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 46].
    (xxv) Arundhatī--[Śalya Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 38].
    (xxvi) A Brahmin boy--[Śānti Parva, Chapter 153, Verse 114].
    (xxvii) Taṇḍi muni--[Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 69].
    5) Assets of Śiva.
    Śiva possesses a mass of matted hair, red in colour. It is known as Kaparda also, and hence he is called Kapardī as well. Śiva is also stated to be Agni. He has three eyes, the third one on the forehead being all fire. Śiva is called Trinetra, Phālanetra, Agnilocana etc. because of the above facts. It is only just and proper that Śiva, who is the destroyer of all things should have relation to Agni. Śiva, the alldestroyer, carries the Śūla in his hands always. Another weapon is named Pināka, and therefore Śiva is called Pinākapāṇi (he who holds Pināka in his hands). Both Śiva and his vehicle, the Bull, are white in colour. The white colour indicates the justice observed in the process of annihilation. Śiva has been described as possessing two, four, eight and ten hands. Besides the Pināka, he holds in his hands the club called Khaṭvāṅga, the bow called Ajagava, a deer, beads, skull, ḍamaru (a musical instrument) and many other sacred articles. Gaṅgā and Candra (moon) dwell on his head, and he is, therefore, known as Gaṅgādhara and Candracūḍa also. A Garland made of human skulls adorns his neck. Śiva wears the skin of the leopard for cloth and uses the skin of the elephant for blanket. All over his limbs snakes are worn as ornaments. The Purāṇas contain stories as to how Śiva earned most of the above assets. The wives of many Ṛṣis felt enamoured of Śiva, who once appeared in the garb of a beggar. The Ṛṣis, who got angry with Śiva on the above account, decided to kill him. From the pit they dug on the ground, a tiger emerged. Śiva killed it and wore its skin. A deer followed the tiger from the pit. Śiva held it in his left hand. The next to emerge out of the pit was a red-hot iron rod. Śiva took it in his hands as a weapon. Lastly snakes came out of the pit and Śiva wore them on his body. On another occasion an asura called Gaya assumed the form of an elephant and chased the munis, who took refuge in a Śiva temple. Śiva appeared, killed the elephant and wore its skin on his body. Since Śiva wore snakes as ear-rings he came to be known as Nāgakuṇḍala. Brahmā ordered that Rudra should create people and accordingly he created people. But, his creations were very cruel beings. Brahmā feared that they would eat up the other creations. Brahmā, who trembled with fear, asked Rudra to retire from the act of creation and to train himself to do creation in the proper manner as ordained. Accordingly, Rudra started practising tapas.
    6) Incidents.
    (i) How Śiva got the name Jīmūtaketu. (See under Jīmūtaketu).
    (i
    i) He became Kapālī.
    (See under Kapālī).
    (ii
    i) Sin of Brahmahatyā on Śiva.
    As he plucked off the head of Brahmā Śiva became subject to the sin of Brahmahatyā. Blue in colour and with grey hair, terrible Brahmahatyā approached Śiva who asked her who she was and why she came. She answered that she was Brahmahatyā and asked Śiva to take her into him. She entered his body so that he felt a burning sensation all over him. In this condition Śiva went to Bādaryāśrama. But, the great Ṛṣis, Naranārāyaṇas were not there in the āśrama. Sad at heart Śiva went to the river Yamunā to take a bath. But the river dried up. Then he went to Plakṣa island to bathe; but the island disappeared. Then he went to Puṣkarāraṇya, Māgadhāraṇya, Saindhavāraṇya, Naimiṣāraṇya, Dharmāraṇya etc. all to no purpose. He got worn out but could not have a bath. The terrible Brahmahatyā did not leave him. Though he visited sacred rivers, āśramas and temples and practised Yoga, Śiva did not get redemption from sin. At last, in great disappointment he went to Kurukṣetra, where he saw Viṣṇu. With folded hands Śiva praised Viṣṇu who advised him the following means for absolution from sin. “A Bhagavān born from my aspect under the name Yogaśāyī is living at Prayāga. The great river Varuṇā which has started from the right leg of Yogaśāyī and which redeems all sins as also the sublime river Asī, which has started from his left leg are both worshipped by the whole world. The temple of Yogaśāyī is at the centre of these rivers, and that is a sacred place most important in the three worlds and annihilative of all sins. That city is the great Vārāṇasī. Even materialistic or worldly people get salvation there. It is my (Viṣṇu) āśrama. There dwells Sūrya called Lola destroying all sins. The place where Keśava my aspect lives, is Daśāśvamedha. If you go there you will get redemption from sin.” Thus directed by Viṣṇu Śiva went to Vārāṇasī and achieved absolution from the sin of Brahmahatyā by bathing in the holy tīrthas there. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 3].
    (i
    v) Birth of Vīrabhadra.
    (See under Dakṣa),
    (v) Water in Kālindī got dark in colour.
    (See under Pārvatī, Para 2).
    (v
    i) Śiva became Nāgabhūṣaṇa.
    (See under Nāgāstram).
    (vi
    i) Blessed Sukeśa.
    Vidyutkeśa, the Rākṣasa married Sālakaṭaṅkā, daughter of Sandhyā. While they toured the world round enjoying their honeymoon Sālakaṭaṅkā conceived and delivered in due course a son in the valley of Mount Mandara. Śiva and Pārvatī, who passed that way in an aerial chariot saw the child and came down to it. By the blessing of Śiva the child grew up to a youth very quickly. Śiva named him Sukeśa and after blessing that he would grow up to become a pious soul disappeared from the scene. [Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (vii
    i) Śiva, the father of Indrajit.
    (See under Indrajit, Para 2).
    (i
    x) Four faces of Śiva.
    (See under Tilottamā, Para 2).
    (x) Sword of Śiva.
    Śiva holds a sword in his hand to destroy the asura tribe. The following is told in [Chapter 166 of Śānti Parva] about the origin of the sword. Brahmā when he created the universe also laid down laws to keep living beings in the path of righteousness. But, the asuras did not conform to those laws. So, the maharṣis decided that there should be some other means to instruct the asuras. They conducted a Brahmayajña at the Himālayas. A terrible Jin (Evil Spirit) emerged from the sacrificial pit. At the emergence of the Jin the earth shook; the great sea grew wild with waves and eddies. Lightning and shooting stars appeared and branches of trees were torn asunder. A vicious whirl-wind swept the ten regions. All living beings trembled at the sight of the Jin. Brahmā appeared to the frightened maharṣis and told them that it was not a Jin, but only the sword for the destruction of the asura tribe. Śiva took the sword in his hand, and as soon as he touched it he became possessed of four hands. “Śiva, whose head touched the sun, who had the third eye and from whose mouth flames of fire emerged, who changed himself to various colours like blue, white and red, who wore deer skin with golden spots, who had on his forehead an eye as effulgent as the Sun--such Śiva took in his hands the fiery sword and raising his shield he swirled the sword in various directions.” When Śiva, who thus became terrible, walked with the sword amidst the asura army the entire asura forces were annihilated and the Devas came out victorious.
    7) Daring deeds of Śiva.
    (i) Clash With Viṣṇu.
    Though there were differences of opinion between Śiva and Viṣṇu on many occasions, only very rarely had occurred actual clashes between the two. The Purāṇas refer to two such important clashes. One has reference to a direct fight Śiva fought with Viṣṇu and the other is about Śiva's fight with Nārāyaṇarṣi, an incarnation of Viṣṇu. There was no reason for the direct fight between Śiva and Viṣṇu. The Devas wanted to test who was the more powerful of the two, Śiva or Viṣṇu, and they told Brahmā about the idea By carrying tales to them, one against the other, Brahmā made Śiva and Viṣṇu mutual enemies. The enmity led to a fight between the two. Viśvakarman made a bow for each of the contestants. In the fight between the two Śiva got defeated. Śiva, who got angry at his temporary defeat presented his bow and arrow to Devarāta, King of Videha. It was this bow, which Śrī Rāma broke at the wedding of Sītā in a later period. As soon as the fight was over the Devas realised that Viṣṇu was greater than Śiva. After the fight Viṣṇu gave his bow to Ṛcīka, the Bhārgava muni. Jamadagni got it from Ṛcīka, and he gave it to Paraśurāma. It was with this bow that Paraśurāma confronted Śrī Rāma on his way back after wedding Sītā. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 75]. The following story is related in the [Anuśāsana Parva of Mahābhārata] about the fight between Nārayaṇarṣi, incarnation of Viṣṇu and Śiva. Śiva, in great fury, threw his Śūla into the Yajña hall of Dakṣa, and the Śūla after reducing the Yajña, to ashes, hit the breast of Nārāyaṇarṣi, who was doing tapas in Badarikāśrama. Nārāyaṇa raised the sound ‘Hum’ as a result of which the Śūla returned to Śiva's hands, who, in great anger, rushed forward to Nārāyaṇa. Nārāyaṇa placed his hand on Śiva's throat with the result that it became dark in colour. Thenceforth Śiva came to be known as Śitikaṇṭha also. Nārāyaṇa plucked a blade of grass and recited some mantras. It became a paraśu (axe). He threw it at Śiva, who broke it into pieces, which act gave him the additional name of Khaṇḍaparaśu also. The fighting became fierce and the world began burning. Fire refused to receive offerings made; Ṛṣis could not recollect the Vedas; Rajas and Tamas attacked Devas; the earth shook; planets became dim and dark; Brahmā fell down from his seat; sky came down; oceans got dry; the Himālayas crumbled. On the continuous appearance of such ill omens Brahmā and all the Devas came to the battlefield. Saluting Rudra Brahmā told him thus: “Oh! Lord! Let good happen to the world. In the interests of the welfare of the world. you would please give up arms. The Naranārāyaṇas are upholders of righteousness; they are the incarnations of the indestructible and supreme sages. I was born from their pleasure. You were born from their wrath.” On hearing these words of Brahmā Śiva cooled down.
    (i
    i) Rendered Kāmadeva bodiless [limbless].
    See under Kāmadeva, Parva 4).
    (ii
    i) Bore Gaṅgā on the head.
    See under Gāṅgā.
    (i
    v) Consumed Kālakūṭa.
    Owing to the curse of Durvāsas the Devas were subjected to symptoms of old age, and to produce amṛta (nectar) as remedy for this unfortunate development, the churning of Kṣīrābdhi (ocean of milk) was started. Vāsuki, the snake, was used as cord to rotate mount Mandara, which was used as the churning rod. When the churning became very intense, the mortal poison Kālakūṭa emerged out of Vāsuki's mouth. (Another view is held that Kālakūṭa rose out of the milk-sea). On the emergence of the deadly poison the asuras ran off in great fear, the Devas got bewildered, Bāli and Sugrīva too got frightened; and without exhibiting his fright Viṣṇu covered his face; on the whole it appeared as though the entire world would be reduced to ashes. At this critical moment, Śiva, reputed for his reckless daring, put all the Kālakūṭa into his mouth. Frightened at it Pārvatī held Śiva's throat by her hands so that the poison did not enter his stomach. At the same time Mahāviṣṇu covered with his hands Śiva's mouth so that the poison was not spitted out. Kālakūṭa thus prevented from going down into the stomach or being vomited from Śiva's throat got itself digested in the throat giving it a blue colour. Thus did Śiva become Nīlakaṇṭha (of the blue throat). Viṣṇu and Pārvatī who were affected by the flames of the poison became Nīlavarṇa and Kālī respectively. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa].
    (v) Destroyed Dakṣa's yajña.
    See under Dakṣa Para 3).
    (v
    i) Fought Śaṅkhacūḍa.
    (See under Tulasī, Para 5).
    (vi
    i) Burned the Tripuras.
    (See under Tripura).
    (vii
    i) Fought Sūrya.
    Śiva once plucked out Brahmā's head (See under Kapālī 1), and Brahmā cursed Śiva that he should beg for food with that head (skull) in his hands. This fierce curse of Brahmā affected Śiva so much that, in uncontrollable wrath, he beat whomsoever he met. Thousands of Devas and others were killed. Sūrya, who relished not these atrocities of Śiva confronted him with out-stretched hands. Śiva held with one hand of his, both the hands of Sūrya from the fingers of which blood began to flow. Śiva turned Sūrya round and round by his hands with the result that the hands of Sūrya became short. When Sūrya became completely drenched in blood Śiva let him free and walked to another side when Sūrya, laughingly challenged him again to fight. Greatly enraged by the challenge Śiva fisted him on the face with the result he lost all his teeth. Also he fell down unconscious. As Sūrya fell thus Bhaga looked with fierce eyes at Śiva, who then sturck the former on his face, Both the eyes of Bhaga fell down and the Devas were alarmed by it. Then all the Ādityas, under the leadership of Indra ran off to the ten regions along with the Maruts and Agni. Only prominent asuras like Prahlāda remained on the scene. They saluted Śiva. Śiva surveyed the yāga hall, the Devas and the asuras with his three eyes. All of them then ran away to different places. Śiva looked at the three Agnis with his three eyes and they were reduced to ashes. When Śiva's anger subsided Sūrya was installed in his former form. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 5].
    (i
    x) Fought with Andhaka.
    See under Andhaka.
    (x) Made five Indras Pāṇḍavas.
    The Pāṇḍavas, in their former life, were Indras. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 199]. The Devas once conducted at Naimisāraṇya a lengthy yajña of which Yama was the manager. In the absence of Yama there was no death on earth. Thus, human beings also, like the Devas, became Amartyas (deathless). Alarmed at this the Devas submitted their grievance to Brahmā who pacified them by saying that Yama would return as soon as the yajña was over and then men will, as usual be subjected to the process of death. The Devas then returned to Naimiṣāraṇya, the scene of their yajña when they saw a woman, lustrous as fire, descending the steps of Gaṅgā to carry water. She was sobbing and each drop of tear that fell into the waters of the river transformed itself into a lotus flower. As deputed by the Devas Indra approached the woman to get facts from her. Indra asked her who she was and why she was weeping. The woman answered him not, but walked in silence, to the source of the Gaṅgā. Indra followed her. When they had thus walked some distance Śiva and Pārvatī were found in the forest at a game of dice, and Indra, afraid of Śiva, ran way. But, Śiva called him back and asked him to enter the cave there. When Indra did so after removing the mountain at the entrance of the cave he saw four Indras sitting there. They were called Viśvabhuk, Bhūtadhāmā, Śibi and Śānti. The woman whom Indra had followed was Śrīdevī. Śiva blessed that the five Indras, in their next birth, would wed Śrīdevī. When the Indras saw Mahāviṣṇu after this he also blessed them, and promised them that he would incarnate and help them when they were born as men in their next life. Then Viṣṇu plucked a black and a white hair and put them on earth. The black hair was born as Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Devakī's womb and the white hair as Balabhadrarāma in the womb of Rohīṇī.
    (x
    i) Kirātārjunīyam.
    Arjuna once did tapas to Śiva, who appeared to him in the garb of a hunter in the forest and presented to him the Pāśupata arrow. (For details see under Arjuna, Para 20).
    (xi
    i) Fought with Mahiṣāsura.
    (See under Mahiṣāsura).
    (xii
    i) Fought with Vṛtrāsura.
    See under Vṛtrāsura.
    (xi
    v) Burnt Himavān.
    Śiva once did tapas on the top of Himavān when Pārvatī came behind him and covered his eyes with her hands. At once darkness enveloped the whole world, and when people suffered in the absence of day-light Śiva opened his third eye. Himavān began getting burnt by the fire emitted by Śiva's eye. Pārvatī got alarmed at this and woke Śiva up. He closed his third eye and Himavān resumed its former shape. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 104].
    8) Worship of Śiva.
    Innumerable people in India worship Śiva and they follow different forms or systems of worship. There are forms of worship which follow the Vedas and which do not as also forms which are sāttvic and which are not. The form of worship called Paraśupadam (? Pāśupatam) is a very ancient one. It is believed that the Paraśupadas once honoured and afterwards opposed the Vedas. The Śiva liṅga at the place called Gūḍamillam is supposed to be as old as the second century B.C. One of the many symbols, which represent Śiva, Śivaliṅga is the most important. They are of two kinds, the movable and the immovable. The immovable are those which appear by themselves or installed in temples. The movable are those made of earth, stone, timber, gems etc. There are also temporary liṅgas, which are placed on stools of various shapes. Liṅgas are made of he-stones and stools of ‘she-stones’. There are also various types of liṅgas indicative of the different attributes of Śiva; for example Liṅgodbhava, Candrasekhara, Raudra, Umāsahita etc. Kāmāntaka, Gajāri, Kālāri, Tripuradāhaka etc. represent the Lord in his fierce aspects. Śiva is also represented in poses of blessing Caṇḍeśa, Viṣṇu, Nandīśvara, Vighneśvara and Arjuna. He is also presented in various poses of dancing, Dakṣiṇāmūrti is represented in four forms, i.e. Vyākhyāna Jñāna, Yoga and Vīṇādhara. Bikṣāṭaka, Kapāladhārī. Gaṅgādhara, Ardhanārīśvara Vṛṣabhavāhana and Viṣabhakṣaka are other forms of Śiva. Rarely is he depicted in the form of Sadāśiva, Maheśvara, Ekādaśarudras Vidyeśvara and Mūrtyaṣṭaka. There are Āgamas descriptive of these forms. Gaṇapati occupies the most prominent place among Devas connected with Śiva. Gaṇapati came to be worshipped from 6-7 centuries B.C. His present idols might have been made after this period. There are many temples dedicated to Gaṇapati in South India. Chief among the idols are iṭaṁpiri (proboscis turned to the left side) and valaṁpiri (proboscis turned to the right side). Gaṇapati is a physical aspect of Śiva. Being the God who removes obstacles in the devotee's path, Gaṇapati is called Vighneśvara. The universe is contained in his big stomach. Next to Gaṇapati in importance is Subrahmaṇya. He is worshipped in South India only. Kumāra, Muruka, Kārttikeya, Skanda, Ārumukha, Guha, etc. are some of his popular synonyms There are a number of Subrahmaṇya temples in Tamil Nāḍu, many of them on the tops of hills. In North India Subrahmaṇya temples are rare. But, books written during the Saṅgha period go to prove that Subrahmaṇya was worshipped in South India from very olden times. He is depicted in many postures, sitting, with six faces, with only one face, with two hands, with four hands, with wife, wearing the sacred thread etc. Now, about Śakti idols. Śakti is the Devī closest to Śiva. In South India there are special Śakti temples called Śaktipīṭhālayas. Durgā is the most important among the manifestations of Śakti. There are idols of Durgās as standing in the lotus flower and also as mounted on the lion. Āgamas refer to nine kinds or forms of Durgā i.e. Nīlakaṇṭhī, Kṣemaṅkarī, Harasiddhi, Raudrā, Vanā, Agni, Jayā, Vindhyavāsinī, and Ripunāśinī. Durgā's most terrible form is as Mahiṣāsura-mardinī, found at Mahābalipuram, Ellora and other places. Durgā is also called Caṇḍikā and Kātyāyanī. Durgā is worshipped as Nandā, Bhadrakālī, Ambā, Rājamātaṅgī etc.
    9) Śiva's life-period.
    Thousand Caturyugas constitute one day of Brahmā. According to the Purāṇas fourteen Indras fall dead from heaven during the life time of one Brahmā. Two such life times of Brahmā form one life time of Viṣṇu; at the end of the period he too will expire. Śiva's life time is double that of Viṣṇu, according to [Devī Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha]. (For details see under Manvantara).
    10) Śiva and creation of the universe.
    See under Creation).
    11) Māyā Śiva.
    (See under Māyā śiva).
    12) Sahasranāmas (thousand names) of Śiva.
    The thousand names of Śiva are mentioned mainly in [Chapter 285 of Śānti Parva] and [Chapter 17 of Anuśāsana Parva] of Mahābhārata. There are substantial differences between the two lists of names.
    13) Aśvatthāmā and Śiva.
    (See under Aśvatthāmā Para 6).
    14) Rudras.
    The Ekādaśarudras, viz. Mṛgavyādha, Sarpa, Nirṛti, Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Pinākī, Īśvara, Kapālī, Sthāṇu and Bharga are the sons of Śiva. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 66].
    15) Śivabhasma (Ashes worn by Śiva)
    The Purāṇas contain many references to the great power of Śivabhasman. The following story about even Viṣṇu turning out to be a devotee of Śiva on account of the sanctity of Śivabhasma is related in [Chapter 101, Pātālakhaṇḍa of Padma Purāṇa]. In the beginning or during the Brahmapralaya (deluge) Mahāviṣṇu was lying in the great waters of the deluge. On both sides of Viṣṇu hundred universes each and on both sides of his feet and at the centre of his head twenty universes each remained attached. One universe glowed as a gem on Viṣṇu's nose. Maharṣis like Lomaśa did tapas seated on his navel. Meanwhile Viṣṇu sat in deep meditation ready for creation. But, he did not find anything and began, therefore, sobbing. Then appeared an extra-mundane light at which he got frightened and closed his eyes. Śiva, rotating in both his hands a garland each made of a crore of universes appeared before Viṣṇu. He then stood up and enquired of the visitor who he was. Śiva exhibited his form. Śiva told Viṣṇu that he had not attained sufficient wisdom for creation and also advised him to achieve enough knowledge by first taking the Varuṇa bath and then the Bhasma bath. To this Viṣṇu answered by saying that there was nowhere water enough for him to bathe, and he, who was closely surrounded by universes, sat in water. But, it came only up to his thighs. Then Śiva said laughingly that there was enough water for Viṣṇu to bathe and cast a glance at him with his (Śiva) eye on the forehead and also his left eye. And, immediately Viṣṇu's body became very small and it began to shiver. Then Śiva said as follows:-“Oh! Viṣṇu! here is deep water. you may bathe in it. But Viṣṇu could not get into the tremendous pool created on Śiva's lap. So, he requested Śiva for a passage to get into the pool. Śiva “Oh! Viṣṇu! Before this even though you sat in water, one crore yojanas in depth, it came only up to your thighs. But, now though you are on your legs you say you cannot enter the water. Look here, the water comes only up to my thighs. You may descend into it. I shall see to it that you can step into the water. A Vedic saying I recite will serve as the step.” Viṣṇu:--Nobody can step on sound. One may ascend on what is material, i.e. with form; but, how could one step on that which is formless? Śiva:--Why can you not get hold of that which is and ascend? You receive this great Veda. Viṣṇu received it, but it appeared that his hands were not strong enough to hold it. Śiva smiled at the inability of Viṣṇu and asked him to get down into water by the steps made of Veda and when Viṣṇu descended the steps into the water, it came only up to his thighs. He had his bath and then asked Śiva what he should do next. Śiva:--“What do you feel in your mind? Is it that you do not feel anything” Viṣṇu:--I feel not anything. Śiva:--If you get sanctified by bhasmasnāna you will receive the ultimate knowledge. I shall give you the bhasma. Śiva took a pinch of bhasma from his breast and chanting the Gāyatrī and pañcākṣara (Om namaśśivāya) mantras sprinkled it all over the body of Viṣṇu. He also said to Viṣṇu, “You live, you meditate, now what do you feel in your mind?” Viṣṇu meditated whereupon he saw a very bright light in his heart. When he told Śiva that a light was being seen by him the latter said that his knowledge was not mature enough and asked him to eat some bhasma so that it might become perfect. Viṣṇu accordingly consumed the bhasma, and lo! he, who was till then red-blue in colour became as white as pearl. He began to be called Śuklavarṇa (white in colour) from that day onwards. Mahāviṣṇu felt happy and contented having seen Śiva, who asked the former what it was he saw in his mind just then. Answering that he saw the blissful form of Śiva before him Viṣṇu fell at the latter's feet. To Śiva's query as to what boon he desired to have, Viṣṇu replied that he wanted to become a devotee of Śiva and because of the greatness of the bhasma Viṣṇu thenceforward became a devotee of Śiva.
    16) Śivaliṅga (Phallus).
    Worship of Śivaliṅga is a popular practice in India. The Purāṇas contain a number of stories about the importance Sivaliṅga achieved so as to make it an object of worship. Three of the more important stories are given below:
    (i) Śiva wandered about the world lamenting over the death of Satīdevī at the Yajña conducted by Dakṣa, and Kāmadeva followed him with his erotic arrows to exploit Śiva's sorry predicament. During his wanderings Śiva once came to the Vindhya mountain. Kāmadeva followed him there too and began attacking Śiva with his arrows and to escape from the fierce onslaught Śiva took refuge in the terrible Dāru forest. There Maharṣis with their wives lived. Śiva saluted them and requested for alms. But, the Maharṣis only kept mum. They did not like their wives saluting Śiva. Śiva went about the ā rama and all the women except Arundhatī and Anasūyā, followed him overcome by lust for him. Enraged at this, munis like Bhārgava and Aṅgiras cursed Śiva that his phallus should drop to the ground. Immediately it fell down and Śiva disappeared. The phallus rent asunder the earth, reached Pātāla and rent the universe also. The whole universe shook at which Brahmā met Viṣṇu at Pātāla and enquired of him the reason for the universal upheaval. Viṣṇu answered him that the world shook because of the weight of Śiva's phallus, which the maharṣis had caused to be dropped. Then Brahmā, along with Viṣṇu, came to the spot where Śiva's phallus lay. At the sight of the limitless phallus Viṣṇu, in great wonder, descended to Pātāla mounted on Garuḍa. Brahmā, on his plane, toured above. Both Viṣṇu and Brahmā returned to earth, having failed in their attempt to find the end of the phallus. They then praised Śiva, who appeared to them. They requested him to take back his phallus from the earth. Śiva insisted that he would do so only if the Devas agreed to worship his phallus. Viṣṇu agreed to the suggestion. Brahmā took the phallus, golden brassy in colour. Thereafter Mahāviṣṇu created the four castes and various śāstraic texts for each of the castes to worship the phallus. The four texts are known as Śaivam, Pāśupatam, Kāladamanam and Kāpālikam. After making the above arrangements Brahmā and Viṣṇu returned. Śiva took back his phallus. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 6].
    (ii) Eightyeight thousand Bālakhilyas were born from the mind of Brahmā. They emaciated their bodies by constant baths, fasting and worship of Śiva. Though they worshipped Śiva thus for one thousand divya years, he did not appear in front of them. Afterwards, when Pārvatī was travelling by sky one day, the latter saw and took pity on the Bālakhilyas and told Śiva thus: “These maharṣis are suffering like anything. For my sake, you should put an end to their sufferings. Has their evil fate no end? They are reduced to mere skin and bones, and yet they are denied realisation.” Smilingly Śiva told Pārvatī as follows “You do not know the real course of righteousness. These people do not understand righteousness; they are not free from lust and anger. They are mere fools.” At these words of Śiva, Pārvatī told him thus: If things be as you have said please show me their nature, I feel interested. Then Śiva asked Pārvatī to remain where she was, telling her that he would go to the Bālakhilyas and show her how they behaved. Accordingly Śiva went to them. Śiva approached the Bālakhilyas in the guise of a handsome youth, wearing the Vanamālā garland on his head, holding the alms bowl in his hands and completely in the nude and requested for alms. The Womenfolk of the Advaitins were much attracted by the handsome youth and came to him with a lot of fruits, roots etc. by way of alms. Śiva wished them good and Pārvatī espied her smiling lord from her seat. After giving him alms the women spoke to him as follows: “Oh! anchorite, what penance are you practising? You have no clothes on you, but you wear Vanamālā. You are a handsome sannyāsī. If you have no objection, please tell us about you.” The sannyāsī (Śiva) answered them by saying that his was a very secret penance and could not be imparted to others. Especially in the presence of so many others it could not be revealed. So, you may please go. But, the women said that they wished very much to hear the secret, and they caught hold of his hands saying ‘Come’. The women were overcome by lust and one of them caught hold of his neck, another of his hands, another of his knees, another of his hair and yet another of his waist. Seeing the excitement of their wives the maharṣis cried, ‘Strike him’ and struck down his phallus with sticks and stones. As soon as the phallus was thus felled down, Śiva disappeared from the spot and returned to Kailāsa with Pārvatī. When the phallus fell down the whole universe shook and the maharṣis were alarmed. A very intelligent maharṣi among them said:--“We know not the real facts about the great ascetic. Let us take refuge in Brahmā. He may know the facts.” Accordingly the maharṣis went to Brahmā, who found fault with their ignorance and indiscretion and asked them to shed their anger and please Śiva. Accordingly they went to Kailāsa and praised Śiva, who appeared to them and told them as follows:--“You may now return. The phallus will belong to you. I shall be pleased if you would duly install it. Nothing will be impossible to those who worship my phallus with devotion. Even sins consciously committed will be removed by the worship of my phallus. You install the phallus you struck down in the great pond of Sannihita. That will achieve for you all your desires. Even the Devas will worship it under the name ‘Sthāṇu’. Being installed at Sthāṇvīśvara it will be known as Sthāṇvīśvara also. Constant meditation upon Sthāṇu will remove all sins. The sight of Sthāṇu will bring about salvation.” After this the maharṣis, along with Brahmā, returned to Dāru forest to carry the phallus to Sannihita. But, they could not move it even by an iota. They returned again to Kailāsa, but could not see Śiva there. When Brahmā sat in meditation for sometime to know where Śiva was, he saw in his mind Śiva, in the guise of an elephant, standing in the stream praised by munis. Immediately Brahmā and others went there, but missed Śiva there. But Pārvatī appeared there and served them amṛta (nectar). When they had consumed the nectar they saw Śiva standing in the stream, and they spoke about their difficulties to him. Śiva, in the guise of the elephant, accompanied them to the Dāru forest where he, in sport, took the phallus by his proboscis and installed it on the banks of the stream. All those who witnessed the installation attained ultimate realisation. Upon the phallus thus installed Brahmā built another phallus with stone. After a period that phallus became one with the effulgence of the first phallus. Those who saw that also achieved ultimate realisation. Immediately Brahmā built, for the pleasure of the Devas, seven phalluses one upon the other, and sages attained ultimate realisation by smearing their bodies with the dust of the phalluses. The spot where the phallus was installed became famous by the name Sthāṇutīrtha. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 45].
    (iii) In the beginning Brahmā entrusted Śiva with the duty of creation and to earn the power for creation he lived under water for many generations. Śiva having not returned though Brahmā waited for him long, the latter created the prajāpatis and got done by them all creations. Then it was that Śiva, having acquired all the more power, came out of water. Śiva who got angry that all creations were effected in his absence plucked his phallus and threw it into the earth. He said that, since matters of creation had been managed by Brahmā, he needed the phallus no further. The phallus thus thrown by Śiva stuck to the earth and remained pointed upwards. Next, Śiva performed a dance of annihilation among the Devas. Ultimately, on the request of the Devas Śiva deposited his fire of wrath in water. It is that fire which dries up water in seas, rivers etc. When Śiva had shed his anger and become quiet the Devas worshipped the phallus, which had stuck to the earth, and thenceforth worship of Śiva's phallus became popular. [M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 17].
    17) Śivalīlās (Sports of Śiva).
    The Purāṇas refer to the following sixtyfour līlās (sports) of Śiva.
    (1) Devendra redeemed from sin.
    (2) Airāvata redeemed from sin.
    (3) Building of Madhurāpura in Kadamba forest.
    (4) Śrī Pārvatī born as Taṭātakā.
    (5) Pāṇḍyadeva wedded Taṭātakā.
    (6) Dance before sage Patañjali
    (7) Kuṇḍodara granted power to consume much rice
    (8) Quenched Kuṇḍodara's hunger and thirst with rice etc. and waters of river Vaigā
    (9) Brought the seven seas near to please his wife
    (10) Brought Malayadhvaja down to earth from Devaloka
    (11) Created the son called Ugra
    (12) Ugra given three weapons like śūla
    (13) Removed the sea from his side
    (14) Broke the crown of Indra
    (15) Ugrapāṇḍya given gold from Mahāmeru
    (16) Taught the maharṣis the meaning of Vedas
    (17) Sold gems to the King to make a crown
    (18) Made the clouds drink water from the ocean
    (19) Stopped excessive rain-fall
    (20) Exhibited the prowess of realisation
    (21) Made ‘stone-elephant’ eat sugar-cane
    (22) Killed the elephant which a Buddha sannyāsin had sent after being subjected to black magic
    (23) Blessed a brahmin girl
    (24) Did various kinds of dances
    (25) Brought to light and proved the death of brahmin woman
    (26) Annihilated the evil or sin of having slept with the mother and killed the father
    (27) Killed Siddha to save the wife of preceptor, who taught archery
    (28) Made the snakes sent by Buddha sannyāsins poisonless
    (29) Killed cows sent by the same sannyāsins
    (30) Exhibited innumerable soldiers to save the commander-in-chief of the Pāṇḍya army
    (31) Gave the Pāṇḍya King a money-bag, which would never become empty
    (32) Disguised himself as a Vaiśya and sold bangles
    (33) Granted aṣṭasiddhis to Yakṣīs.
    (34) Opened the door of the temple for the Cola King
    (35) Supplied water to the Pāṇḍyan army
    (36) Converted base metals into gold etc.
    (37) Defeated the Cola King
    (38) Gave a Śūdra a vessel filled with gingelly seeds
    (39) A Vaiśya boy given victory in a suit
    (40) Redeemed the Pāṇḍya King from the sin of brahmahatyā
    (41) Carried firewood to save the devotee named Bhadra
    (42) Wrote a letter to the Cera King on behalf of Bhadra
    (43) Bhadra presented with a plank
    (44) Bhadra's wife granted victory in nāgavidyā
    (45) Assumed the form of pork and saved the small offsprings
    (46) Small pork made minister
    (47) A Khañjarīṭa bird was taught the mṛtyuñjaya mantra so that it could escape from the attack of crows
    (48) A Śarāri bird granted salvation
    (49) Boundaries of Madhurāpura shown by serpent
    (50) Defeated the Cola King
    (51) Dravidian scholars given the Saṁgham plank
    (52) Wrote a verse for a brahmin at the instance of the Pāṇḍya King
    (53) Saved Nakkīra
    (54) Nakkīra taught sūtras (aphorisms)
    (55) Made a comparative study of theses
    (56) Visited northern Hālāsya
    (57) Wedded fisher-girl
    (58) Jñānadīkṣā (initiation into knowledge) given to the minister called Vātapureśa
    (59) Sold magic horses to the Pāṇḍyan King
    (60) River made bigger
    (61) Carried mud for pancakes
    (62) Cured the fever and hunch-back of Kubja Pāṇḍya
    (63) Made Jñānasambandhar kill the naked ones on the śūla
    (64) Brought tree, tank, Śivaliṅga etc. to Madhura as witnesses. [Hālāsyamāhātmya, Chapter 5].
    18) Bull of Śiva.
    Cows were born on earth from Surabhi. The foam of milk which flowed like sea from cows rose into waves and fell in Śivabhūmi (Śiva land). Śiva did not like it. He opened his third eye and looked at the cows. The flames from the eye caused different colours to the cows. The cows took refuge with Candra. But, the fire of Śiva's eye followed the cows there also. At last the Prajāpatis pacified Śiva and presented him a bull for vehicle. From that day onwards Śiva came to be known as Vṛṣabhavāhana and Vṛṣabhāṅka also. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 77].
    19) Other information.
    (i) The son Śuka was born to Vyāsa because of the blessing of Śiva. [Devī Bhāgavata, 1st Skandha].
    (ii) During the period of emperor Pṛthu when the Devas made the earth a cow and milked resources, Śiva served as calf. [Droṇa Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 24].
    (iii) Śiva occupies a seat in Kubera's court. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 21].
    (iv) Śiva once presented an armour to Indra. [Droṇa Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61].
    (v) When the battle with the Tripuras reached its climax in intensity Śiva mounted the Bull and looked at the capital of the asuras. As a result of the fiery look the breasts of cows were cut and their hoofs rent into two. The hoofs of cattle came to be cleft from that day onwards. [Karṇa Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 105].
    (vi) Living beings are kept healthy by the kindness of Śiva. [Sauptika Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 20].
    (vii) It was Śiva, who organised the penal code in the world. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 80].
    (viii) Once in the war between the Devas and the Asuras Śiva gave refuge to Śukrācārya. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 389, Verse 36].
    (ix) Śiva performed the thread wearing ceremony of Śuka, the son of Vyāsa. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 248, Verse 19].
    (x) On the occasion when Śiva burnt Tripuras and their city to ashes they saw him as a boy with five horns. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 32].
    (xi) There is a story in [Śānti Parva of Mahābhārata] about Śiva's bringing back to life the dead child of a brahmin. The story was told by Bhīṣma to Yudhiṣṭhira. The brahmin took his dead child to the burning ghat when a fox asked him to wait at least till dusk to see if the child would regain life. At the same time a vulture, which came there pointed out to the brahmin that the dead never came back to life and asked him to leave the dead body there and return home. As advised by the fox and the vulture the brahmin took to the burning ghat and took back from there the dead body of his child. Pārvatī took pity on the brahmin and as requested by her Śiva brought the child back to life. The logic and reasoning advanced by the fox and the vulture for their selfish ends is famous under the name Gṛdhragomāyusaṁvāda.
    (xii) The following words are used in the Mahābhārata as synonyms of Śiva: Aja, Ambikāpati, Anaṅgāṅgahara, Ananta, Andhakaghātī, Andhakanipātī, Atharva, Bahurūpa, Bhagaghna, Bhava, Bhavaghna, Bhīma, Śaṅkara, Śarva, Śitikaṇṭha, Śmaśānavāsī, Śrīkaṇṭha, Śukra, Śūlabhṛt, Śūladhara, Śūladhṛk, Śūlahasta, Śūlāṅka, Śūlapāṇi, Śūlī, Dakṣakratuhara, Dhanvī, Dhruva, Dhūrjaṭi, Digvāsas, Divyagovṛṣabhadhvaja, Ekākṣa, Gaṇādhyakṣa, Gaṇeśa, Gaurīśa, Gaurīhṛdayavallabha, Girīśa, Govṛṣāṅka, Govṛṣabhadhvaja, Govṛṣottamavāhana, Hara, Haryakṣa, Jaṭādhara, Jaṭila, Jaṭī, Kāmāṅganāśana, Kapālī, Kapardī, Khaṭvāṅgadhārī, Kṛttivāsas, Kumārapitā, Lalāṭākṣa, Lelihāna, Mahādeva, Mahāgaṇapati, Mahāyogī, Maheśvara, Mahiṣaghna, Makhaghna, Mīḍhvān, Mṛgavyādha, Munīndra, Nandīśvara, Niśācarapati, Nīlagrīva, Nīlakaṇṭha, Nīlalohita, Paśubhartā Paśupati, Pinākadhṛk, Pinākagoptā, Pinākahasta, Pinākapāṇi, Pinākī, Piṅgala, Prajāpati, Rudra, Ṛṣabhaketu, Śarva, Sarvayogeśvareśvara, Sthāṇu, Triśūlahasta, Trisūlapāṇi, Trilocana, Trinayana, Trinetra, Tripuraghātī, Tripuraghna, Tripurahartā, Tripuramardana, Tripuranāśana, Tripurāntaka, Tripurāntakara, Tripurārdana, Tryakṣa, Tryambaka, Ugra, Ugreśa, Umāpati, Viśālākṣa, Vilohita, Virūpākṣa, Vṛṣabhadhvaja, Vṛṣabhāṅka, Vṛṣabhavāhana, Vṛṣaketana, Vṛṣavāhana, Yāmya, Yati, Yogeśvara.
    (xii
    i) Names of Śiva.
    Śambhu, Īśa, Paśupati, Śiva, Śūlī, Maheśvara, Īśvara, Śarva, Īśāna, Śaṅkara, Candraśekhara, Bhūteśa, Khaṇḍaparaśu, Girīśa, Giriśa, Mṛḍa, Mṛtyuñjaya, Kṛttivāsas, Pinākī, Pramathādhipa, Ugra, Kapardī, Śrīkaṇṭha, Śitikaṇṭha, Kapālabhṛt, Vāmadeva, Mahādeva, Virūpākṣa, Trilocana, Kṛśānuretas, Sarvajña, Dhūrjaṭi, Nīlalohita, Hara, Smarahara, Bharga, Tryambaka, Tripurāntaka, Gaṅgādhara, Antakaripu, Kratudhvaṁsī, Vṛṣadhvaja, Vyomakeśa, Bhava, Bhīma, Sthāṇu, Rudra, Umāpati, Ahirbudhnya, Aṣṭamūrti, Gajāri, Mahānaṭa. (Amarakośa).
     
  • One of the Trinity.
    1) Birth.
    The seers or spiritual giants of India imagined three forms to God, dividing all the activities into three departments, i.e. creation, sustenance and destruction or annihilation. Brahmā, for creation, Viṣṇu, for sustenance and Śiva, for annihilation-they are the Trinity. Viṣṇu was born first, Brahmā next and Śiva last. The essence of Indian spiritualistic thought is that these three visible forms of God will, at the close of the Kalpa cease to be and become one with the cosmic power, and that the trinity will be born again at the commencement of the Kalpa and will take up their respective functions. The dominant quality or attribute of Śiva is Tamas (darkness). Many stories, with slight variations, are told in the various Purāṇas about the birth of Śiva. Some of the more important stories are summarised below.
    (i) At the begining of the Kalpa, while Brahmā was meditating upon the birth of a son like himself, a child deep blue in colour, appeared on his lap, and the child began running about crying aloud. Brahmā asked the child why it was crying; then the child asked Brahmā to give him a name. Though Brahmā told him that his name was Rudra and asked him not to cry, he cried seven times more. Then Brahmā gave him another seven names, and for the total eight names eight Mūrtis (forms) wives and children were allotted. Bhava, Śarva, Īśāna, Paśupati, Bhīma, Ugra and Mahādeva were the additional seven names, and Sun, Water, Earth, Wind, Fire, Sky, the Brahmin who has taken dīkṣā and Moon were the eight Mūrtis and the presiding deities allotted to them. To these deities the following wives were also allotted, i.e. Suvarcalā, Uṣā, Vikeśī, Śivā, Svāhā, Diśā, Dīkṣā and Rohiṇī. The world is full with their progenies. Śanaiścara, Śukra, Lohitāṅga, Manojava, Skanda, Sarga, Santāna and Budha are the sons of the above eight wives. This Rudra married Satī, daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. [Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 8].
    (ii) Brahmā whose predominant quality or attribute is rajas was born from the navel of Mahāviṣṇu. From the Centre of the brow of Brahmā was born Rudra of Tāmasic quality. Brahmā, by the power of his tapas, acquired the power of creation and created a red-coloured world by his attribute of rajas. The very same world is annihilated by Rudra at the close of the Kalpa period. [Devī Bhāgavata, 7th Skandha].
    (iii) From the wrath of Brahmā was born Rudra, from his lap Nārada, from his finger Dakṣa, from his mind Sanaka and others, and from his left finger a daughter called Vīraṇī. [Devī Bhāgavata, 7th Skandha].
    (iv) Four ‘mental sons’ of Brahmā Sanaka, Sanandana Sanātana and Sanatkumāra showed disinclination to beget progenies. Brahmā got angry at this attitude of the four sons and from the centre of his brow was born a body blue and white in colour, and he, in tears, requested Brahmā for names and stations. Blessing him by saying ‘mā ruda’ (do not cry) Brahmā allotted him names and stations. He became famous by the name Rudra. He was also given eleven more names by Brahmā as follows: Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahān, Śiva, Ṛtudhvaja, Ugraretas, Bhava, Kāma, Vāmadeva and Dhṛtavrata. These names are otherwise famous as follows: Aja, Ekapada, Ahirbudhnya, Tvaṣṭā, Rudra, Hara, Śambhu, T{??}ambaka, Aparājita, Īśāna and Tribhuvana. The eleven Rudras were also allotted the following eleven positions by Brahmā i.e. heart, the five organs of the body, vital force (Prāṇa) wind, fire, water, earth, sun and moon. Rudra has eleven wives, called Dhī, Vṛtti, Uśanā, Umā, Niyutā, Sarpis, Ilā, Ambikā, Irāvatī, Sudhā and Dīkṣā. Rudra, under the name Śiva, is considered to be the third of the trinity. The doctrine is that as long as time is real, deluge, or annihilation does not take place. Therefore, Rudrasaṁhāra (annihilation by Rudra) may be taken to mean only as the beginning of new creation.
    (v) At the commencement of Yuga (era) Brahmā was born from the navel of Viṣṇu. Two asuras called Madhu and Kaiṭabha rushed up to kill Brahmā, and from the brow of Viṣṇu, who got angry towards the asuras was born Śiva holding in his hands Śūla (the three-pronged trident). [Vana Parva, Chapter 12].
    2) Family life.
    Śiva has two wives, Gaṅgā and Pārvatī (See under Gaṅgā and Pārvatī). He lodges Gaṅgā on his head. Umā, Kātyāyanī, Gaurī, Kālī, Haimavatī Īśvarī, Śivā, Bhavānī, Rudrāṇī, Śarvāṇī, Sarvamaṅgalā Aparṇā, Pārvatī, Durgā, Mṛḍānī, Caṇḍikā, Ambikā, Āryā, Dākṣāyaṇī, Girijā, Menakātmajā, Cāmuṇḍā, Karṇamoṭī, Carcikā and Bhairavī--these are synonyms of Pārvatī. Śiva lives on the top of the Mahāmeru, where there are nine cities. At the centre is Brahmā's Manovatī; exactly to the east of it is Indra's Amarāvatī; at the south-eastern corner is Agni's Tejovatī; on the south is Yama's Saṁyamanī; at the south-western corner is Kṛṣṇāñjanā of Nirṛti, on the west is Varuṇa's Śraddhāvatī, at the north-western corner is Gandhavatī of Vāyu, on the north is Kubera's Mahodayā, at the north-eastern corner is Śiva's Yaśovatī--this is the set of the nine cities. Two sons called Subrahmaṇya and Gaṇapati were born to Śiva of Pārvatī, and they are his actual sons. Some other sons also were born to him in his assumed forms and by other women. Such have been Indrajit, Hanūmān and others. For details see the respective words. [Devī Bhāgavata, 8th Skandha, 9th Skandha];[ Kathāsaritsāgara, Kathāmukhalambaka].
    3) Incarnations.
    Śiva has taken several partial incarnations, the chief of which are given below.
    (i) Durvāsas.
    (See under Durvāsas).
    (i
    i) Vānara (Monkey).
    Śiva, Pārvatī and their attenders like Nandikeśvara once transformed themselves into monkeys and played about on the Himālayas. Rāvaṇa, who came there on the occasion ridiculed Nandikeśvara, who, in great rage, cursed Rāvaṇa that monkeys would destroy him. Being thus cursed Rāvaṇa raised Kailāsa from its foundations and played with it. [Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (ii
    i) Śakti.
    Śiva incarnated himself as Śakti, son of Vasiṣṭha and was devoured by Kalmāṣapāda, who took the form of a Rākṣasa. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 6].
    (i
    v) Varuṇa.
    Śiva once assumed the form of Varuṇa and conducted a yajña which was attended by the Vedas in assumed forms. [M.B. Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85].
    4) Boons granted by Śiva.
    The Purāṇas refer to various persons, who had earned boons from him and others who attained heaven on account of their devotion for him. The following are important among such persons.
    (i) Siṁhavaktra--[Skanda Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa].
    (ii) Rukmī--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (iii) Bāṇa--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (iv) Sudakṣiṇa--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (v) Sālva--[Bhāgavata 10th Skandha].
    (vi) Vṛkāsura--[Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha].
    (vii) Ratidevī--[Kathāsaritsāgara, Lāvāṇakalambaka, Taraṅga 1].
    (viii) Indrajit--[Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (ix) Bhṛgu--[Padma Purāṇa, Ādi Khaṇḍa, Chapter 2].
    (x) Gāndhārī--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 107].
    (xi) A ṛṣi girl--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 168, Verse 6].
    (xii) Prabhañjana--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 214, Verse 20].
    (xiii) Śvetakī--[M.B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 41].
    (xiv) Jarāsandha--[M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 64].
    (xv) Bāṇāsura--[M.B. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 33, Southern text].
    (xvi) Maṅkaṇa--[Vana Parva, Chapter 83, Verse 132].
    (xvii) Sagara--[Vana Parva, Chapter 106, Verse 15]
    (xviii) Bhagīratha--[Vana Parva, Chapter 109, Verse 1].
    (xix) Jayadratha--[Vana Parva, Chapter 272, Verse 28].
    (xx) Ambā--[Udyoga Parva, Chapter 187, Verse 12].
    (xxi) Somadatta--[Droṇa Parva, Chapter 143, Verse 16].
    (xxii) Viṣṇu--[Droṇa Parva, Chapter 201, Verse 56].
    (xxiii) Paraśurāma--[Karṇa Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 116];[ Śānti Parva, Chapter 49, Verse 33].
    (xxiv) Skanda--[Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 46].
    (xxv) Arundhatī--[Śalya Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 38].
    (xxvi) A Brahmin boy--[Śānti Parva, Chapter 153, Verse 114].
    (xxvii) Taṇḍi muni--[Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 16, Verse 69].
    5) Assets of Śiva.
    Śiva possesses a mass of matted hair, red in colour. It is known as Kaparda also, and hence he is called Kapardī as well. Śiva is also stated to be Agni. He has three eyes, the third one on the forehead being all fire. Śiva is called Trinetra, Phālanetra, Agnilocana etc. because of the above facts. It is only just and proper that Śiva, who is the destroyer of all things should have relation to Agni. Śiva, the alldestroyer, carries the Śūla in his hands always. Another weapon is named Pināka, and therefore Śiva is called Pinākapāṇi (he who holds Pināka in his hands). Both Śiva and his vehicle, the Bull, are white in colour. The white colour indicates the justice observed in the process of annihilation. Śiva has been described as possessing two, four, eight and ten hands. Besides the Pināka, he holds in his hands the club called Khaṭvāṅga, the bow called Ajagava, a deer, beads, skull, ḍamaru (a musical instrument) and many other sacred articles. Gaṅgā and Candra (moon) dwell on his head, and he is, therefore, known as Gaṅgādhara and Candracūḍa also. A Garland made of human skulls adorns his neck. Śiva wears the skin of the leopard for cloth and uses the skin of the elephant for blanket. All over his limbs snakes are worn as ornaments. The Purāṇas contain stories as to how Śiva earned most of the above assets. The wives of many Ṛṣis felt enamoured of Śiva, who once appeared in the garb of a beggar. The Ṛṣis, who got angry with Śiva on the above account, decided to kill him. From the pit they dug on the ground, a tiger emerged. Śiva killed it and wore its skin. A deer followed the tiger from the pit. Śiva held it in his left hand. The next to emerge out of the pit was a red-hot iron rod. Śiva took it in his hands as a weapon. Lastly snakes came out of the pit and Śiva wore them on his body. On another occasion an asura called Gaya assumed the form of an elephant and chased the munis, who took refuge in a Śiva temple. Śiva appeared, killed the elephant and wore its skin on his body. Since Śiva wore snakes as ear-rings he came to be known as Nāgakuṇḍala. Brahmā ordered that Rudra should create people and accordingly he created people. But, his creations were very cruel beings. Brahmā feared that they would eat up the other creations. Brahmā, who trembled with fear, asked Rudra to retire from the act of creation and to train himself to do creation in the proper manner as ordained. Accordingly, Rudra started practising tapas.
    6) Incidents.
    (i) How Śiva got the name Jīmūtaketu. (See under Jīmūtaketu).
    (i
    i) He became Kapālī.
    (See under Kapālī).
    (ii
    i) Sin of Brahmahatyā on Śiva.
    As he plucked off the head of Brahmā Śiva became subject to the sin of Brahmahatyā. Blue in colour and with grey hair, terrible Brahmahatyā approached Śiva who asked her who she was and why she came. She answered that she was Brahmahatyā and asked Śiva to take her into him. She entered his body so that he felt a burning sensation all over him. In this condition Śiva went to Bādaryāśrama. But, the great Ṛṣis, Naranārāyaṇas were not there in the āśrama. Sad at heart Śiva went to the river Yamunā to take a bath. But the river dried up. Then he went to Plakṣa island to bathe; but the island disappeared. Then he went to Puṣkarāraṇya, Māgadhāraṇya, Saindhavāraṇya, Naimiṣāraṇya, Dharmāraṇya etc. all to no purpose. He got worn out but could not have a bath. The terrible Brahmahatyā did not leave him. Though he visited sacred rivers, āśramas and temples and practised Yoga, Śiva did not get redemption from sin. At last, in great disappointment he went to Kurukṣetra, where he saw Viṣṇu. With folded hands Śiva praised Viṣṇu who advised him the following means for absolution from sin. “A Bhagavān born from my aspect under the name Yogaśāyī is living at Prayāga. The great river Varuṇā which has started from the right leg of Yogaśāyī and which redeems all sins as also the sublime river Asī, which has started from his left leg are both worshipped by the whole world. The temple of Yogaśāyī is at the centre of these rivers, and that is a sacred place most important in the three worlds and annihilative of all sins. That city is the great Vārāṇasī. Even materialistic or worldly people get salvation there. It is my (Viṣṇu) āśrama. There dwells Sūrya called Lola destroying all sins. The place where Keśava my aspect lives, is Daśāśvamedha. If you go there you will get redemption from sin.” Thus directed by Viṣṇu Śiva went to Vārāṇasī and achieved absolution from the sin of Brahmahatyā by bathing in the holy tīrthas there. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 3].
    (i
    v) Birth of Vīrabhadra.
    (See under Dakṣa),
    (v) Water in Kālindī got dark in colour.
    (See under Pārvatī, Para 2).
    (v
    i) Śiva became Nāgabhūṣaṇa.
    (See under Nāgāstram).
    (vi
    i) Blessed Sukeśa.
    Vidyutkeśa, the Rākṣasa married Sālakaṭaṅkā, daughter of Sandhyā. While they toured the world round enjoying their honeymoon Sālakaṭaṅkā conceived and delivered in due course a son in the valley of Mount Mandara. Śiva and Pārvatī, who passed that way in an aerial chariot saw the child and came down to it. By the blessing of Śiva the child grew up to a youth very quickly. Śiva named him Sukeśa and after blessing that he would grow up to become a pious soul disappeared from the scene. [Uttara Rāmāyaṇa].
    (vii
    i) Śiva, the father of Indrajit.
    (See under Indrajit, Para 2).
    (i
    x) Four faces of Śiva.
    (See under Tilottamā, Para 2).
    (x) Sword of Śiva.
    Śiva holds a sword in his hand to destroy the asura tribe. The following is told in [Chapter 166 of Śānti Parva] about the origin of the sword. Brahmā when he created the universe also laid down laws to keep living beings in the path of righteousness. But, the asuras did not conform to those laws. So, the maharṣis decided that there should be some other means to instruct the asuras. They conducted a Brahmayajña at the Himālayas. A terrible Jin (Evil Spirit) emerged from the sacrificial pit. At the emergence of the Jin the earth shook; the great sea grew wild with waves and eddies. Lightning and shooting stars appeared and branches of trees were torn asunder. A vicious whirl-wind swept the ten regions. All living beings trembled at the sight of the Jin. Brahmā appeared to the frightened maharṣis and told them that it was not a Jin, but only the sword for the destruction of the asura tribe. Śiva took the sword in his hand, and as soon as he touched it he became possessed of four hands. “Śiva, whose head touched the sun, who had the third eye and from whose mouth flames of fire emerged, who changed himself to various colours like blue, white and red, who wore deer skin with golden spots, who had on his forehead an eye as effulgent as the Sun--such Śiva took in his hands the fiery sword and raising his shield he swirled the sword in various directions.” When Śiva, who thus became terrible, walked with the sword amidst the asura army the entire asura forces were annihilated and the Devas came out victorious.
    7) Daring deeds of Śiva.
    (i) Clash With Viṣṇu.
    Though there were differences of opinion between Śiva and Viṣṇu on many occasions, only very rarely had occurred actual clashes between the two. The Purāṇas refer to two such important clashes. One has reference to a direct fight Śiva fought with Viṣṇu and the other is about Śiva's fight with Nārāyaṇarṣi, an incarnation of Viṣṇu. There was no reason for the direct fight between Śiva and Viṣṇu. The Devas wanted to test who was the more powerful of the two, Śiva or Viṣṇu, and they told Brahmā about the idea By carrying tales to them, one against the other, Brahmā made Śiva and Viṣṇu mutual enemies. The enmity led to a fight between the two. Viśvakarman made a bow for each of the contestants. In the fight between the two Śiva got defeated. Śiva, who got angry at his temporary defeat presented his bow and arrow to Devarāta, King of Videha. It was this bow, which Śrī Rāma broke at the wedding of Sītā in a later period. As soon as the fight was over the Devas realised that Viṣṇu was greater than Śiva. After the fight Viṣṇu gave his bow to Ṛcīka, the Bhārgava muni. Jamadagni got it from Ṛcīka, and he gave it to Paraśurāma. It was with this bow that Paraśurāma confronted Śrī Rāma on his way back after wedding Sītā. [Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 75]. The following story is related in the [Anuśāsana Parva of Mahābhārata] about the fight between Nārayaṇarṣi, incarnation of Viṣṇu and Śiva. Śiva, in great fury, threw his Śūla into the Yajña hall of Dakṣa, and the Śūla after reducing the Yajña, to ashes, hit the breast of Nārāyaṇarṣi, who was doing tapas in Badarikāśrama. Nārāyaṇa raised the sound ‘Hum’ as a result of which the Śūla returned to Śiva's hands, who, in great anger, rushed forward to Nārāyaṇa. Nārāyaṇa placed his hand on Śiva's throat with the result that it became dark in colour. Thenceforth Śiva came to be known as Śitikaṇṭha also. Nārāyaṇa plucked a blade of grass and recited some mantras. It became a paraśu (axe). He threw it at Śiva, who broke it into pieces, which act gave him the additional name of Khaṇḍaparaśu also. The fighting became fierce and the world began burning. Fire refused to receive offerings made; Ṛṣis could not recollect the Vedas; Rajas and Tamas attacked Devas; the earth shook; planets became dim and dark; Brahmā fell down from his seat; sky came down; oceans got dry; the Himālayas crumbled. On the continuous appearance of such ill omens Brahmā and all the Devas came to the battlefield. Saluting Rudra Brahmā told him thus: “Oh! Lord! Let good happen to the world. In the interests of the welfare of the world. you would please give up arms. The Naranārāyaṇas are upholders of righteousness; they are the incarnations of the indestructible and supreme sages. I was born from their pleasure. You were born from their wrath.” On hearing these words of Brahmā Śiva cooled down.
    (i
    i) Rendered Kāmadeva bodiless [limbless].
    See under Kāmadeva, Parva 4).
    (ii
    i) Bore Gaṅgā on the head.
    See under Gāṅgā.
    (i
    v) Consumed Kālakūṭa.
    Owing to the curse of Durvāsas the Devas were subjected to symptoms of old age, and to produce amṛta (nectar) as remedy for this unfortunate development, the churning of Kṣīrābdhi (ocean of milk) was started. Vāsuki, the snake, was used as cord to rotate mount Mandara, which was used as the churning rod. When the churning became very intense, the mortal poison Kālakūṭa emerged out of Vāsuki's mouth. (Another view is held that Kālakūṭa rose out of the milk-sea). On the emergence of the deadly poison the asuras ran off in great fear, the Devas got bewildered, Bāli and Sugrīva too got frightened; and without exhibiting his fright Viṣṇu covered his face; on the whole it appeared as though the entire world would be reduced to ashes. At this critical moment, Śiva, reputed for his reckless daring, put all the Kālakūṭa into his mouth. Frightened at it Pārvatī held Śiva's throat by her hands so that the poison did not enter his stomach. At the same time Mahāviṣṇu covered with his hands Śiva's mouth so that the poison was not spitted out. Kālakūṭa thus prevented from going down into the stomach or being vomited from Śiva's throat got itself digested in the throat giving it a blue colour. Thus did Śiva become Nīlakaṇṭha (of the blue throat). Viṣṇu and Pārvatī who were affected by the flames of the poison became Nīlavarṇa and Kālī respectively. [Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddhakāṇḍa].
    (v) Destroyed Dakṣa's yajña.
    See under Dakṣa Para 3).
    (v
    i) Fought Śaṅkhacūḍa.
    (See under Tulasī, Para 5).
    (vi
    i) Burned the Tripuras.
    (See under Tripura).
    (vii
    i) Fought Sūrya.
    Śiva once plucked out Brahmā's head (See under Kapālī 1), and Brahmā cursed Śiva that he should beg for food with that head (skull) in his hands. This fierce curse of Brahmā affected Śiva so much that, in uncontrollable wrath, he beat whomsoever he met. Thousands of Devas and others were killed. Sūrya, who relished not these atrocities of Śiva confronted him with out-stretched hands. Śiva held with one hand of his, both the hands of Sūrya from the fingers of which blood began to flow. Śiva turned Sūrya round and round by his hands with the result that the hands of Sūrya became short. When Sūrya became completely drenched in blood Śiva let him free and walked to another side when Sūrya, laughingly challenged him again to fight. Greatly enraged by the challenge Śiva fisted him on the face with the result he lost all his teeth. Also he fell down unconscious. As Sūrya fell thus Bhaga looked with fierce eyes at Śiva, who then sturck the former on his face, Both the eyes of Bhaga fell down and the Devas were alarmed by it. Then all the Ādityas, under the leadership of Indra ran off to the ten regions along with the Maruts and Agni. Only prominent asuras like Prahlāda remained on the scene. They saluted Śiva. Śiva surveyed the yāga hall, the Devas and the asuras with his three eyes. All of them then ran away to different places. Śiva looked at the three Agnis with his three eyes and they were reduced to ashes. When Śiva's anger subsided Sūrya was installed in his former form. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 5].
    (i
    x) Fought with Andhaka.
    See under Andhaka.
    (x) Made five Indras Pāṇḍavas.
    The Pāṇḍavas, in their former life, were Indras. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 199]. The Devas once conducted at Naimisāraṇya a lengthy yajña of which Yama was the manager. In the absence of Yama there was no death on earth. Thus, human beings also, like the Devas, became Amartyas (deathless). Alarmed at this the Devas submitted their grievance to Brahmā who pacified them by saying that Yama would return as soon as the yajña was over and then men will, as usual be subjected to the process of death. The Devas then returned to Naimiṣāraṇya, the scene of their yajña when they saw a woman, lustrous as fire, descending the steps of Gaṅgā to carry water. She was sobbing and each drop of tear that fell into the waters of the river transformed itself into a lotus flower. As deputed by the Devas Indra approached the woman to get facts from her. Indra asked her who she was and why she was weeping. The woman answered him not, but walked in silence, to the source of the Gaṅgā. Indra followed her. When they had thus walked some distance Śiva and Pārvatī were found in the forest at a game of dice, and Indra, afraid of Śiva, ran way. But, Śiva called him back and asked him to enter the cave there. When Indra did so after removing the mountain at the entrance of the cave he saw four Indras sitting there. They were called Viśvabhuk, Bhūtadhāmā, Śibi and Śānti. The woman whom Indra had followed was Śrīdevī. Śiva blessed that the five Indras, in their next birth, would wed Śrīdevī. When the Indras saw Mahāviṣṇu after this he also blessed them, and promised them that he would incarnate and help them when they were born as men in their next life. Then Viṣṇu plucked a black and a white hair and put them on earth. The black hair was born as Śrī Kṛṣṇa in Devakī's womb and the white hair as Balabhadrarāma in the womb of Rohīṇī.
    (x
    i) Kirātārjunīyam.
    Arjuna once did tapas to Śiva, who appeared to him in the garb of a hunter in the forest and presented to him the Pāśupata arrow. (For details see under Arjuna, Para 20).
    (xi
    i) Fought with Mahiṣāsura.
    (See under Mahiṣāsura).
    (xii
    i) Fought with Vṛtrāsura.
    See under Vṛtrāsura.
    (xi
    v) Burnt Himavān.
    Śiva once did tapas on the top of Himavān when Pārvatī came behind him and covered his eyes with her hands. At once darkness enveloped the whole world, and when people suffered in the absence of day-light Śiva opened his third eye. Himavān began getting burnt by the fire emitted by Śiva's eye. Pārvatī got alarmed at this and woke Śiva up. He closed his third eye and Himavān resumed its former shape. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 104].
    8) Worship of Śiva.
    Innumerable people in India worship Śiva and they follow different forms or systems of worship. There are forms of worship which follow the Vedas and which do not as also forms which are sāttvic and which are not. The form of worship called Paraśupadam (? Pāśupatam) is a very ancient one. It is believed that the Paraśupadas once honoured and afterwards opposed the Vedas. The Śiva liṅga at the place called Gūḍamillam is supposed to be as old as the second century B.C. One of the many symbols, which represent Śiva, Śivaliṅga is the most important. They are of two kinds, the movable and the immovable. The immovable are those which appear by themselves or installed in temples. The movable are those made of earth, stone, timber, gems etc. There are also temporary liṅgas, which are placed on stools of various shapes. Liṅgas are made of he-stones and stools of ‘she-stones’. There are also various types of liṅgas indicative of the different attributes of Śiva; for example Liṅgodbhava, Candrasekhara, Raudra, Umāsahita etc. Kāmāntaka, Gajāri, Kālāri, Tripuradāhaka etc. represent the Lord in his fierce aspects. Śiva is also represented in poses of blessing Caṇḍeśa, Viṣṇu, Nandīśvara, Vighneśvara and Arjuna. He is also presented in various poses of dancing, Dakṣiṇāmūrti is represented in four forms, i.e. Vyākhyāna Jñāna, Yoga and Vīṇādhara. Bikṣāṭaka, Kapāladhārī. Gaṅgādhara, Ardhanārīśvara Vṛṣabhavāhana and Viṣabhakṣaka are other forms of Śiva. Rarely is he depicted in the form of Sadāśiva, Maheśvara, Ekādaśarudras Vidyeśvara and Mūrtyaṣṭaka. There are Āgamas descriptive of these forms. Gaṇapati occupies the most prominent place among Devas connected with Śiva. Gaṇapati came to be worshipped from 6-7 centuries B.C. His present idols might have been made after this period. There are many temples dedicated to Gaṇapati in South India. Chief among the idols are iṭaṁpiri (proboscis turned to the left side) and valaṁpiri (proboscis turned to the right side). Gaṇapati is a physical aspect of Śiva. Being the God who removes obstacles in the devotee's path, Gaṇapati is called Vighneśvara. The universe is contained in his big stomach. Next to Gaṇapati in importance is Subrahmaṇya. He is worshipped in South India only. Kumāra, Muruka, Kārttikeya, Skanda, Ārumukha, Guha, etc. are some of his popular synonyms There are a number of Subrahmaṇya temples in Tamil Nāḍu, many of them on the tops of hills. In North India Subrahmaṇya temples are rare. But, books written during the Saṅgha period go to prove that Subrahmaṇya was worshipped in South India from very olden times. He is depicted in many postures, sitting, with six faces, with only one face, with two hands, with four hands, with wife, wearing the sacred thread etc. Now, about Śakti idols. Śakti is the Devī closest to Śiva. In South India there are special Śakti temples called Śaktipīṭhālayas. Durgā is the most important among the manifestations of Śakti. There are idols of Durgās as standing in the lotus flower and also as mounted on the lion. Āgamas refer to nine kinds or forms of Durgā i.e. Nīlakaṇṭhī, Kṣemaṅkarī, Harasiddhi, Raudrā, Vanā, Agni, Jayā, Vindhyavāsinī, and Ripunāśinī. Durgā's most terrible form is as Mahiṣāsura-mardinī, found at Mahābalipuram, Ellora and other places. Durgā is also called Caṇḍikā and Kātyāyanī. Durgā is worshipped as Nandā, Bhadrakālī, Ambā, Rājamātaṅgī etc.
    9) Śiva's life-period.
    Thousand Caturyugas constitute one day of Brahmā. According to the Purāṇas fourteen Indras fall dead from heaven during the life time of one Brahmā. Two such life times of Brahmā form one life time of Viṣṇu; at the end of the period he too will expire. Śiva's life time is double that of Viṣṇu, according to [Devī Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha]. (For details see under Manvantara).
    10) Śiva and creation of the universe.
    See under Creation).
    11) Māyā Śiva.
    (See under Māyā śiva).
    12) Sahasranāmas (thousand names) of Śiva.
    The thousand names of Śiva are mentioned mainly in [Chapter 285 of Śānti Parva] and [Chapter 17 of Anuśāsana Parva of Mahābhārata]. There are substantial differences between the two lists of names.
    13) Aśvatthāmā and Śiva.
    (See under Aśvatthāmā Para 6).
    14) Rudras.
    The Ekādaśarudras, viz. Mṛgavyādha, Sarpa, Nirṛti, Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Pinākī, Īśvara, Kapālī, Sthāṇu and Bharga are the sons of Śiva. [Ādi Parva, Chapter 66].
    15) Śivabhasma (Ashes worn by Śiva)
    The Purāṇas contain many references to the great power of Śivabhasman. The following story about even Viṣṇu turning out to be a devotee of Śiva on account of the sanctity of Śivabhasma is related in [Chapter 101, Pātālakhaṇḍa of Padma Purāṇa]. In the beginning or during the Brahmapralaya (deluge) Mahāviṣṇu was lying in the great waters of the deluge. On both sides of Viṣṇu hundred universes each and on both sides of his feet and at the centre of his head twenty universes each remained attached. One universe glowed as a gem on Viṣṇu's nose. Maharṣis like Lomaśa did tapas seated on his navel. Meanwhile Viṣṇu sat in deep meditation ready for creation. But, he did not find anything and began, therefore, sobbing. Then appeared an extra-mundane light at which he got frightened and closed his eyes. Śiva, rotating in both his hands a garland each made of a crore of universes appeared before Viṣṇu. He then stood up and enquired of the visitor who he was. Śiva exhibited his form. Śiva told Viṣṇu that he had not attained sufficient wisdom for creation and also advised him to achieve enough knowledge by first taking the Varuṇa bath and then the Bhasma bath. To this Viṣṇu answered by saying that there was nowhere water enough for him to bathe, and he, who was closely surrounded by universes, sat in water. But, it came only up to his thighs. Then Śiva said laughingly that there was enough water for Viṣṇu to bathe and cast a glance at him with his (Śiva) eye on the forehead and also his left eye. And, immediately Viṣṇu's body became very small and it began to shiver. Then Śiva said as follows:-“Oh! Viṣṇu! here is deep water. you may bathe in it. But Viṣṇu could not get into the tremendous pool created on Śiva's lap. So, he requested Śiva for a passage to get into the pool. Śiva “Oh! Viṣṇu! Before this even though you sat in water, one crore yojanas in depth, it came only up to your thighs. But, now though you are on your legs you say you cannot enter the water. Look here, the water comes only up to my thighs. You may descend into it. I shall see to it that you can step into the water. A Vedic saying I recite will serve as the step.” Viṣṇu:--Nobody can step on sound. One may ascend on what is material, i.e. with form; but, how could one step on that which is formless? Śiva:--Why can you not get hold of that which is and ascend? You receive this great Veda. Viṣṇu received it, but it appeared that his hands were not strong enough to hold it. Śiva smiled at the inability of Viṣṇu and asked him to get down into water by the steps made of Veda and when Viṣṇu descended the steps into the water, it came only up to his thighs. He had his bath and then asked Śiva what he should do next. Śiva:--“What do you feel in your mind? Is it that you do not feel anything” Viṣṇu:--I feel not anything. Śiva:--If you get sanctified by bhasmasnāna you will receive the ultimate knowledge. I shall give you the bhasma. Śiva took a pinch of bhasma from his breast and chanting the Gāyatrī and pañcākṣara (Om namaśśivāya) mantras sprinkled it all over the body of Viṣṇu. He also said to Viṣṇu, “You live, you meditate, now what do you feel in your mind?” Viṣṇu meditated whereupon he saw a very bright light in his heart. When he told Śiva that a light was being seen by him the latter said that his knowledge was not mature enough and asked him to eat some bhasma so that it might become perfect. Viṣṇu accordingly consumed the bhasma, and lo! he, who was till then red-blue in colour became as white as pearl. He began to be called Śuklavarṇa (white in colour) from that day onwards. Mahāviṣṇu felt happy and contented having seen Śiva, who asked the former what it was he saw in his mind just then. Answering that he saw the blissful form of Śiva before him Viṣṇu fell at the latter's feet. To Śiva's query as to what boon he desired to have, Viṣṇu replied that he wanted to become a devotee of Śiva and because of the greatness of the bhasma Viṣṇu thenceforward became a devotee of Śiva.
    16) Śivaliṅga (Phallus).
    Worship of Śivaliṅga is a popular practice in India. The Purāṇas contain a number of stories about the importance Sivaliṅga achieved so as to make it an object of worship. Three of the more important stories are given below:
    (i) Śiva wandered about the world lamenting over the death of Satīdevī at the Yajña conducted by Dakṣa, and Kāmadeva followed him with his erotic arrows to exploit Śiva's sorry predicament. During his wanderings Śiva once came to the Vindhya mountain. Kāmadeva followed him there too and began attacking Śiva with his arrows and to escape from the fierce onslaught Śiva took refuge in the terrible Dāru forest. There Maharṣis with their wives lived. Śiva saluted them and requested for alms. But, the Maharṣis only kept mum. They did not like their wives saluting Śiva. Śiva went about the ā rama and all the women except Arundhatī and Anasūyā, followed him overcome by lust for him. Enraged at this, munis like Bhārgava and Aṅgiras cursed Śiva that his phallus should drop to the ground. Immediately it fell down and Śiva disappeared. The phallus rent asunder the earth, reached Pātāla and rent the universe also. The whole universe shook at which Brahmā met Viṣṇu at Pātāla and enquired of him the reason for the universal upheaval. Viṣṇu answered him that the world shook because of the weight of Śiva's phallus, which the maharṣis had caused to be dropped. Then Brahmā, along with Viṣṇu, came to the spot where Śiva's phallus lay. At the sight of the limitless phallus Viṣṇu, in great wonder, descended to Pātāla mounted on Garuḍa. Brahmā, on his plane, toured above. Both Viṣṇu and Brahmā returned to earth, having failed in their attempt to find the end of the phallus. They then praised Śiva, who appeared to them. They requested him to take back his phallus from the earth. Śiva insisted that he would do so only if the Devas agreed to worship his phallus. Viṣṇu agreed to the suggestion. Brahmā took the phallus, golden brassy in colour. Thereafter Mahāviṣṇu created the four castes and various śāstraic texts for each of the castes to worship the phallus. The four texts are known as Śaivam, Pāśupatam, Kāladamanam and Kāpālikam. After making the above arrangements Brahmā and Viṣṇu returned. Śiva took back his phallus. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 6].
    (ii) Eightyeight thousand Bālakhilyas were born from the mind of Brahmā. They emaciated their bodies by constant baths, fasting and worship of Śiva. Though they worshipped Śiva thus for one thousand divya years, he did not appear in front of them. Afterwards, when Pārvatī was travelling by sky one day, the latter saw and took pity on the Bālakhilyas and told Śiva thus: “These maharṣis are suffering like anything. For my sake, you should put an end to their sufferings. Has their evil fate no end? They are reduced to mere skin and bones, and yet they are denied realisation.” Smilingly Śiva told Pārvatī as follows “You do not know the real course of righteousness. These people do not understand righteousness; they are not free from lust and anger. They are mere fools.” At these words of Śiva, Pārvatī told him thus: If things be as you have said please show me their nature, I feel interested. Then Śiva asked Pārvatī to remain where she was, telling her that he would go to the Bālakhilyas and show her how they behaved. Accordingly Śiva went to them. Śiva approached the Bālakhilyas in the guise of a handsome youth, wearing the Vanamālā garland on his head, holding the alms bowl in his hands and completely in the nude and requested for alms. The Womenfolk of the Advaitins were much attracted by the handsome youth and came to him with a lot of fruits, roots etc. by way of alms. Śiva wished them good and Pārvatī espied her smiling lord from her seat. After giving him alms the women spoke to him as follows: “Oh! anchorite, what penance are you practising? You have no clothes on you, but you wear Vanamālā. You are a handsome sannyāsī. If you have no objection, please tell us about you.” The sannyāsī (Śiva) answered them by saying that his was a very secret penance and could not be imparted to others. Especially in the presence of so many others it could not be revealed. So, you may please go. But, the women said that they wished very much to hear the secret, and they caught hold of his hands saying ‘Come’. The women were overcome by lust and one of them caught hold of his neck, another of his hands, another of his knees, another of his hair and yet another of his waist. Seeing the excitement of their wives the maharṣis cried, ‘Strike him’ and struck down his phallus with sticks and stones. As soon as the phallus was thus felled down, Śiva disappeared from the spot and returned to Kailāsa with Pārvatī. When the phallus fell down the whole universe shook and the maharṣis were alarmed. A very intelligent maharṣi among them said:--“We know not the real facts about the great ascetic. Let us take refuge in Brahmā. He may know the facts.” Accordingly the maharṣis went to Brahmā, who found fault with their ignorance and indiscretion and asked them to shed their anger and please Śiva. Accordingly they went to Kailāsa and praised Śiva, who appeared to them and told them as follows:--“You may now return. The phallus will belong to you. I shall be pleased if you would duly install it. Nothing will be impossible to those who worship my phallus with devotion. Even sins consciously committed will be removed by the worship of my phallus. You install the phallus you struck down in the great pond of Sannihita. That will achieve for you all your desires. Even the Devas will worship it under the name ‘Sthāṇu’. Being installed at Sthāṇvīśvara it will be known as Sthāṇvīśvara also. Constant meditation upon Sthāṇu will remove all sins. The sight of Sthāṇu will bring about salvation.” After this the maharṣis, along with Brahmā, returned to Dāru forest to carry the phallus to Sannihita. But, they could not move it even by an iota. They returned again to Kailāsa, but could not see Śiva there. When Brahmā sat in meditation for sometime to know where Śiva was, he saw in his mind Śiva, in the guise of an elephant, standing in the stream praised by munis. Immediately Brahmā and others went there, but missed Śiva there. But Pārvatī appeared there and served them amṛta (nectar). When they had consumed the nectar they saw Śiva standing in the stream, and they spoke about their difficulties to him. Śiva, in the guise of the elephant, accompanied them to the Dāru forest where he, in sport, took the phallus by his proboscis and installed it on the banks of the stream. All those who witnessed the installation attained ultimate realisation. Upon the phallus thus installed Brahmā built another phallus with stone. After a period that phallus became one with the effulgence of the first phallus. Those who saw that also achieved ultimate realisation. Immediately Brahmā built, for the pleasure of the Devas, seven phalluses one upon the other, and sages attained ultimate realisation by smearing their bodies with the dust of the phalluses. The spot where the phallus was installed became famous by the name Sthāṇutīrtha. [Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 45].
    (iii) In the beginning Brahmā entrusted Śiva with the duty of creation and to earn the power for creation he lived under water for many generations. Śiva having not returned though Brahmā waited for him long, the latter created the prajāpatis and got done by them all creations. Then it was that Śiva, having acquired all the more power, came out of water. Śiva who got angry that all creations were effected in his absence plucked his phallus and threw it into the earth. He said that, since matters of creation had been managed by Brahmā, he needed the phallus no further. The phallus thus thrown by Śiva stuck to the earth and remained pointed upwards. Next, Śiva performed a dance of annihilation among the Devas. Ultimately, on the request of the Devas Śiva deposited his fire of wrath in water. It is that fire which dries up water in seas, rivers etc. When Śiva had shed his anger and become quiet the Devas worshipped the phallus, which had stuck to the earth, and thenceforth worship of Śiva's phallus became popular. [M.B. Sauptika Parva, Chapter 17].
    17) Śivalīlās (Sports of Śiva).
    The Purāṇas refer to the following sixtyfour līlās (sports) of Śiva.
    (1) Devendra redeemed from sin.
    (2) Airāvata redeemed from sin.
    (3) Building of Madhurāpura in Kadamba forest.
    (4) Śrī Pārvatī born as Taṭātakā.
    (5) Pāṇḍyadeva wedded Taṭātakā.
    (6) Dance before sage Patañjali
    (7) Kuṇḍodara granted power to consume much rice
    (8) Quenched Kuṇḍodara's hunger and thirst with rice etc. and waters of river Vaigā
    (9) Brought the seven seas near to please his wife
    (10) Brought Malayadhvaja down to earth from Devaloka
    (11) Created the son called Ugra
    (12) Ugra given three weapons like śūla
    (13) Removed the sea from his side
    (14) Broke the crown of Indra
    (15) Ugrapāṇḍya given gold from Mahāmeru
    (16) Taught the maharṣis the meaning of Vedas
    (17) Sold gems to the King to make a crown
    (18) Made the clouds drink water from the ocean
    (19) Stopped excessive rain-fall
    (20) Exhibited the prowess of realisation
    (21) Made ‘stone-elephant’ eat sugar-cane
    (22) Killed the elephant which a Buddha sannyāsin had sent after being subjected to black magic
    (23) Blessed a brahmin girl
    (24) Did various kinds of dances
    (25) Brought to light and proved the death of brahmin woman
    (26) Annihilated the evil or sin of having slept with the mother and killed the father
    (27) Killed Siddha to save the wife of preceptor, who taught archery
    (28) Made the snakes sent by Buddha sannyāsins poisonless
    (29) Killed cows sent by the same sannyāsins
    (30) Exhibited innumerable soldiers to save the commander-in-chief of the Pāṇḍya army
    (31) Gave the Pāṇḍya King a money-bag, which would never become empty
    (32) Disguised himself as a Vaiśya and sold bangles
    (33) Granted aṣṭasiddhis to Yakṣīs.
    (34) Opened the door of the temple for the Cola King
    (35) Supplied water to the Pāṇḍyan army
    (36) Converted base metals into gold etc.
    (37) Defeated the Cola King
    (38) Gave a Śūdra a vessel filled with gingelly seeds
    (39) A Vaiśya boy given victory in a suit
    (40) Redeemed the Pāṇḍya King from the sin of brahmahatyā
    (41) Carried firewood to save the devotee named Bhadra
    (42) Wrote a letter to the Cera King on behalf of Bhadra
    (43) Bhadra presented with a plank
    (44) Bhadra's wife granted victory in nāgavidyā
    (45) Assumed the form of pork and saved the small offsprings
    (46) Small pork made minister
    (47) A Khañjarīṭa bird was taught the mṛtyuñjaya mantra so that it could escape from the attack of crows
    (48) A Śarāri bird granted salvation
    (49) Boundaries of Madhurāpura shown by serpent
    (50) Defeated the Cola King
    (51) Dravidian scholars given the Saṁgham plank
    (52) Wrote a verse for a brahmin at the instance of the Pāṇḍya King
    (53) Saved Nakkīra
    (54) Nakkīra taught sūtras (aphorisms)
    (55) Made a comparative study of theses
    (56) Visited northern Hālāsya
    (57) Wedded fisher-girl
    (58) Jñānadīkṣā (initiation into knowledge) given to the minister called Vātapureśa
    (59) Sold magic horses to the Pāṇḍyan King
    (60) River made bigger
    (61) Carried mud for pancakes
    (62) Cured the fever and hunch-back of Kubja Pāṇḍya
    (63) Made Jñānasambandhar kill the naked ones on the śūla
    (64) Brought tree, tank, Śivaliṅga etc. to Madhura as witnesses. [Hālāsyamāhātmya, Chapter 5].
    18) Bull of Śiva.
    Cows were born on earth from Surabhi. The foam of milk which flowed like sea from cows rose into waves and fell in Śivabhūmi (Śiva land). Śiva did not like it. He opened his third eye and looked at the cows. The flames from the eye caused different colours to the cows. The cows took refuge with Candra. But, the fire of Śiva's eye followed the cows there also. At last the Prajāpatis pacified Śiva and presented him a bull for vehicle. From that day onwards Śiva came to be known as Vṛṣabhavāhana and Vṛṣabhāṅka also. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 77].
    19) Other information.
    (i) The son Śuka was born to Vyāsa because of the blessing of Śiva. [Devī Bhāgavata, 1st Skandha].
    (ii) During the period of emperor Pṛthu when the Devas made the earth a cow and milked resources, Śiva served as calf. [Droṇa Parva, Chapter 69, Verse 24].
    (iii) Śiva occupies a seat in Kubera's court. [Sabhā Parva, Chapter 10, Verse 21].
    (iv) Śiva once presented an armour to Indra. [Droṇa Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 61].
    (v) When the battle with the Tripuras reached its climax in intensity Śiva mounted the Bull and looked at the capital of the asuras. As a result of the fiery look the breasts of cows were cut and their hoofs rent into two. The hoofs of cattle came to be cleft from that day onwards. [Karṇa Parva, Chapter 34, Verse 105].
    (vi) Living beings are kept healthy by the kindness of Śiva. [Sauptika Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 20].
    (vii) It was Śiva, who organised the penal code in the world. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Verse 80].
    (viii) Once in the war between the Devas and the Asuras Śiva gave refuge to Śukrācārya. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 389, Verse 36].
    (ix) Śiva performed the thread wearing ceremony of Śuka, the son of Vyāsa. [Śānti Parva, Chapter 248, Verse 19].
    (x) On the occasion when Śiva burnt Tripuras and their city to ashes they saw him as a boy with five horns. [Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 160, Verse 32].
    (xi) There is a story in Śānti Parva of Mahābhārata about Śiva's bringing back to life the dead child of a brahmin. The story was told by Bhīṣma to Yudhiṣṭhira. The brahmin took his dead child to the burning ghat when a fox asked him to wait at least till dusk to see if the child would regain life. At the same time a vulture, which came there pointed out to the brahmin that the dead never came back to life and asked him to leave the dead body there and return home. As advised by the fox and the vulture the brahmin took to the burning ghat and took back from there the dead body of his child. Pārvatī took pity on the brahmin and as requested by her Śiva brought the child back to life. The logic and reasoning advanced by the fox and the vulture for their selfish ends is famous under the name Gṛdhragomāyusaṁvāda.
    (xii) The following words are used in the Mahābhārata as synonyms of Śiva: Aja, Ambikāpati, Anaṅgāṅgahara, Ananta, Andhakaghātī, Andhakanipātī, Atharva, Bahurūpa, Bhagaghna, Bhava, Bhavaghna, Bhīma, Śaṅkara, Śarva, Śitikaṇṭha, Śmaśānavāsī, Śrīkaṇṭha, Śukra, Śūlabhṛt, Śūladhara, Śūladhṛk, Śūlahasta, Śūlāṅka, Śūlapāṇi, Śūlī, Dakṣakratuhara, Dhanvī, Dhruva, Dhūrjaṭi, Digvāsas, Divyagovṛṣabhadhvaja, Ekākṣa, Gaṇādhyakṣa, Gaṇeśa, Gaurīśa, Gaurīhṛdayavallabha, Girīśa, Govṛṣāṅka, Govṛṣabhadhvaja, Govṛṣottamavāhana, Hara, Haryakṣa, Jaṭādhara, Jaṭila, Jaṭī, Kāmāṅganāśana, Kapālī, Kapardī, Khaṭvāṅgadhārī, Kṛttivāsas, Kumārapitā, Lalāṭākṣa, Lelihāna, Mahādeva, Mahāgaṇapati, Mahāyogī, Maheśvara, Mahiṣaghna, Makhaghna, Mīḍhvān, Mṛgavyādha, Munīndra, Nandīśvara, Niśācarapati, Nīlagrīva, Nīlakaṇṭha, Nīlalohita, Paśubhartā Paśupati, Pinākadhṛk, Pinākagoptā, Pinākahasta, Pinākapāṇi, Pinākī, Piṅgala, Prajāpati, Rudra, Ṛṣabhaketu, Śarva, Sarvayogeśvareśvara, Sthāṇu, Triśūlahasta, Trisūlapāṇi, Trilocana, Trinayana, Trinetra, Tripuraghātī, Tripuraghna, Tripurahartā, Tripuramardana, Tripuranāśana, Tripurāntaka, Tripurāntakara, Tripurārdana, Tryakṣa, Tryambaka, Ugra, Ugreśa, Umāpati, Viśālākṣa, Vilohita, Virūpākṣa, Vṛṣabhadhvaja, Vṛṣabhāṅka, Vṛṣabhavāhana, Vṛṣaketana, Vṛṣavāhana, Yāmya, Yati, Yogeśvara.
    (xii
    i) Names of Śiva.
    Śambhu, Īśa, Paśupati, Śiva, Śūlī, Maheśvara, Īśvara, Śarva, Īśāna, Śaṅkara, Candraśekhara, Bhūteśa, Khaṇḍaparaśu, Girīśa, Giriśa, Mṛḍa, Mṛtyuñjaya, Kṛttivāsas, Pinākī, Pramathādhipa, Ugra, Kapardī, Śrīkaṇṭha, Śitikaṇṭha, Kapālabhṛt, Vāmadeva, Mahādeva, Virūpākṣa, Trilocana, Kṛśānuretas, Sarvajña, Dhūrjaṭi, Nīlalohita, Hara, Smarahara, Bharga, Tryambaka, Tripurāntaka, Gaṅgādhara, Antakaripu, Kratudhvaṁsī, Vṛṣadhvaja, Vyomakeśa, Bhava, Bhīma, Sthāṇu, Rudra, Umāpati, Ahirbudhnya, Aṣṭamūrti, Gajāri, Mahānaṭa. (Amarakośa).
     
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